Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) of Virginia:
a component of
Virginia Tiered System of Supports (VTSS)

We would like to acknowledge the students of the following schools, as well as the Hurrah Players of Norfolk, VA,  for serving as actors in the filming of the behavior modules:
  • The Academy of International Studies at Rosemont
  • Larchmont Elementary School
  • Norfolk Christian Upper School
  • Norfolk Collegiate School
  By all accounts, students who exhibit learning and behavior problems pose a real challenge to school personnel. One way to improve the educational outcomes for these students is to ensure that all teachers possess the knowledge and skills required to address the myriad challenges of daily classroom management and instruction. Fortunately, there is a growing body of research-based literature on evidence-based practices that are applicable in both general and special education settings. In that the Virginia Department of Education is committed to providing all students the best possible education, in collaboration with the Training and Technical Assistance Center at Old Dominion University, we have developed a series of modules that relate to 25 strategies of proven effectiveness.  Each module contains precise information on the use of a specific strategy; modules have been developed to reflect both elementary and secondary level application of each strategy. Along with the modules is a summary of the supporting research and guidelines for strategy implementation. Together, this information should contribute to strengthening the quality of classroom instruction and to achieving positive educational outcomes for all of Virginia's students.

In the past, students with and students without disabilities often were served in different educational settings. Today, the majority of students with disabilities receive all or most of their instruction alongside students without disabilities in the general education classroom. For that reason, these modules are geared toward addressing the needs of a diverse audience, one that includes both general and special education teachers at the elementary and secondary levels. Each of the 25 strategies was selected on the basis of their documented effectiveness and their applicability in a variety of educational settings. We encourage you to enlarge upon your knowledge of evidence-based practices and to become skilled in the application of those strategies that best suit the needs of your students. Finally, we are confident that these strategies will be useful to you and that you will want to share them with colleagues and your students and parents as well.

Along with the modules, we have posted a series of videos that contain interviews with national experts; the interviews focus on functional behavioral assessment (FBA). The interviews address three tiers of prevention/ intervention, along with various forms of FBA, including function-based thinking, simplified FBA, and formal FBA.There also is discussion on functional versus structural analysis as ways to verify the motivation behind student misbehavior.

Major Contributors

 Dr. Gwendolyn Cartledge and
Porsha Robinson-Ervin
Ohio State University   

Dr. Maureen Conroy
University of Florida at Gainesville

Dr. Karen Evans
University of West Florida

Dr. William Evans and
Rigoberto M. Hernandez
University of West Florida

Dr. Robert A. Gable
Old Dominion University

Drs. Michael P. George and
Lauren A. Arbolino
Lehigh University

Dr. Lee Kern and Jennifer K. Parks
Lehigh University

Dr. Mary Margaret Kerr, Jennifer Crandall, and Sielke Caparelli
University of Pittsburgh

Drs. Sarup Mathur and Katie Sprouls
Arizona State University

Thomas Monaghan
Old Dominion University

Dr. Mike Monfore, Laura Keeple, Eva Smith,
Alyssa Williams, and David Hewitt
Slippery Rock University

Dr. Sheldon L. Loman
Portland State University

Dr. Kristy Lee Park
George Mason University

Dr. Terrance M. Scott
University of Louisville

Dr. Naomi Schonefeld
Rivier University

Dr. Stephen Tonelson
Old Dominion University

Dr. Rick Van Acker
University of Illinois at Chicago

Dr. Silvana Watson
Old Dominion University

Kimberly Yanek
Old Dominion University

Dr. Perry Zirkel, PhD, J.D., LL.M
Lehigh University