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The Sugarcane Research Station, Melalathur was started in February 1935 under the auspices of the Scheme of Sugarcane Research Sanctioned by the Imperial Council of Agricultural Research.

The object of the station then was to solve some of the problems of Sugarcane cultivation in the Central districts, which comprised almost 1/3 of the area of the cane in the old Madras Presidency and where sugarcane was generally cultivated with the help of lift irrigation.  The main programme of work consisted of selecting high yielding types of cane suited for the locality and also to reduce the cost of cultivation and increasing yields by manurial and cultural trials.

Upto 31st March 1942 the scheme was wholly financed by Imperial Council of Agricultural Research.  From 1st April 1942 to 31st March 1945, the scheme was partly financed by the Imperial Council of Agricultural Research.  From 1st April 1945 the Indian Central Sugarcane Committee was meeting half the pay and allowances of the staff alone.  Subsequently the entire scheme was financed by the Government of Tamil Nadu.  The station was transferred to the Control of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University from 1.4.1981 onwards.
Location

Year of Start         : 1935
Latitude                 : 12o5’ N
Longitude               : 79oE
Altitude                   : 237 M.MSL.
Average Rainfall   : 832.6 mm
Temperature         : 28.2oc to 39.2oc (Day), 19.2oc to 27.7oc (Night)
Soil Type               : Sandy loam, Clayey loam
pH                         : 7.5
Irrigation sources   : 4 borewells
Total area             : 18.32 ha.
Cultivable area     : 15.42 ha
Buildings, Roads   : 2.90 ha.