Agricultural Research Station, Pattukkottai was started during the year 1935 to study the requirement of water for different crops of the Cauvery new delta area of Thanjavur district. Later on, during 1972 this station started functioning as Multi Crop Experiment Station to cater to the research needs of crops grown in this region. Afterwards, this research station was brought under Tamil Nadu Agricultural University in 1981 and converted into a Seed Centre to produce breeder seeds of paddy, pulses and groundnut. Simultaneously research activities on cropping systems were also taken up. The station was upgraded as Agricultural Research Station during 1986. In addition to breeder seed production, research on various crops grown in this region was also being taken up. During December 2012, the ICAR - All India Coordinated Research Project on Palms (Oil Palm) has been shifted from Tamil Nadu Rice Research Institute, Aduthurai to ARS, Pattukkottai and oil palm experiments are being carried out at this centre. An area of 8.5ha has been allocated for oil palm research activities. A total of 20  different oil palm hybrids received through ICAR – AICRP on Palms scheme are in bearing stage in a farmer’s holding at Peraiyur village near Mannarkudi and harvesting of fresh fruit bunches is in progress. The soil type at ARS, Pattukkottai is sandy loam which is ideal for oil palm cultivation with sufficient drainage and water sources for irrigation. In 2014, Govt. of Tamil Nadu has recognized this station as “Centre of Excellence in Oil palm” to promote oil palm cultivation in Tamil Nadu as a whole.