Study Guide for Second Exam Spring 2011 History 101
1. Which of the following is true of the First Congress?
a) It quickly approved a tariff, thereby providing revenue to the new government.
b) It decided that the sale of public land was the best means by which to raise revenue for the government.
c) A majority of its members advocated state sovereignty rather than a strong national government.
d) None of the members of the Constitutional Convention were included in its membership.
2. The Second Amendment says that the people shall have the right “to keep and bear arms” because of the
a) right of the people to obtain food by hunting.
b) need for protection against criminals.
c) right to fight tyranny.
d) need for a well-regulated militia.
3. Congress's decision concerning who may dismiss heads of executive departments was significant because it established the principle that
a) such officials are responsible to the president.
b) officials who must be confirmed by the Senate serve at the pleasure of the president and the Senate.
c) Congress's impeachment powers would apply not only to the president but to all presidential appointees as well.
d) the branch of government closest to the people, the House of Representatives, would oversee such officials.
4. Section 25 of the Judiciary Act of 1789 was important because it
a) provided a means by which the national judiciary could overturn state court decisions in cases involving the Constitution, federal laws, and treaties.
b) established circuit courts of appeal subordinate to the Supreme Court.
c) recognized that state courts could independently interpret the Constitution.
d) created a chief justice to preside over the Supreme Court.
5. Which of the following was true of the Supreme Court during its first decade?
a) The Court handed down no decisions.
b) The Court was the most influential branch of government.
c) The justices were bitterly divided over how to interpret the Constitution.
d) The Court handled few cases of any importance.
6. Ware v. Hylton established the authority of the Supreme Court to
a) rule on the constitutionality of acts of Congress.
b) hear suits brought by state governments against individuals.
c) rule on the constitutionality of state laws.
d) hear suits brought by individuals against state governments.
7. In Chisholm v. Georgia the Supreme Court ruled that
a) a citizen of one state has the right to bring suit against another state in federal court.
b) the First Amendment protects a person's actions when those actions are based on the person's religious beliefs.
c) it had the right and power to review any case arising under American law.
d) the truth is a complete defense against the charge of libel.
8. At the Constitutional Convention, George Washington
a) argued in favor of a parliamentary government modeled after that of England.
b) argued in favor of the election of the president by popular vote.
c) voted against the formation of a two-house legislature.
d) consistently voted in favor of a strong national government.
9. Washington created the president's cabinet by
a) issuing an executive order.
b) consulting frequently with key congressional leaders.
c) using the heads of the executive departments collectively as his advisers.
d) requesting appropriate legislation from Congress.
10. Through his fiscal policies, Hamilton wanted to
a) shift the tax burden from the middle class to the upper class.
b) reduce the national debt by streamlining the government.
c) protect agrarian interests from organized business interests.
d) consolidate power at the national level.
11 Which of the following is true of Alexander Hamilton?
a) He trusted the ability of common people to participate in government.
b) He believed that people were motivated primarily by self-interest.
c) Rather than viewing the American republic as one nation, he saw it as a collection of sovereign states loosely bound together by a contractual agreement.
d) His optimism about America's future was based on his belief that most people put the common good above their own personal desires.
12. How did most Americans want the new government to handle the debts incurred by the nation in the winning of independence?
a) They believed the government should repudiate those debts.
b) They believed the domestic debt should be paid in full but the foreign debt repudiated.
c) They believed all such debts should be paid at face value.
d) They believed the foreign debt should be paid in full but the domestic debt repudiated.
13. Why did Hamilton favor the assumption of state debts by the national government?
a) He recognized that many of the states did not have the economic ability to honor their unpaid debts.
b) He wanted to give the holders of public securities a financial stake in the survival of the national government.
c) He personally stood to make a substantial profit from the assumption plan.
d) He believed that patriots who had helped finance the Revolution deserved to be paid the money owed them.
14. Which of the following statements best expresses the criticism leveled against Hamilton's proposal that Congress assume outstanding state debts?
a) The plan is fine except for the fact that it will cost the government far more than it can afford.
b) The plan will enrich speculators who have purchased securities at a small fraction of their face value.
c) The plan will disrupt the national economy.
d) The plan violates the Constitution, which does not specifically authorize Congress to assume state debts.
15. Hamilton's proposal concerning the assumption of state debts became law as a result of which of the following?
a) A political deal was struck by which the site for the nation's capital was to be on the Potomac River.
b) Having served under President Washington's command during the Revolutionary War, several opponents of the plan switched their votes out of a sense of duty.
c) President Washington met privately with Madison and Jefferson, and convinced them that their opposition to the proposal was divisive.
d) A joint Senate-House subcommittee agreed that those states that had paid their debts would be taxed at a lower rate than those whose debts were being assumed.
16. The argument over the creation of the Bank of the United States focused on which of the following questions?
a) Does the nation need a central banking institution?
b) Should the bank be allowed to issue the nation's currency?
c) Does the Constitution grant Congress the authority to create the bank?
d) Should the bank be privately owned, publicly owned, or privately and publicly owned?
17. Which of the following statements is most consistent with Alexander Hamilton's broad-constructionist view of the Constitution?
a) The Supreme Court is the ultimate and final arbiter of the meaning of the Constitution.
b) Congress can choose any means not specifically prohibited by the Constitution to achieve a constitutional end.
c) The president's emergency powers in times of crisis are virtually unlimited.
d) In times of crisis, the separation of powers among the branches of the government may be temporarily suspended.
18. Which of the following is true of Congress's response to Hamilton's Report on Manufactures?
a) Congress approved the report in its entirety.
b) Congress approved the report with the exception of the portion calling for a protective tariff.
c) Congress, seeing the future of the nation as being agrarian and not industrial, rejected the report.
d) Congress rejected the report with the exception of the portion calling for a protective tariff.
19. Which of the following groups was most directly affected by the excise tax on whiskey?
a) Urban laborers
b) Southern planters
c) Northern merchants
d) Western farmers
20. Tho citizens who protested imposition of the whiskey tax most vigorously were also very likely to be dissatisfied over the
a) Senate's ratification of the Pinckney Treaty.
b) religious ideas associated with the Second Great Awakening.
c) proliferation of Democratic societies.
d) inability of the army to defend them against Indian attacks.
21. What was the significance of Washington's response to the Whiskey Rebellion?
a) His willingness to attend and answer questions at protest meetings demonstrated the government's tolerance of public criticism.
b) His sympathy and understanding toward the protesters conveyed the message that the government could be trusted to deal fairly with aggrieved groups.
c) His decisive action made it clear that the national government would not tolerate violent resistance to its laws.
d) His hesitation in the face of armed rebellion seriously undermined the people's confidence in their new government.
22. How did Republican leaders justify their opposition to Alexander Hamilton and his policies?
a) They contended that republics were always characterized by debate engendered by the emergence of competing factions.
b) They argued that they wanted to save the republic from Hamilton's plot to impose a corrupt, aristocratic regime on the United States.
c) They contended that because Alexander Hamilton was born in the British West Indies, he was prohibited by the Constitution from serving as secretary of the treasury.
d) They argued that they were morally right and were bound to uphold God's law, not the laws put forward by a corrupt and adulterous man.
23. For which of the following reasons did President Washington choose to seek a second term?
a) He was afraid that Hamilton would be elected president if he retired.
b) He wanted to oversee the military buildup that had begun during his first administration.
c) He wanted to continue to supervise the arms talks with England.
d) He was concerned about the political dispute between Hamilton and Jefferson and hoped to bring political unity.
24. Why did the war that began between France and Great Britain in 1793 pose a dilemma for the United States?
a) Each belligerent expected the active support of the United States and threatened to declare war if such support was not forthcoming.
b) The United States was ideologically bound to France, but it was economically bound to Great Britain.
c) The Senate voted to honor the 1778 treaty with France, but the House voted in favor of a declaration of neutrality.
d) Because the United States had a mutual defense pact with both countries, it had to choose which agreement to honor.
25. Which of the following is true of the Democratic societies?
a) They protested the policies of the Washington administration and warned of self-serving rulers who would destroy the rights of the people.
b) They saw the French Revolution as a perversion of republicanism.
c) They attempted to bridge the gap between the views of Hamilton and those of Jefferson.
d) They urged Americans to ignore events in Europe and to concentrate on perfecting the republic
26. Washington believed which of the following to be behind the Whiskey Rebellion?
a) Catholic immigrants
b) The Society of the Cincinnati
c) Evangelicals associated with the Second Great Awakening
d) The Democratic societies
27. Why did the Democratic-Republican societies arouse the fear of President Washington?
a) Because Washington had not accepted the idea of a loyal opposition, he believed political dissent to be a sign of subversion.
b) Members of these societies threatened to engage in terrorist tactics to undermine the government and the Constitution.
c) Their pro-democracy demonstrations seemed to challenge the legitimacy and sovereignty of the United States government.
d) Washington was very disturbed by the fact that these groups called for a violent overthrow of the United States government.
28. For which of the following reasons did southern planters voice strenuous objections to ratification of the Jay Treaty?
a) The treaty contained no provision for British evacuation of their forts in the Northwest.
b) The treaty contained no provision to compensate owners of slaves who left with the British army at the end of the Revolutionary War.
c) The treaty contained no provision to deal with claims relating to American merchant ships captured by the British during the Revolutionary War.
d) The treaty contained no provision for easing restrictions on American trade to England or the West Indies.
29. How did opponents of the Jay Treaty try to prevent it from taking effect?
a) They tried to stop action on all legislative business in the House by engaging in a filibuster.
b) They urged all senators and congressmen who opposed the treaty to engage in a boycott of legislative sessions.
c) They urged the president to invoke executive privilege.
d) They tried to defeat appropriations bills in the House that would provide funds necessary to carry out the treaty’s provisions.
30. The Jay Treaty was significant in which of the following respects?
a) In persuading the House to appropriate the funds necessary to carry out the treaty's provisions, the Federalists violated one of their key principles by engaging in grassroots politicking.
b) The ratification process used by the Senate demonstrated its commitment to public discussion of key issues.
c) By granting America navigation rights on the Mississippi, it ensured the commercial development of the West.
d) By demilitarizing the Great Lakes, it allowed the diversion of funds from the military to economic development.
31. Which of the following was true of the Republicans?
a) They were pessimistic about the future of the nation.
b) They had little interest in westward expansion.
c) They were more concerned about developing the nation's resources than about its standing in the world.
d) They emphasized the need for order and stability.
32. Which of the following would be most likely to support the Federalists?
a) An urban artisan
b) A southern planter
c) A New England farmer
d) An American of Irish descent
33. Which of the following was true of Washington's Farewell Address?
a) Washington indicated his belief that Congress plays a secondary role to the president in the making of foreign policy.
b) Washington attempted to portray the Democratic-Republican faction as dangerous and misguided.
c) Washington attempted to undermine Alexander Hamilton's chance of succeeding him as president.
d) Washington indicated his belief that the United States should actively ally with Great Britain against the French menace.
34. What was the outcome of the contested presidential election of 1796 between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson?
a) John Adams and his running mate, Thomas Pinckney, were elected president and vice president, respectively.
b) Thomas Jefferson and his running mate, Aaron Burr, were elected president and vice president, respectively.
c) John Adams was elected president, and Thomas Jefferson was elected vice president.
d) Thomas Jefferson was elected president, and John Adams was elected vice president.c
35. Angry over the Jay Treaty, the French government ordered French vessels to seize American merchant ships carrying British goods. How did the United States government respond to this order?
a) President Adams broke diplomatic relations with France.
b) The Senate abrogated the Jay Treaty with Great Britain.
c) Congress declared war on France.
d) Congress voted to increase military spending.
36. Which of the following was a consequence of the XYZ affair?
a) Anti-French sentiment increased in the United States, and the nation became embroiled in its first undeclared war.
b) The United States entered into a formal alliance with Great Britain.
c) To prove that the United States government was sincere in its desire to negotiate with France, Congress authorized the payment of $250,000 to the French government.
d) President Adams was subjected to ridicule throughout the United States.
37. Which of the following was a result of the Quasi-War?
a) The United States agreed to honor the terms of its 1778 treaty with France.
b) American forces wrested control of the port of New Orleans from France.
c) French forces invaded the United States through Spanish Florida.
d) The United States Navy established its superiority over French forces in the West Indies.
38. Which of the following was true of the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions?
a) They advanced the theory that the people, speaking through their states, could judge the constitutionality of acts of Congress.
b) They caused divisive arguments within the Democratic-Republican faction.
c) They were unnecessary because the federal courts were already considering the constitutionality of the Alien and Sedition Acts.
d) They were of little significance beyond their immediate propaganda benefits to Jefferson and Madison.
39. Which of the following is true of the Treaty of Greenville?
a) An Indian state was established in the area around the Great Lakes.
b) The Native Americans in the South ceded the territory between the Tombigbee River and the Mississippi.
c) West Florida was ceded to the United States.
d) The Northwest Native Americans ceded most of what became the state of Ohio.
40. As a result of the Convention of 1800,
a) the United States was freed from its treaty of alliance with France.
b) the Federalist party was united as it prepared for the presidential election of 1800.
c) the United States received compensation from France for ships seized since 1793.
d) the Federalists chose Alexander Hamilton rather than John Adams as their presidential candidate for the 1800 election.
41. As a result of the teachings of Handsome Lake, men of the Iroquois Confederacy
a) accepted the imposition of taxes in order to finance economic development and diversification.
b) accepted the tenets of capitalism by allowing the Confederacy to invest in New England textile mills.
c) became more receptive to the European-style sexual division of labor taught by the Quakers.
d) began to work toward the goal of complete assimilation into Anglo-American culture.
42. The slave rebellion planned by Gabriel was in part inspired by which of the following?
a) The emergence of an organized antislavery movement in the North
b) Antislavery statements by white ministers in the Richmond area
c) Antislavery statements by prominent Virginia politicians
d) Enslaved blacks' adaptation of the concepts of liberty and equality to their own purposes
43. In his inaugural address, Jefferson
a) sought unity after the bitter presidential election of 1800 by declaring “we are all republicans, we are all federalists.”
b) called for a strong military establishment to protect the nation from foreign enemies.
c) said that a strong national government was the primary bulwark “against anti-republican tendencies.”
d) put the Federalists on notice that he intended to purge them from appointive offices in the federal government.
44. When Thomas Jefferson was elected president in 1800, one of his goals was to
a) limit the power of the federal government.
b) use government to regulate the greed of corporate interests.
c) implement an activist, pro-French foreign policy.
d) knit the nation together by building a federally financed transportation network.
45. Newspapers such as the National Intelligencer and the New York Evening Post were important for which of the following reasons?
a) They established the precedent of impartiality by the news media in political campaigns.
b) They helped to build a national political culture.
c) They helped keep elections focused on the real issues by refusing to carry negative personal comments about political candidates.
d) They are the first examples of sensationalist journalism in the early republic.
46. Thomas Jefferson dismissed many customs collectors from New England ports when he assumed the presidency because
a) he found evidence of their corruption.
b) he did not consider them to be qualified for their jobs.
c) they had consistently refused to enforce the tariffs enacted by Congress.
d) he wanted to replace Federalist officials with Republican officials.
47. Early in the Jefferson presidency, the secretary of the treasury
a) reduced the army and navy budgets.
b) instituted a revenue-sharing program for the states.
c) called for the imposition of a national sales tax.
d) called for reduced spending on social programs.
48. Early in the Jefferson presidency, Congress
a) repealed all internal taxes.
b) increased military expenditures.
c) increased expenditures on social programs.
d) reduced the national sales tax.
49. The Naturalization Act of 1802
a) reduced the residency requirement for citizenship to five years.
b) increased the residency requirement for citizenship to fourteen years.
c) established a quota system that favored immigrants from northwestern Europe.
d) required a literacy test of all prospective citizens.
50. The outcome of the Republican attempt to remove Federalist Justice Samuel Chase from office is significant because it
a) led the Senate to institute confirmation hearings for judicial appointments.
b) convinced federal judges not to make public speeches.
c) caused a serious division in the Republican party.
d) helped preserve the Supreme Court's independence from political pressure.
51. Which of the following is true of Chief Justice John Marshall?
a) He made the Supreme Court the equal of the other branches of government in practice as well as theory.
b) He refused to accept cases that were politically sensitive.
c) He consistently upheld the power of the states in relation to the power of the federal government.
d) He upheld the principle of government regulation of industry despite Federalist objections.
52. Which of the following is true of the Supreme Court's decision in Marbury v. Madison?
a) The Court, under pressure from the Republicans, ruled that Marbury had no right to his commission.
b) The Court upheld President Jefferson's right to claim executive privilege and thereby ignore a court subpoena.
c) The Court declared that the section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 that authorized the Court to issue writs of mandamus was unconstitutional.
d) The Court exercised its power to issue writs of mandamus as authorized by the Judiciary Act of 1789.
53. In which case did the Supreme Court establish the principle of judicial review?
a) Marbury v. Madison
b) Fletcher v. Peck
c) Chisholm v. Georgia
d) McCulloch v. Maryland
54. What is the theory of judicial review as applied to the Supreme Court?
a) The Court may nullify any federal or state legislative act by declaring it to be unconstitutional.
b) The Court may appoint special counselors to investigate officials within the executive department.
c) The Court may decide the winner in a disputed federal or state election.
d) The Court may try federal judges for high crimes and misdemeanors.
55. Why was Aaron Burr tried for treason?
a) As Jefferson's vice president, he passed U.S. military secrets to the French.
b) After having been elected governor of New York, he led a secession movement in the state.
c) Using the Louisiana Territory as a base, he plotted to raise a private army, take land in the Southwest, and create an empire.
d) His murder of Alexander Hamilton was recognized as part of an elaborate conspiracy to overthrow the government of the United States.
56. The growth of short-staple cotton was made profitable by the
a) cotton gin.
b) spinning jenny.
c) water frame.
d) power loom.
57. Which of the following occurred in Louisiana shortly before Spain transferred the territory to France?
a) Spanish officials denied Americans navigation rights on the Mississippi.
b) Spanish officials denied Americans the privilege of storing their products at New Orleans prior to transshipment to foreign markets.
c) The British army invaded the territory from its bases in Canada.
d) The American army attacked Spanish forces at New Orleans.
58. As a result of the Louisiana Purchase,
a) the United States controlled the mouth of the Mississippi River.
b) Jefferson's prestige and power declined due to public anger.
c) the United States suffered a severe economic downturn.
d) the United States entered into an anti-British alliance with France.
59. Which of the following was true of the Louisiana Purchase?
a) It gave the United States immediate access to the Pacific Ocean.
b) It angered most Americans and almost cost Jefferson the 1804 election.
c) It angered eastern merchants but pleased western farmers.
d) It provided land to which eastern Indians could be removed.
60. Which of the following served as a translator and guide on the Lewis and Clark expedition?
a) Patrick Gass
b) Zebulon Pike
61. One of the goals of the Lewis and Clark expedition was to
a) foster trade relations with Indians in the trans-Mississippi West.
b) challenge Spanish claims in the Southwest.
c) establish a permanent American settlement on the Pacific coast.
d) establish American military posts throughout the Louisiana Purchase territory.
Ans: a620. Which of the following is true of Tecumseh?
a) He led the Creeks in resisting Andrew Jackson's removal policy.
b) He convinced the Shawnees to turn to settled agriculture as a means of saving Indian land and Indian culture.
c) He led the Shawnees to victory over William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe.
d) encouraging the development of a pan-Indian federation among northern and southern Indians.
62. Which of the following most accurately states Tecumseh's beliefs?
a) The only way to combat the spread of white culture is for Native Americans to return to their traditional spiritual and moral values.
b) Native Americans must accept the demise of their culture and adapt to the ways of whites.
c) A united Indian front is necessary to combat the advance of the white man.
d) Native American culture can be preserved only by accepting the reservation system.
63. Which of the following best describes the initial impact of the renewed conflict between Great Britain and France on American commerce?
a) United States merchants lost a sizable number of ships to both British and French assaults.
b) Both the British and the French regularly seized whole cargoes of American grain.
c) The British and the French imposed an embargo against American trade with their West Indian possessions.
d) The United States, as the world's largest neutral carrier, benefited commercially during the first two years of the war.
64. Which of the following is true concerning the British policy of impressment?
a) The practice was greatly exaggerated by American politicians seeking votes.
b) The practice led to a decision by American shippers not to trade with Britain until it was stopped.
c) The practice made a mockery of U.S. citizenship and sovereignty.
d) The practice ended as a result of the treaty negotiated by William Pinckney and James Monroe.
65. As a result of the Chesapeake affair,
a) Congress repealed the Non-Importation Act as a conciliatory gesture to the British.
b) President Jefferson asked Congress to declare war against Great Britain.
c) the military weakness of the United States was exposed.
d) Great Britain attempted to blockade the American coastline.
66. How did President Jefferson respond to the Chesapeake affair?
a) He armed American merchant ships.
b) He confined himself to stern public denunciations of the British.
c) Using the Monroe-Pinckney Treaty as a starting point, he reopened negotiations with the British.
d) He increased military and naval expenditures and got Congress to enact the Embargo Act.
67. The embargo initiated by President Jefferson in 1807 had the greatest impact on
a) the South.
b) New England.
c) Great Britain.
68. Which of the following would have been most likely to benefit from the Embargo Act?
a) The owner of a New England textile mill
b) A dock worker in New England
c) Factory workers in England
d) West Indian merchants
69. As a result of social events hosted by the wives of appointed and elected officials in Washington, D. C.
a) political negotiations and compromises were encouraged by giving political enemies a place where they could talk cordially with each other.
b) credibility was given to the rumors that President Madison was controlled by a group of wealthy Virginia planters.
c) foreign dignitaries were often offended by the relaxed and casual manner in which the guests were dressed.
d) political problems were created for officials because of the outspokenness of their wives on controversial political matters.
70. Which of the following is true of the election of 1808?
a) The Federalists, as usual, were badly split and refused to engage in a public debate of the issues.
b) The Younger Federalists used widespread discontent with Democratic-Republican policy, especially the embargo, to their advantage.
c) James Madison was uncontested as the Democratic-Republican nominee.
d) Madison virtually promised voters a war with Great Britain.
71. Which of the following is true of Macon's Bill Number 2?
a) It was designed to intimidate both the British and the French by indicating American willingness to go to war.
b) It reopened trade with Britain and France, but it stipulated that if either nation agreed to respect American rights the president could end commerce with the other.
c) It advocated the creation of a league of armed neutral nations.
d) It authorized the president to sign a military alliance with whichever nation agreed to respect American rights.
72. In their response to the war in Europe, the actions of Presidents Jefferson and Madison
a) demonstrated that economic policy was not an effective diplomatic weapon.
b) caused severe economic disruptions in both England and France.
c) increased the negotiating power of the United States with the belligerent nations.
d) increased the power and prestige of the U.S. Navy in the Atlantic.
73. What action did Great Britain take shortly before the American declaration of war against that country?
a) Great Britain increased its naval presence in the Great Lakes.
b) The British announced a blockade of the American coast.
c) The British changed the policy that had been the reason for American anger by reopening the seas to American shipping.
d) The British navy sank several American merchant ships.
74. Analysis of the vote in favor of a declaration of war against Great Britain in 1812 supports which of the following conclusions?
a) Support for the war came primarily from New England and the South.
b) Congressmen from the South and West strongly opposed the war, and those from New England supported it.
c) Because there was strong support for the war in all regions, the vote demonstrated American unity.
d) Most representatives from the coastal states opposed the war.
75. Which of the following was a significant factor in the inability of the United States to launch a successful invasion of Canada in the War of 1812?
a) Improper training in the use of new weaponry
b) An unusually brutal series of winter storms
c) The reluctance of militia units in New York to cross the border into Canada
d) The failure to maintain proper supply lines
76. Which of the following was the first land victory for the United States in the War of 1812?
a) The razing of the Canadian capital of York
b) The defense of Fort Harrison by Captain Zachary Taylor
c) General Hull's successful defense of Fort Dearborn
d) The Battle of Queenstown on the Niagara front
77. The War of 1812 ended for which of the following reasons?
a) The British finally agreed to renounce the policy of impressment.
b) After Jackson's victory at New Orleans, the British could not continue to fight.
c) Napoleon's defeat in Europe made peace and the status quo acceptable to both sides.
d) The Battle of Baltimore cost so many American lives that the United States sought peace.
78. Which of the following was a consequence of the War of 1812?
a) The American army was dismantled, leaving only the state militias.
b) The Indian tribes were more united and more able to resist future American expansion.
c) Federalist opposition to the unpopular war made the party a serious threat to the Republicans in 1816.
d) The war served to encourage the growth of young industries such as the textile industry.
79. The domestic program outlined by President Madison in 1815
a) recommended constitutional amendments that would have destroyed the system of checks and balances.
b) represented a novel definition of the role of the federal government.
c) in many respects embraced Federalist ideas.
d) in most respects indicated the triumph of the ideas associated with Jeffersonian Republicanism.
80. The issue that posed the most serious problem for Madison from a constitutional point of view was
a) the protective tariff.
b) federal support for local internal improvements such as roads and canals.
c) the proposal for a permanent standing army.
d) the national bank question.
81. Following the War of 1812, Congress
a) rejected John Calhoun’s call for federal funding to build roads and canals.
b) rejected the nationalist program advanced by Henry Clay.
c) enacted a protective tariff to aid certain American industries.
d) established the independent treasury system.
82. Which of the following was a result of the building of canals such as the Erie Canal?
a) Canals established important transportation links between the Midwest and the North.
b) Canals established important transportation links between the North and the South.
c) Financed by the federal government, canal building required an increase in the federal taxes.
d) So little thought was put into the routes for canals that they served little useful commercial purpose.
83. In McCulloch v. Maryland the Supreme Court
a) recognized the full legal authority of states over economic activities within their borders.
b) held that, under the Constitution’s necessary and proper clause, Congress had the power to charter banks.
c) declared constitutional a Maryland law taxing the Baltimore branch of the Second Bank of the United States.
d) increased the power of the states relative to the federal government.
84. In Gibbons v. Ogden the Supreme Court
a) recognized workers’ rights to organize by declaring that strikes are legal actions.
b) recognized that workers have the right to organize if their intent is to improve their working conditions.
c) expanded Congress’s power by ruling that trade on the nation’s waterways fell under the commerce clause of the Constitution.
d) protected the sanctity of contracts against state interference.
85. Which of the following best expresses the Supreme Court’s decision in Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge?
a) State governments have final authority over transportation routes within their boundaries.
b) New enterprises cannot be restrained by privileges that were implied under old charters.
c) The original grant of power in a state contract is to be interpreted as broad and unlimited.
d) The federal government has final authority over transportation routes that cross state boundaries.
86. The federal government created an atmosphere conducive to individual creativity by doing which of the following?
a) The Department of Commerce extended government grants to “invention factories.”
b) Congress ordered that technical reports be published explaining all newly awarded patents.
c) Congress protected inventors by enacting patent laws giving them a seventeen-year monopoly on their inventions.
d) The Patent Office was authorized to commission inventors.
87. In the Rush-Bagot Treaty, Great Britain and the United States agreed
a) on a timetable for the withdrawal of British forces from the Oregon Country.
b) on the fishing rights of each in the Atlantic.
c) to the creation of an Indian buffer state in the Northwest.
d) to limit their naval forces on the Great Lakes.
88. Which of the following was a provision of the Adams-Onís Treaty?
a) The United States and Spain agreed that they would jointly occupy East Florida.
b) The United States gave up its claims to northern Mexico.
c) The northern limits of the Louisiana Purchase were established at the 49th parallel.
d) Spain ceded the Nevada and Utah territories to the United States.
89. The issuance of the Monroe Doctrine in 1823 was prompted by
a) the fear that reactionary continental European nations might intervene in Latin America to restore Spanish colonial rule.
b) the Russian annexation of Alaska.
c) President Monroe’s hope of increasing his popularity with the American public.
d) continuing British intervention in Latin American affairs.
90. In the Monroe Doctrine, the United States
a) joined Great Britain in a pledge to protect the independence of the states of Latin America.
b) demanded nonintervention by European powers in the affairs of independent nations in the New World.
c) pledged to support the anti-Spanish revolutions in Cuba, Nicaragua, and Panama.
d) relinquished any future territorial ambitions in the Americas.
91. Francis Cabot Lowell’s textile mill at Waltham, Massachusetts,
a) used steam engines for power.
b) combined all manufacturing processes at a single location.
c) implemented the putting-out plan.
d) gave rise to the first labor unions in the United States.
92. The fight over the admission of Missouri to the Union
a) resulted solely from the emotional feelings that people had about slavery.
b) ushered in an era in which virtually every session of Congress had to deal with the slavery issue.
c) concerned purely political questions, with no discussion about the morality of slavery.
d) was of great political significance because Missouri’s admission would disrupt the balance between slave and free states in the Senate.
93. Which of the following was a provision of the Missouri Compromise?
a) After Missouri’s admission to the Union as a slave state, slavery was prohibited in the Louisiana Purchase territory north of 36° 30′’.
b) New nonslaveholding settlers in Missouri would receive a homestead of forty acres of land.
c) The Louisiana Purchase territory was to be open to white settlers only.
d) Free blacks were barred from settling in Missouri.
94. In the Convention of 1818, the United States and Great Britain agreed to
a) terminate the 1815 commercial treaty between the two countries.
b) demilitarize the Great Lakes.
c) demilitarize the United States-Canadian border.
d) a ten-year joint occupation of the Oregon Country.
95. Which of the following is a belief held by the leaders of southern secessionist churches?
a) The perfectibility of humans is an impossible task.
b) The Second Coming will come about only when all slaves have been freed and equal rights under the law are extended to all races.
c) In striving toward the perfectibility of humans, we need only be concerned with whites and not with those of other, inferior races.
d) The guidance of benevolent masters will bring slaves to Christ, ensure the perfectibility of humans, and hasten the Second Coming.
96. Which of the following statements is most consistent with the ideas preached by Charles G. Finney?
a) All humans are condemned to misery because of the fall of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.
b) All souls are predestined to either heaven or hell.
c) The United States, like Sodom and Gomorrah, will be destroyed by God because of the depravity of its citizens.
d) Because sin is avoidable, anyone can achieve salvation
97. The social reform movements associated with the Second Great Awakening began in
a) the mountainous areas of Virginia and North Carolina.
b) the Burned-Over District of western New York.
c) western Kentucky.
d) the Cotton South.
98. The “benevolent empire” refers to which of the following?
a) Reform associations in the 1830s and 1840s that were inspired by the Second Great Awakening
b) The international relief organizations in the United States that gave aid to the impoverished of the earth
c) A loosely-knit organization of northern factory owners dedicated to the abolition of slavery.
d) The slave society of the Cotton South
99. Which of the following was the most effective means by which reform associations of the 1830s and 1840s spread their message?
a) Rallies in major northern cities
b) Gatherings in the private homes of urban residents
c) Itinerant preachers
d) Mass production and distribution of newspapers and pamphlets
100. The financial resources for the spread of evangelical reform often came from
a) northern state governments.
b) the members of Masonic lodges.
c) wealthy industrialists and merchants.
d) groups associated with recent Catholic immigrants.
101. The Second Great Awakening affected women in which of the following ways?
a) The movement adversely affected women by blaming them for the sins of American society.
b) The only impact the movement had on women was to reinforce the cult of domesticity.
c) By participating in organizations advocating moral reform, many women became politically involved for the first time.
d) Both the Episcopal and Methodist denominations allowed women to rise to the rank of bishop.
102. The leader of the movement seeking to reform the treatment of the mentally ill was
a) Susan B. Anthony.
b) Dorothea Dix.
c) Sarah Grimké.
d) Lucretia Mott.
103. Which of the following was a reason for the emergence of temperance as a major issue in the 1840s and 1850s?
a) Alcohol became a symbol of evil because of its association with Sabbath violations, abusive husbands, and poor work habits.
b) It was revealed that organized crime was involved in the manufacture, distribution, and sale of alcohol.
c) Revelations about the health and mental problems of infants born to alcoholic mothers caused public concern.
d) Newspaper reporters documented and publicized widespread alcohol abuse within the Senate and House of Representatives.
104. The first state to ban the use of alcohol except for medicinal purposes was
c) South Carolina.
105. Which of the following touched the lives of more Americans than any other reform movement?
a) The temperance movement
b) The antigambling movement
c) The public education movement
d) The antiprostitution movement
106. Horace Mann advocated
a) free, tax-supported education.
b) that teachers should concentrate on imparting the moral lessons to be learned from a study of the classics.
c) that education was a private, family concern and not the concern of the state.
d) religious indoctrination in state-supported schools.
107. Which of the following statements is most consistent with the beliefs of Horace Mann?
a) Misery and crime can be ended through universal education.
b) Men are superior to women as teachers because they command obedience and discipline from their pupils.
c) The teaching of Christian religious principles should be the central focus of education.
d) Formal education should be reserved for the talented tenth, and vocational training should be available to the masses.
108. During the 1830s and 1840s, wide distribution of books and periodicals was made possible by
a) the advent of Rural Free Delivery.
b) the establishment of the United States Postal Service.
c) parcel post delivery.
d) power printing presses and better transportation.
109. Which of the following was the largest of the communal utopian experiments in the United States during the first half of the nineteenth century?
a) Brook Haven
b) The Davidians
c) The Shakers
d) New Harmony
110. Which of the following is true of the Brook Farm community?
a) The community’s leaders encouraged the use of hallucinogenic drugs to achieve pure thought.
b) The community’s members believed that Jesus had returned and that the Last Judgment had begun.
c) The residents rejected formal education and intellectual endeavors.
d) The community’s members believed that the spiritual transcends the worldly.
111. This person is considered the “prime mover” of the American Renaissance and the center of the transcendental movement.
a) James Fenimore Cooper
b) Ralph Waldo Emerson
c) Nathaniel Hawthorne
d) Herman Melville
112. Which of the following is true of the Mormon community established in the Great Salt Lake valley?
a) All land was held, owned, and controlled by the church.
b) The church elders eventually controlled the territorial government of Utah.
c) The community rejected the use of farm machinery.
d) The Twelve Apostles extended equal rights to women, including the right to vote.
113. In the pamphlet entitled Appeal . . . to the Colored Citizens, David Walker
a) encouraged slaves in the South to engage in passive resistance against their white masters.
b) informed slaves of the opportunities to escape through the network of people collectively known as the Underground Railroad.
c) advocated that slaves in the South should rise in rebellion and violently overthrow the institution of slavery.
d) called upon runaway slaves in the North to band together and invade the South.
114. Which of the following is true of white abolitionists in the late eighteenth century?
a) They often did not advocate equal rights for African Americans.
b) They were usually of the middle and lower class.
c) They encouraged women to participate in the abolitionist movement.
d) They usually supported extending the right to vote to women.
115. Liberia was founded in 1824 by which of the following?
a) The American Colonization Society
b) The leadership council of the African Methodist Episcopal church
c) Leaders of the Negro Convention Movement
d) The Masonic Order
116 The most prominent and uncompromising advocate of immediate abolition during the 1830s and 1840s was
a) James G. Birney.
b) Henry Highland Garnet.
c) William Lloyd Garrison.
d) Elijah P. Lovejoy.
117. Which of the following best expresses the belief of William Lloyd Garrison?
a) Slavery must be ended gradually.
b) A political solution is necessary to bring an end to slavery.
c) To end slavery, we must convince either the Whig party or the Democratic party to include an antislavery plank in their national platform.
d) Slavery can be ended by winning over the hearts of white Americans, including southern slaveowners.
118. Which of the following is true of the American Anti-Slavery Society?
a) The organization’s leaders and its members were united in their belief in women’s rights.
b) The organization welcomed men and women of all races and all social classes.
c) The organization based its call for an end to slavery exclusively on economic arguments.
d) The organization called for a political solution that would bring a gradual end to slavery.
119. How did South Carolina respond to the increase in the volume of antislavery mailings during the early 1830s?
a) The state established its own postal service, which refused to deliver any mail handled by the United States Postal Service.
b) Abolitionist literature entering the state was intercepted and burned.
c) The state paid for the mass printing and mailing of proslavery tracts to northern households.
d) In a nullification convention, the state declared such literature to be an unconstitutional exercise of free speech.
120. Which of the following is true of James G. Birney?
a) Birney was an ardent supporter of the women’s rights movement.
b) Birney called for the colonization of African Americans.
c) Birney rejected the belief that there was a political solution to ending slavery.
d) As an immediatist, he advocated the election of abolitionists who would push for the passage of legislation to end slavery.
121. Which of the following is true of members of the Liberty Party?
a) They believed that the federal government should establish a reservation for African Americans in the western territories.
b) They advocated a federal resettlement program to aid newly freed slaves.
c) They believed that southern slaveowners should be compensated for their loss of property when they freed their slaves.
d) They believed that it was up to the states to abolish slavery.
122. Beginning with an Arkansas law passed in 1835, by 1860 sixteen states allowed
a) no-fault divorces.
b) married women the right to vote.
c) single, married, and divorced women to own and convey property.
d) children sixteen years of age and older to choose their own marriage partner.
123. In the 1840s and 1850s, what was the response of most male abolitionists to the idea of extending the right to vote to women?
124. Statistics indicate that between 1824 and 1840 the proportion of eligible voters actually voting in presidential elections
a) increased substantially.
b) increased slightly.
c) decreased substantially.
d) decreased moderately.
125. How did the majority of states choose their presidential electors by the time of the 1824 presidential election?
a) Through the caucus system
b) By popular vote
c) Through the state legislature
d) By special state convention
126. Which of the following is true of the four-way presidential race of 1824?
a) Although John Quincy Adams was second in the electoral vote, he was elected because he led in popular votes.
b) John Quincy Adams had a majority of electoral votes and became president, but his major opponent, Andrew Jackson, became vice president.
c) Because no candidate received a majority of electoral votes, the Speaker of the House, Henry Clay, assumed the presidency.
d) Although Andrew Jackson led in both popular and electoral votes, he was not elected.
127. The Jacksonian Democrats favored
a) expanded government.
b) limited government.
c) reformist government.
d) nonpartisan government.
128. During Jackson's presidency, there was a substantial increase in the power of the
a) diplomatic branch of government.
b) judicial branch of government.
c) executive branch of government.
d) legislative branch of government.
129. Andrew Jackson enhanced executive power relative to the power of Congress by making a major political weapon out of
a) treaty negotiations.
b) impoundment of funds.
c) the presidential veto.
d) cabinet appointments.
130. The doctrine of nullification asserted that federal legislation could be overruled by a
a) state governor.
b) state court.
c) special state convention.
d) state referendum.
131. During the nullification crisis,
a) Jackson acknowledged the constitutional validity of the theory of nullification.
b) Calhoun and Clay drafted a compromise tariff to resolve the crisis.
c) the Supreme Court ruled that a state lacks the power to nullify a federal law.
d) a majority of southern states supported South Carolina's ordinance of nullification.
132. The major issue in Jackson's campaign for re-election in 1832 was the
a) stationing of federal troops in South Carolina.
b) Second Bank of the United States.
c) gag rule.
d) Maysville Road veto.
133. The Antimasons introduced which of the following to national politics?
a) The convention system for choosing candidates
b) The direct presidential primary election
c) The campaign for a straight party-line ticket
d) The distribution of campaign literature through the mail
134. The 1836 Specie Circular provided that only gold or silver would be accepted as payment for federal
135. How did the Whigs and the Democrats want to promote economic expansion?
a) Both the Whigs and the Democrats advocated a limited government.
b) The Whigs advocated a limited government; the Democrats advocated an activist government.
c) Both the Whigs and the Democrats advocated an activist government.
d) The Whigs advocated an activist government; the Democrats advocated a limited government.
136. The evangelicals of the 1840s and 1850s were most closely associated with the
a) Whig Party.
b) Federalist Party.
c) Democratic Party.
d) American Party.
137. Which of the following is most likely to have been a Democrat in the 1840s?
a) A native-born evangelical Protestant
b) A free black man
c) A Congregationalist
d) An Irish Catholic
138. Adopted by Congress in 1836, the gag rule
a) ordered the immediate arrest of any and all persons engaged in the slave trade in Washington, D.C.
b) ordered the cessation of debate in southern state legislatures over South Carolina's ordinance of nullification.
c) made it illegal for anyone in the United States to speak against slavery.
d) automatically tabled abolitionist petitions and thus prevented debate on them.
139. Which of the following is true of the Webster-Ashburton Treaty?
a) The treaty settled the boundary dispute between the United States and Great Britain over the Oregon Country.
b) It resulted in an agreement between the United States and Great Britain on the boundary between Maine and New Brunswick and along the Great Lakes.
c) It resulted in Great Britain relinquishing all claims to Texas.
d) By the treaty, the United States and Great Britain agreed to the westernmost boundary of the Louisiana Purchase.
140. Which of the following advantages did the Whigs enjoy in the 1840 presidential campaign?
a) They were seeking to re-elect an incumbent.
b) Harrison was a spellbinding orator who insisted on running an issue-oriented campaign.
c) They had put together a huge majority of registered voters.
d) They could use the issue of the economic depression to their advantage.
141. Why is President John Tyler referred to as a president without a party?
a) Tyler refused to affiliate with either the Whig party or the Democratic party and ran as an independent candidate.
b) Tyler's decision to switch officially from the Whig party to the Democratic party caused so much animosity that neither party accepted him.
c) Because the Whig party disbanded soon after Tyler's election, he was left without a party organization and without a political platform.
d) Although Tyler ran on the Whig ticket with William Henry Harrison, he was a Democrat at heart and opposed the Whig congressional program.
142. During the presidency of John Tyler,
a) the United States negotiated its first treaties with China.
b) the United States annexed the Hawaiian islands.
c) the Bank of the United States was rechartered.
d) the powers of the presidency waned while the powers of Congress expanded.