Final without Answers

History 101 Final Exam Spring 2011


Name _______________________Place the letter of the MOST correct answer BOTH in the blank on the test AND on the SCAN TRON.

1. ___   Under the terms of the Oregon Treaty of 1846,

a)       the Columbia River was established as Oregon's northernmost boundary.

b)       Great Britain accepted President Polk's demand for a boundary at 54º 40¢.

c)       the United States and Great Britain agreed to a twenty-year joint occupation of the Oregon Country.

d)       Great Britain accepted the American-suggested compromise of the 49th parallel.

2. ___     Which of the following is true of expansionists who supported the War with Mexico?

a)       Humanitarian concerns dominated the thoughts of the war's supporters.

b)       Support of expansionism and of the war often had an undercurrent of racism.

c)       Egalitarian principles dominated the thoughts of expansionists and supporters of the war.

d)       Support for the war was based primarily on the belief that expansion would open new markets for American products.

3. ___     Which of the following was the decisive campaign in the War with Mexico?

a)       General Zachary Taylor's assault against Monterey

b)       The taking of Santa Fe by Colonel Stephen Kearny

c)       The taking of Palo Alto by General Zachary Taylor

d)       General Winfield Scott's campaign against Mexico City

4. ___     Fear of the Slave Power was fear that the

a)       use of slave labor would allow southern producers to undersell northern producers.

b)       distribution of abolitionist literature among slaves was likely to inspire a violent slave revolt.

c)       slaveholding elite that controlled the South was determined to control the entire nation.

d)       slave population was growing so rapidly that slaves would soon far outnumber whites in many southern states.

5. ___     Those who criticized the war with Mexico often expressed which of the following ideas?

a)       They expressed racist fears that victory would bring nonwhite Mexicans into the United States.

b)       They expressed the belief that the war was unconstitutional.

c)       They expressed the fear that the war would widen and engulf all of Latin America.

d)       They expressed the belief that the United States military was unprepared for the conflict.

6. ___     Which of the following was a consequence of the Wilmot Proviso?

a)       It transformed the debate over the War with Mexico into a debate over the expansion of slavery.

b)       It led to the annexation of Texas by joint resolution of Congress.

c)       Its stipulations further fed northern fears of the Slave Power.

d)       It caused southerners to become outspoken opponents of the War with Mexico.

7. ___     Which of the following constitutional arguments was designed to protect the institution of slavery?

a)       The Constitution should be interpreted loosely so that the central government may assume as much power as possible.

b)     Slaveholders may take their slaves into the territories, because the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution guarantees that no person may be denied his property without due process of law.

c)       Slave states are afforded special privileges under the Constitution.

d)       The Union is the result of a compact among the people of the nation.

8. ___     The radical, new southern position on the territories espoused by John C. Calhoun in 1846 contradicted the

a) Missouri Compromise.        b) Monroe Doctrine.            c) Polk Doctrine.      d) three-fifths compromise.

9. ___     The most critical question that emerged in the aftermath of the War with Mexico was

a)       what course the South would take if northerners continued to press the slavery question.

b)       what to do about slavery in the territory acquired from Mexico.

c)       how to limit the president's vaguely defined war powers.

d)       how much to pay Mexico for the territory acquired by force.


10. ___  The proposal for popular sovereignty called for deciding the issue of slavery in the territories through a

a)       constitutional amendment.                                          b) direct nationwide election.

c)       decision by the residents in each territory.                d) vote in both houses of Congress.

11. ___  Which of the following is true of the presidential campaign of 1848?

a)       Although Martin Van Buren lost all of the southern states, he won the election by carrying the Northeast and Northwest.

b)       Zachary Taylor campaigned in favor of the exclusion of slavery in the territories.

c)       The number of votes received in the North by Martin Van Buren indicated a deepening division between northern and southern public opinion.

d)       Lewis Cass appealed to northern voters because he called for the immediate abolition of slavery.

12. ___  Which of the following occurred in response to California's application for statehood in 1850?

a)       President Taylor called a special session of Congress for the purpose of repealing the Missouri Compromise.

b)     Some southern politicians wanted to postpone California’s admission to the Union and make it a slave territory.

c)       Several New England states threatened to secede from the Union if California was admitted as a slave state.

d)       Congress adopted an amendment to the California statehood bill that extended the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific.

13. ___  In Prigg v. Pennsylvania the Supreme Court ruled that

a)       enforcement of the fugitive-slave clause in the Constitution was a federal obligation.

b)       whether or not runaway slaves were to be returned to their owners was to be determined by each separate state.

c)       the Underground Railroad was a conspiracy against the rights of property owners and, thus, unconstitutional.

d)       the status of slavery in the territories could only be decided by each territory's residents.

14. ___  How did Senator Stephen Douglas salvage the Compromise of 1850?

a)       He won a public endorsement of the compromise from President Zachary Taylor.

b)       He ultimately allowed southern Democrats to dictate the terms of the compromise.

c)       He introduced each measure of the compromise separately and in that way gained passage of all of the measures.

d)       He threatened to remove Democrats who opposed the compromise from important congressional committees.

15. ___  Which of the following is true of the Compromise of 1850?

a)       It completely rejected the idea of popular sovereignty.

b)       It included a stronger fugitive slave law.

c)       It abolished both slavery and the slave trade in the District of Columbia.

d)       It angered northerners by acknowledging the boundary claims made by Texas.

16. ___  What part of the Compromise of 1850 increased sectional controversy and conflict during the 1850s?

a)       The admission of California as a free state

b)       The settlement of the Texas boundary question

c)       The ending of the slave trade in Washington, D.C.

d)       The Fugitive Slave Act

17. ___  After passage of the Fugitive Slave Law,

a)       Mexican authorities extradited runaway slaves to the United States for prosecution.

b)       many fugitive slaves living in the North, seeing the act as a threat to their freedom, moved to Canada.

c)       most northern judges refused to enforce the act because of its repressive nature.

d)       the Underground Railroad ceased to operate.



18. ___  In Uncle Tom's Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe

a)       denounced slaveowners as immoral and sinful.

b)       portrayed slavery as beneficial to blacks.

c)       condemned the national government for allowing slavery to continue.

d)       brought the issue of slavery home to many who had never before given it much thought.

19. ___  How did proslavery theorists counteract the indictment of slavery as a moral wrong?

a)       They proposed that slaves be paid a nominal fee for the work they performed.

b)       They contended that slavery was more humane than wage labor.

c)       They pointed to the three-fifths clause in the Constitution.

d)       They argued that passage of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 legalized slavery in a portion of the Louisiana Territory.

20. ___  Which of the following is true of the presidential campaign of 1852?

a)       By rejecting Winfield Scott, voters rejected the idea of popular sovereignty.

b)       Pierce's victory seemed to confirm voter support for the Compromise of 1850.

c)       John Hale's repudiation of parts of the Compromise of 1850 attracted a great deal of support in the South.

d)       Winfield Scott's call for the repeal of the Compromise of 1850 worked against him in the South.

21. ___  Franklin Pierce's election as president in 1852 was due to

a)       his charismatic personality.

b)       the weaknesses of the opposition.

c)       the strength of the Whig party organization.

d)       his fame as a commanding general in the War with Mexico.

22. ___  Which of the following was a consequence of the case of Anthony Burns?

a)       The Fugitive Slave Act was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

b)       Nonslaveholding southerners began to challenge the political power of the South's plantation aristocracy.

c)       The Underground Railroad was declared illegal and ceased its operations.

d)       Fear that the Slave Power dominated American government increased among northerners.

23. ___  President Franklin Pierce's attempt to annex Hawai'i to the United States failed for which of the following reasons?

a)       Northern and southern Congressmen alike expressed doubts about the nation's ability to defend Hawai'i.

b)       Southerners would not vote for the entry of another free state into the Union.

c)       Northern congressmen feared that an expansionist Slave Power was behind the annexation treaty.

d)       Northern and southern Congressmen expressed fears that acquisition of Hawai'i would draw the United States into an Asian war.

24. ___  Who introduced the Kansas-Nebraska bill into the Senate?

a) James Buchanan                 b) Henry Clay      c) Stephen Douglas             d) Franklin Pierce

25. ___  What seems to have been Stephen Douglas's intent in introducing the Kansas-Nebraska bill?

a)       He wanted to promote the construction of a midwestern transcontinental railroad.

b)       He wanted to strengthen his chances for re-election to the Senate in 1854.

c)       He wanted to settle permanently the conflict over slavery in the territories.

d)       He wanted to win national attention as the basis for a future presidential campaign.

26. ___  Which of the following is true of the Kansas-Nebraska Act?

a)       It cleared up the confusion that surrounded popular sovereignty.

b)       It prohibited slavery in the two organized territories created by the law.

c)       It had the effect of repealing the Missouri Compromise.

d)       It extended the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific.




27. ___  As a result of the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act,

a)       northern states threatened to hold special state conventions for the purpose of declaring the act unconstitutional and thus null and void.

b)       a coalition of northern Democrats withdrew from the Democratic party and formed the American Party.

c)       the Whig Party broke into northern and southern wings and was no longer able to operate as a national party.

d)       southerners became more convinced than ever that Congress had become the puppet of antislavery advocates.

28. ___  The different political factions that joined together to form the Republican Party in 1854 were united by their

a)     opposition to the expansion of slavery into the territories.

b)       fear over the possibility of civil war.

c)       determination to abolish slavery.

d)       desire to acquire more territory from Mexico.

29. ___  The results of the 1854 congressional elections were significant because they

a)       demonstrated strong northern support for the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

b)       ended up being the last time the South was assured of a sympathetic majority in Congress.

c)       marked the first time a sectional party based on a sectional issue had gained substantial power in the political system.

d)       resulted in such an even division of power between the parties that meaningful action by Congress was virtually impossible.

30. ___  The American Party of the mid-1850s (the Know-Nothings) drew its primary support from those who feared

a) abolitionism.         b) foreigners.         c) possible civil war.                            d) uncontrolled industrialization.

31. ___  The Republican party of the 1850s

a)       began as and remained a one-issue party.

b)       had a pessimistic outlook concerning the future of the nation.

c)       was prepared to moderate its position on slavery in the territories.

d)       adopted a platform that appealed to those who were interested in the economic development of the West.

32. ___  Which of the following statements best expresses the beliefs of the Republican Party of the 1850s?

a)       Both the dignity of labor and the availability of economic opportunity are essential to the future progress of the United States.

b)       All ethnic groups living in the United States should be afforded political, social, and economic equality.

c)       The central government should remain limited in its power and should not intervene in the economic life of the states.

d)       Slavery is morally wrong and should be abolished immediately.

33. ___  Which of the following statements best expresses the southern version of republicanism?

a)       To create a more perfect society, individuals must subordinate their individual desires to the good of the group.

b)       The rights and liberties of the people can best be protected by a strong central government.

c)       Social distinctions between rich and poor are necessary for the creation of an orderly society.

d)       White citizens in a slave society enjoy liberty and social equality because of slavery.

34. ___  Which of the following is true of Charles Sumner and Preston Brooks?

a)       Their treatise against slavery on economic grounds caused an increase in antislavery sentiment among Northerners.

b)       By supporting the Lecompton Constitution in Kansas, they sought a peaceful and moderate solution to the Kansas crisis.

c)       They demonstrated that Northern and Southern moderates could still work together for the national interest.

d)       They were symbolic of just how emotional the political issue of slavery had become by 1856.


35. ___  The Democrats chose James Buchanan as their presidential nominee in 1856 because he had

a)       been a highly respected Senate majority leader.

b)       taken a strong position against the expansion of slavery.

c)       acquired fame as a commanding general in the War with Mexico.

d)       not been involved in territorial controversies.

36. ___  In the Dred Scott decision, the Supreme Court ruled that

a)       Dred Scott was not a United States citizen.

b)       slaves could acquire freedom only by purchasing it.

c)       residence in free territory made Dred Scott free.

d)       Congress had the power to bar slavery from a territory.

37. ___  As a result of the Dred Scott decision,

a)       President Buchanan called publicly for the impeachment of Chief Justice Roger Taney.

b)       the presence of an aggressive Slave Power was confirmed in the minds of many northerners.

c)       several southern states threatened to secede from the Union.

d)       most white northerners favored a constitutional amendment extending equal rights to African Americans.

38. ___  After the Dred Scott decision,

a)       northern newspapers strongly urged that the decision be accepted in spite of the dangers it posed.

b)       the justices who dissented in the decision resigned from the Supreme Court.

c)       Lincoln warned that the next step would be for the Supreme Court to deny a state the right to exclude slavery.

d)       the Republican party was thoroughly discredited because the Supreme Court had endorsed southern constitutional arguments.

39. ___  Which of the following was convincing evidence that the Buchanan administration was attempting to impose its will on the people of Kansas?

a)       Buchanan's actions in relation to the Lecompton constitution

b)       Buchanan's lobbying of Supreme Court justices

c)       Buchanan's deployment of federal troops to Kansas

d)       Buchanan's improper use of presidential power in the Lincoln-Douglas senatorial race

40. ___  Stephen Douglas angered southern Democrats by

a)       introducing legislation designed to undo the Dred Scott decision.

b)       proposing a constitutional amendment to extend citizenship to African Americans.

c)       calling for the extension of the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific.

d)       taking a public stand against the Lecompton constitution.

41. ___  John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry increased anger in the South because

a)       it was revealed that Brown had financial backing from several prominent abolitionists.

b)       it led to a general slave uprising throughout Virginia.

c)       President Buchanan praised Brown as a hero and a martyr.

d)       federal troops came to Brown's aid, allowing him to escape.

42. ___  President-elect Lincoln decided to stand firm against the extension of slavery into the territories. Which of the following was a reason for that decision?

a)       He believed that a compromise would destroy any chance of fulfilling his stated objective of abolishing slavery in the southern states.

b)       He hoped to effect a compromise after his inauguration.

c)       He believed that accepting a compromise would break the bond of faith between himself and those who had voted for him.

d)       He wanted to force the South to secede from the Union.

43. ___  The first southern state to secede from the Union was

a)  Alabama.             b)  Mississippi.                      c)  South Carolina.              d)  Texas.


44. ___  The dilemma facing Lincoln when he entered the presidency was

a)       how to maintain the authority of the federal government without provoking war with the states that had seceded.

b)       whether to recognize the Confederacy as an independent, sovereign nation.

c)       how to work with a Congress controlled by Democrats.

d)       whether to seek gradual or immediate emancipation of the slaves.

45. ___  The first shots of the Civil War were fired at

a)       Richmond, Virginia.                      b)            Charleston, South Carolina.

c)       Newport News, Virginia.               d)            Montgomery, Alabama.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------46 ___                Which of the following was true of the South during the early months of the Civil War?a)              Critical of South Carolina's decision to fire on Fort Sumter, many southerners called for peace negotiations.

b)       Nonslaveholders began openly to express their long-suppressed hostility toward slaveholders.

c)       Most southerners viewed the future with uncertainty.

d)       Confederate armies had more volunteers than the government could properly arm.

47. ___  The northern naval blockade of southern ports was

a)       nonexistent until the final year of the war.

b)       weak at first but increasingly effective as the war continued.

c)       never strong enough to have a significant effect.

d)       effective from its start in choking off goods going into the South.


48. ___       When Union naval forces seized part of the Sea Islands off the South Carolina coast, they discovered which of the following?

a)       Slaves celebrated what they hoped was their freedom as frightened planters abandoned their lands and fields.

b)       To provide stability to the large slave population, it was best to allow the plantation owners to remain.

c)       Despite the war, plantations in the area were running in a smooth and orderly fashion.

d)       Slaves in the area fought valiantly on the side of their masters, having little idea of what the war was about.


49. ___       Which of the following battles ended attempts by the Confederacy to take the New Mexico Territory?

a)  The Battle for the Cimarron                             b)  The Battles of Fort Yuma

c)  The Battles of Glorieta Pass                              d)  The Battle of Shiloh


50. ___       As a result of the fall of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson,

a)       Union forces gained control of the entire Mississippi River.

b)       a path into Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi lay open before the Union Army.

c)       the last Confederate outposts in the far West fell to Union forces.

d)       New Orleans fell to Union troops.


51. ___       As a consequence of the Battle of Shiloh,

a)       General Grant realized that a complete conquest of the South would be necessary to save the Union.

b)       Lincoln gave command of Union forces to General Ulysses S. Grant, replacing General George McClellan.

c)       General Robert E. Lee suggested that President Davis open peace negotiations with the Union.

d)       McClellan's forces were forced to retreat to the Potomac, thus saving the Confederate capital at Richmond.

52. ___  Which of the following is true of General McClellan?

a)       His plan to take Richmond would probably have worked if Lincoln had not forced him to delay his attack.

b)       In the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, he ignored President Lincoln's order to advance against Confederate forces.

c)       His brilliant strategy was responsible for the Union victory at Shiloh.

d)       His decision to divide his army in the face of a superior Confederate army was the main reason for the thousands of Union casualties at the Battle of Shiloh.

53. ___  In order to win the war, Jefferson Davis believed that the Confederacy would have to

a)       convince the border states to join the Confederacy.

b)       move toward a centralization of power.

c)       industrialize.

d)       convince nonslaveowning whites to join the all-volunteer Confederate army.

54. ___  In conducting the Civil War, the Confederate government

a)       refused to allow conscription into the Confederate army.

b)       nationalized all industry in the Confederate states.

c)       adopted a hands-off policy in relation to the southern economy.

d)       passed laws giving the central government almost full control of railroads in the Confederacy.

55. ___  Which of the following beliefs is most closely associated with Confederate nationalism?

a)       The Confederacy will stand as the bastion of direct democracy throughout the world.

b)       The Republic was built on the concept of the dignity of labor, and that is the cause for which the Confederacy fights.

c)       Opposition to centralized power is the true legacy of the American Revolution, and that is the cause for which the Confederacy fights.

d)       All people should be equal under the law, and that is the cause for which the Confederacy fights.

55. ___  Which of the following is true concerning Confederate military supplies?

a)       By 1865 the Confederacy had to depend on blockade runners to obtain the small arms and ammunition it needed to conduct the war.

b)       By 1865 the Confederacy was manufacturing all of its small arms and ammunition.

c)       In 1864 the Union naval blockade caused such severe weapon shortages that the Confederacy was forced to furlough troops.

d)       Throughout the war the Confederacy obtained weapons from northern manufacturers eager to profit from the war.

56. ___  During the Civil War substantial numbers of wealthy southerners avoided military service by

a)       bribing draft officials.

b)       volunteering as nurses and orderlies in Confederate hospitals.

c)       furnishing a hired substitute.

d)       relocating to England for the duration of the war.

57. ___  Which of the following was one reason that some southern politicians and newspaper editors began to warn of class anger within the Confederacy?

a)       Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation

b)       Exemption from military duty of anyone supervising twenty slaves or more

c)       The legal requirement that all able-bodied males over the age of sixteen serve in the Confederate Army

d)       The low wages paid to workers in southern industries


58. ___  The case of Jay Cooke illustrates which of the following?

a)       The extent to which the mechanization of agriculture increased in the North during the Civil War

b)       The wartime partnership between the federal government and northern business interests

c)       The stark contrast between the living conditions of Confederate soldiers and the living conditions of Confederate government officials

d)       The suffering endured by southerners due to food shortages and inflation

59. ___  Northern industrial workers during the Civil War

a)       found that their pay did not keep up with inflation.

b)       suffered from high unemployment.

c)       enjoyed unprecedented prosperity.

d)       experienced genuine job security for the first time.

60. ___  Which of the following led to a year-long investigation by the House of Representatives during the Civil War?

a)       It was learned that leading peace Democrats in the Senate gave top secret information to the Confederacy.

b)       The press revealed that the secretary of state had ignored Confederate overtures for peace negotiations.

c)       There were stories of war profiteering by contractors who sold inferior merchandise to the government at inflated prices.

d)       It was learned that the secretary of war received kickbacks from government contractors.

61. ___  Which of the following was true of the Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad during the Civil War?

a)       Not only did they receive large loans from the federal government, they also received millions of acres of land.

b)       The two corporations were plagued by worker unrest and strikes.

c)       Due to lack of funds, they were forced to halt the laying of track that would have provided a link between Omaha, Nebraska, and Sacramento, California.

d)       The two railroad corporations were unable to agree on a standard track gauge, which prevented the creation of a unified transportation system.

64. ___  During the Civil War, Congress enacted legislation that

a)       led to the creation of land-grant colleges.

b)       lowered tariff rates.

c)       imposed the first tax on income.

d)       established federal agencies to regulate industry.

65. ___  During the Civil War, Congress and the Treasury Department

a)       outlawed the issuance of bank notes by state banks.

b)       created a national banking system with the authority to issue national bank notes.

c)       established the Independent Treasury System.

d)       reformed the national banking system to insure its responsiveness to local needs, irrespective of region.

66. ___  Northern women made up most of the volunteers who ran the thousands of auxiliaries of this organization during the Civil War.

a)  The American Red Cross                                  b)  Daughters of the Union

c)  The U.S. Public Information Agency              d)  The U.S. Sanitary Commission

67. ___  Women such as Dorothea Dix, Mary Ann Bickerdyke, and Clara Barton

a)       advanced the professionalization of nursing during the Civil War.

b)       gained the respect and admiration of the male-dominated medical profession for their work as nurses during the course of the Civil War.

c)       received official recognition from President Lincoln for their service to the Union cause.

d)       pioneered the way for the acceptance of women as physicians by being among the first of their gender to attend medical school.



68. ___  While serving as a volunteer nurse in Washington, D.C., Walt Whitman

a)       made official complaints to Congress about the discriminatory treatment of African American soldiers in U.S. Army hospitals.

b)       wrote of the lack of skill and absence of compassion of army surgeons.

c)       gained inspiration from the courage and sacrifice of the common soldier.

d)       spoke of the outstanding performance of women in the Army Nursing Corp.

69. ___ Early in the war, Jefferson Davis tried to rally southerners to the Confederate cause by

a)       telling them that they were fighting for constitutional liberty.

b)       hinting that the Confederate government was considering a bonus of two slaves for all nonslaveholding soldiers.

c)       emphasizing the importance of maintaining the slave system.

d)       calling for a redistribution of land to help landless southern whites.

70. ___  As indicated in his response to Horace Greeley's call for emancipation, Abraham Lincoln's primary goal was to

a)       win re-election in 1864.                                 b)  punish Confederate officials.

c)       guarantee equality for freed slaves.                           d)  save the Union.

71. ___  Which of the following is true of the Emancipation Proclamation?

a)       It was denounced by many as being clearly unconstitutional.

b)       It was issued by Lincoln on the basis of his powers as commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

c)       It barely passed Congress over the bitter opposition of virtually all Democrats.

d)       It passed Congress with overwhelming support from both Republicans and Democrats.

72. ___  Which of the following is true of the Emancipation Proclamation?

a)       It freed all slaves in the South immediately.

b)       It freed slaves in the North and the South.

c)       It freed slaves only in the border states and the western territories.

d)       It freed slaves only in those areas in which the federal government exercised no control.

73. ___  On the eve of the 1864 Republican national convention, Lincoln urged the inclusion of which of the following in the party platform?

a)       A detailed plan for the readmission of the southern states to the Union

b)       A promise that the Republicans would seek a negotiated settlement with the South

c)       A plank calling for the adoption of a constitutional amendment prohibiting slavery

d)       A plank calling for legislation to extend the right to vote to African Americans

74. ___  Which of the following was a consequence of the Emancipation Proclamation?

a)       Thousands of slaves joined the Union armies.

b)       The Confederacy was able to secure a much-needed loan from Holland.

c)       Great Britain decided to recognize the Confederacy.

d)       Several southern states decided to abandon the Confederacy and signed a separate peace with the Union.

75. ___  Both Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis would agree with which of the following statements?

a)       War requires active presidential leadership.

b)       The legislative branch of the government works best without executive leadership.

c)       A nation's domestic affairs are handled most efficiently when power is decentralized.

d)       A president is bound by the same constitutional restrictions in war as he is in peace.

76. ___  The greatest number of deaths among Union troops in the Civil War resulted from

a)       bullet wounds.

b)       hand-to-hand bayonet combat.

c)       unsanitary surgical equipment.

d)       disease and accidents.


77. ___  Which of the following is true of the Civil War?

a)       The chances of a wounded soldier surviving were remarkably good.

b)       Despite the bloodshed, soldiers in the war continued to romanticize the fighting.

c)       Modern long-range rifles are one explanation for the high number of casualties.

d)       Because the armies usually fought from well-defended trenches and seldom moved, casualties remained remarkably low.

78. ___  Which of the following was a consequence of the Battle of Chancellorsville?

a)       It led directly to the Emancipation Proclamation.

b)       It was a devastating defeat for the Confederacy.

c)       Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston was forced to resign.

d)       Stonewall Jackson was mistakenly killed by Confederate troops.

79. ___  A Union victory in this battle cut the Confederacy in half and gave Union forces control of the Mississippi River.

a)  The Battle of Atlanta                         b)  The Battle of Chancellorsville    

c)  The Battle of Gettysburg                   d)  The Battle of Vicksburg

80. ___  During the final two years of the Civil War, it became obvious that southern planters

a)       were willing to accept momentous changes in their lives in order to bolster the Confederate war effort.

b)       recognized that the idea of states' rights had been a casualty of the war.

c)       were about the only element left in the South that still supported the Confederate government.

d)       were more committed to their own selfish interests than to the creation of an independent southern nation.

81. ___  Which of the following is true of desertions from the Confederate army?

a)       The army was suffering a high rate of desertion by 1863, and the problem continued to grow worse.

b)       The army was plagued by a high rate of desertion from the beginning of the war.

c)       The army began experiencing significant desertions only in the last few months of the war.

d)       The army never had the desertion problem experienced by the northern army because southerners were so fervently committed to their cause.

82. ___  Abraham Lincoln, unlike Jefferson Davis,

a)       did not become emotionally involved in the war effort.

b)       always consulted with Congress before making major decisions.

c)       refused to use his emergency war powers to suspend basic constitutional rights.

d)       knew how to stay in touch with the common people.

83. ___  Northern Democrats leveled which of the following charges against the Republican government during the war years?

a)       The Republicans were too concerned with abiding by the Constitution to prosecute the war successfully.

b)       The Republicans were not willing to extend government aid to northern business interests.

c)       Republican policies extended aid to farmers but ignored the plight of urban laborers.

d)       Republican policies were designed to flood the North with blacks.

84. ___  Which of the following was a feature common to both the Confederate draft and the Union draft?

a)       Both were instituted only after approval in a referendum.

b)       Both exempted large landowners from service.

c)       Both allowed the hiring of substitutes.

d)       Both exempted young men enrolled in colleges and universities.

85. ___  One of the factors contributing to the 1863 New York City riots was

a)       anti-black sentiment on the part of white working-class New Yorkers.

b)       the long delay in implementing emancipation.

c)       the exemption of Irish immigrants from the draft.

d)       the passage of heavy new taxes to finance the war.


86. ___  As a result of this incident in November 1864, U.S. troops massacred over 100 Cheyenne men, women, and children.

a)  The Sand Creek Massacre                                                b)  The Massacre at Wounded Knee

c)  The Thompkin's Ferry Massacre                      d)  The Washita Massacre

87. ___  In his campaign against the Navajos, Kit Carson

a)       adopted a conciliatory approach that resulted in a Navajo alliance with the Union.

b)       met with such determined resistance that he withdrew Union troops from the New Mexico Territory.

c)       was victorious largely as the result of an alliance he forged with the Mescalero Apaches.

d)       adopted a scorched earth policy.

88. ___  During the months preceding the election of 1864, Abraham Lincoln

a)       feared that war-weariness among northerners would lead to his defeat.

b)       considered jailing several Democratic leaders until the election was over.

c)       attempted to win the Democratic nomination as well as the Republican nomination.

d)       devoted himself to electing Republicans to Congress because he felt certain he would be re-elected.


89. ___       The Union Army's march to the sea through Georgia under General Sherman was notable because

a)       the northern soldiers engaged in an orgy of rape and murder of civilians.

b)       it ended with Sherman's army bogged down in trench warfare much like what was to come in the First World War.

c)       the soldiers inflicted total destruction on the land and its economic resources.

d)       the army foolishly blundered into several Confederate ambushes and suffered needlessly heavy casualties.

90. ___  Suspension of the writ of habeas corpus for all people living between Washington and Philadelphia provides evidence of which of the following?

a)       Local law enforcement collapsed in many northern states.

b)       Presidential power increased during the Civil War.

c)       Union generals often usurped presidential power.

d)       Congressional power increased during the Civil War.