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Study Guide Second Exam

Study Guide for Second Exam Spring 2014


1. The “crisis of the European conscience” that affected some European thinkers in the late seventeenth century meant that they

a. no longer believed in God.

b. had given up hope about the future of the world.

c. had come to the conclusion that the truth lay in divine revelation.

d. were slowly moving from traditional ideas to modern views.


3. Which of the following is the term for the theory that the universe is earth-centered?

a. heliocentrism                 b. geocentrism             c. supralunar                d. sublunar


5. A central characteristic of medieval science was that it

a. rejected Muslim findings as a way to understand the physical world.

b. argued that on earth, matter was incorruptible and no change occurred in matter.

c. maintained that the sun was the center of the universe.

d. identified Aristotle’s Unmoved Mover with God.


7. In the Middle Ages, Aristotle’s science began to be undermined by the

a. spread of the deductive method.

b. use of the Bible as a guide for research.

c. acceptance of the Ptolemaic order of the universe.

d. application of empiricism and inductive reasoning.


9. Which of the following is a correct statement about the Scientific Revolution?

a. Late medieval technology had little impact on the new learning.

b. Early modern scientists built on the work of medieval thinkers.

c. Most of the new discoveries were done within the context of the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic system.

d. Mathematics played a minor role in the discoveries.


11. Copernicus’s explanation of the universe can be described as a

a. brand-new idea.

b. revival of an ancient Greek theory.

c. system compatible with medieval Christian theology.

d. revival of an ancient Babylonian theory.


13. Tycho Brahe contributed to the Scientific Revolution by

a. inventing the telescope.

b. discovering the moons around the planet Jupiter.

c. amassing copious observations of planetary movement.

d. giving final form to the law of inertia.


15. A consequence of Kepler’s scientific research was that

a. his startling discoveries made further investigation unnecessary.

b. the circular movement of planets was proven correct.

c. the sun-centered universe could now be understood in mathematical terms.

d. the belief that the planets moved in irregular orbits was reinforced.


17. Galileo’s celestial observations proved that

a. the moon looked the same through a telescope as to the naked eye.

b. Jupiter has moons, or satellites.

c. Aristotle’s calculations were essentially correct

d. the universe was about the size of Ptolemy’s figures.


19. Regarding Galileo’s astronomical writings, the Catholic Church

a. readily accepted them as confirming biblical scripture.

b. agreed with his findings after summoning a church council.

c. arrested Galileo and threatened to torture him.

d. ignored him, although it declared his ideas to be unacceptable.


21. Bayle’s Historical and Critical Dictionary can be described as

a. a book that supported prevailing institutions and traditions.

b. a work that attacked the findings of the Scientific Revolution.

c. the last book to reflect medieval thought.

d. a new form of book in which ideas were arranged in systematic form.


23. Both William Harvey and Isaac Newton

a. used mathematics to prove their theories.        

b. made important discoveries in celestial physics.

c. borrowed from each other in their research.

d. were greatly influenced by Francis Bacon.


25. Marcello Malpighi’s contribution to the study of the human body and circulation was the

a. discovery of capillaries.

b. discovery of arteries.

c. correct understanding of how the circulatory system worked.

d. scientific reinforcement of Galen’s theories on circulation.


27. The scientific work of René Descartes resulted in the development of

a. calculus.             b. analytic geometry.               c. logarithms.               d. irrational numbers.


29. What is meant by Descartes’ dualism?

a. Everything comes in pairs.

b. The material world and the human mind are separate.

c. Only by dividing objects into two parts can they be understood.

d. Human beings have both a human and an animal nature.


31. Pascal’s attitude toward the existence of God was that

a. God did not exist.

b. one gained nothing by mistakenly believing in God but stood to lose everything by mistakenly asserting that God did not exist.

c. it made no difference if God did or did not exist.

d. no one could ever prove the existence of God.


33. A powerful influence on the political thought of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke was the

a. writing of St. Thomas Aquinas.            b. collapse of manorialism in western Europe.

c. rise of a large laboring class.                 d. English civil war.


35. Grotius based his political theories on his belief in

a. original sin.        b. natural law.             c. divine right.             d. the social contract.


37. Hobbes based The Leviathan on the assumption that

a. humans are basically good.      

b. individuals act out of fear of death and the quest for power.

c. God controls human activity.

d. the world is run by chance.


39. Hobbes’s legacy to modern political thought was a theory of

a. self-government.           b. absolutism.              c. liberalism.                d. socialism.


41. Locke argued that the social contract

a. was an ironclad agreement that could not be broken.

b. was written to give all the power to the state.

c. was a gift from God.

d. could be broken if a ruler did not govern equitably.


43. When Locke argued that the mind at birth is tabula rasa, he meant that the mind is

a. already furnished with the germs of ideas.

b. empty, devoid of ideas.

c. ready to receive the ideas that God inspires.

d. muddled until internal reasoning can take over.


45. One of the major contributions that Fontenelle made was to

a. reinforce the stand of the Roman Catholic Church against early modern science.

b. push the political ideas of Bishop Bousset.

c. argue for limitations on information to the public.

d. explain to the public the findings of seventeenth-century science.


Chapter 17

2. The Enlightenment owed intellectual debts to all of the following EXCEPT

a. seventeenth-century revolutions in science and philosophy.

b. the secular values of the Greco-Roman world.

c. the humanism of the Renaissance.

d. the religious doctrines of Christianity.


4. The philosophes called for all of the following reforms EXCEPT

a. religious toleration.                    b. an expanded, independent educational system.

c. women’s suffrage.                     d. an end to bigotry.


6. Deism was based on

a. Adam Smith’s economic theory.           b. Isaac Newton’s model of the universe.

c. Mozart’s compositions for piano.          d. Leibniz’s philosophical writings.


8. The Encyclopédie was

a. a monumental work of seventeen text volumes and eleven books of illustrations.

b. sponsored by the French authorities.

c. edited by Voltaire.

d. dedicated to the high culture of the arts and humanities.


10. Who was the editor of the Encyclopédie?

a. Jean-Jacques Rousseau              b. Voltaire       c. Denis Diderot          d. Adam Smith


12. Engravers from which of the following nations trained a generation of artists in the mezzotint technique?

a. Spain                 b. France         c. Italy             d. the Netherlands


14. ________, as a limited monarchy, became the ideal model for many philosophes.

a. Great Britain                 b. France         c. Sweden                   d. Spain


16. The outstanding example of enlightened despotism in the Age of Reason was

a. Austria under Joseph II.                        b. Russia under Peter the Great.

c. France under Louis XVI.                      d. Great Britain under George I.


18. Watteau specialized in which subject?

a. domestic interiors          b. aristocratic entertainments              c. portraits       d. still lifes


20. Which was NOT a prominent design element in rococo interiors?

a. mirrors               b. chandeliers              c. religious images                   d. rocaille


22. Which technological innovation is associated with Hogarth’s art?

a. He was the pioneer of the lithography process.

b. He was the first artist to run off multiple engravings of his paintings.

c. He was the progenitor of drypoint.

d. He was the originator of prints in newspapers.


24. Of which painting style was Jacques-Louis David the primary exponent?

a. romanticism                   b. rococo         c. neoclassicism                       d. orphism


26. Neoclassical architecture relied on the ideals of

a. grandiosity and monumentality.                       b. architectural detail and Roman forms.

c. abstraction and nonrepresentation.                   d. airiness and lightness.


28. Rousseau’s democratic ideas reflected his origins as a citizen of the

a. nation-state of England.     b. world.       c. city-state of Geneva.     d. Holy Roman Empire.


30. Who of the following, considered an “enlightened despot,” was a pragmatic diplomat, a skilled military tactician, and a student of the Enlightenment and French culture who ruled Prussia and converted it into a leading European power?

a. Queen Anne      b. George III               c. Louis XV                d. Frederick II


32. Voltaire’s chief aim in Candide was to satirize the

a. philosophy of optimism.                        b. institution of monarchy.

c. practice of arranged marriages.             d. legal system of France.


34. Rousseau’s philosophy differed from that of Locke by asserting that

a. the state cannot give its citizens basic civil rights or a moral purpose.

b. human beings are born free and equal in nature.

c. the people are represented by the state through a legislature or parliament.

d. the people themselves collectively personify the state through the general will.


36. Eighteenth-century novelists generally wrote about

a. famous historical events.                       b. legends or fables.

c. ordinary people.                                    d. glamorous personages.


38. Fielding’s The History of Tom Jones is a

a. sentimental domestic drama.

b. robust comedy and adventure tale.

c. tragic situation brought on by fate.

d. legendary tale of a famous highwayman.


40. The music of Couperin is a perfect counterpart to the

a. paintings of David.                               b. poems of Alexander Pope.

c. art of Watteau.                                      d. architecture of Robert Adam.


42. All of the following were contributions by Mozart EXCEPT

a. new musical forms.       b. religious works.       c. instrumental music.             d. operas.


44. Which of the following musicians considered as demeaning his post as court musician in the service of the archbishop of Salzburg?

a. Franz Joseph Haydn                                          b. Philippe Rameau

c. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart                              d. François Couperin


Chapter 18

1. The period between 1760 and 1830 can be described as a time when

a. rural values were paramount.

b. there were few artistic achievements.

c. the middle class began to win power from the aristocracy.

d. peace reigned on the continent.


3. One of the major events that occurred at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the English cloth-making industry was

a. the creation of unions to protect the workers.

b. when Parliament passed laws to ensure minimum wages.

c. when factories were built in the villages near the workers.

d. the invention of the steam engine by James Watt.


5. Malthus’s argument about population held that

a. the future is inevitably brighter than the past.

b. wages inevitably fall behind prices.

c. population growth will inevitably outstrip food production, leading to natural calamities such as famines, plagues, and wars.

d. populations remain fairly stable in industrial states because of the widespread use of birth control measures.


7. The economic conclusions reached by Malthus and Ricardo

a. indicated that farmers were prospering under industrialism.

b. forecast a rise in the working-class standard of living.

c. asserted that the economy operated by chance.

d. offered rationales to justify the consequences of industrialization for the poor.


9. What was the major issue dividing England and her American colonies in 1776?

a. cultural differences                                                       b. class conflicts

c. taxes and the cost of upkeep of the colonies                d. the slave trade


11. After the American Revolution, the new nation’s leaders realized their democratic goals by

a. establishing universal voting rights for the entire population.

b. creating a written constitution with specific and enforceable laws.

c. placing political power in the hands of one branch of the government.

d. redistributing the land so that the poor would have a source of income.


13. The major accomplishment of the French Revolution’s first phase was the

a. end of the class system in France.

b. triumph of the workers.

c. creation of a limited constitutional monarchy.

d. right to vote being given to women citizens.


15. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen included the guarantee of

a. a job and base wage scale.

b. natural and civil rights.

c. freedom of travel throughout the French Empire.

d. the right to 20 acres of land given by the state to each farmer.


17. One major change in Europe between 1789 and 1815 was the

a. spread of French-style revolutions to many countries.

b. reorganization of conquered portions of Europe along the lines of France.

c. creation of government-sponsored industrial centers in western Europe.

d. rise of working-class rebellion across the continent.


19. Neoclassicism in literature continued in England after 1800 in the works of

a. John Constable.             b. William Wordsworth.         c. Lord Byron.            d. Jane Austen.


21. Which composer is most famous for perfecting the art song, or lied?

a. Ludwig van Beethoven             b. Franz Schubert        c. Hector Berlioz         d. Carl Linnaeus


23. The most profound influence on America’s classical heritage in architecture was exercised by

a. George Washington      b. Benjamin Franklin        c. Thomas Jefferson     d. James Madison


25. Romantic writers and artists expressed

a. an admiration for creative nonconformity.       b. a deep respect for the middle class.

c. a yearning to be part of the aristocracy.            d. a preference for the classical world.


27. Romantic nationalism was at first

a. an attempt to reduce the influence of folk culture.

b. a rejection of aristocratic culture.

c. little more than a reaction against foreign influences.

d. an aggressive attitude that insisted on the moral superiority of one people over all others.


29. Goethe’s novel entitled The Sorrows of Young Werther

a. opened an early phase of the romantic movement.

b. showed the working class realistically.

c. defended society’s rules and values.

d. showed how the mind can overcome the heart.


31. Wordsworth’s Lyrical Ballads

a. were written in a neoclassical style.

b. celebrate the joys and pleasures of ordinary life.

c. illustrate the alienation between humans and nature.

d. praise the benefits of the Industrial Revolution.


33. The major ways in which nature was represented in romantic painting were the

a. realistic and the abstract.

b. impression and the study.

c. exotic and the classical.

d. pastoral and the sublime.


35. In his paintings, Constable

a. tended to emphasize the human form.

b. painted “night scenes” in the manner of Caravaggio.

c. relied on Greek and Roman myths for subjects.

d. emphasized the play of sunlight


37. Which painter’s treatment of color anticipated that of the impressionists?

a. Turner                b. Ingres          c. Goya            d. Friedrich


39. In his paintings, Goya expressed

a. a nightmarish vision of the world.

b. a growing despair over the fate of his beloved Spanish homeland.

c. psychological insight into the subjects of his portraits.

d. All these answers are correct.


41. Géricault’s painting of The Raft of the Medusa portrayed the theme of the

a. breakdown of civilization.                    b. calmness of nature.

c. strength of sailing ships.                        d. forgiveness of God.


43. Delacroix’s Liberty Leading the People was inspired by the

a. Revolution of 1789.                              b. defeat of Napoleon in 1815.

c. July Revolution of 1830.                       d. restoration of the Bourbons in 1815.


45. Hegel’s ideas influenced which of the following groups?

a. democrats, who shared his views on the role of people in history

b. monarchists, who believed in the divine right of kings

c. atheists, who agreed with him that spiritual forces do not exist

d. Marxists, who borrowed his concept of the dialectic operating in history


Chapter 19

2. The basic principle of nineteenth-century liberalism was that

a. the individual should be free from external control.

b. wealth and power should be distributed fairly in society.

c. the state is a divine institution.

d. All these answers are correct


4. Who, with his personal army of “Red Shirts,” invaded and liberated the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies?

a. Giuseppe Mazzini                      b. Count Camillo Benso di Cavour

c. Otto von Bismarck                    d. Giuseppe Garibaldi


6. Who engineered the unification of Germany?

a. Cavour               b. Disraeli        c. Bismarck                 d. Metternich


8. The seeds of World War I were sown in part by

a. the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869.

b. Britain’s introduction of free trade in 1846.

c. Prussia’s humiliating defeat of France in 1870–1871.

d. the unification of Italy in 1871.



10. Bentham believed that society should be based on “utility,” meaning

a. natural rights.                b. “the greatest happiness for the greatest number.”

c. God’s law.                     d. tradition.


12. Utopian socialists generally

a. supported the bourgeois values of thrift and hard work as ways for workers to improve their condition.

b. urged reform of the ills of industrial society based on discoveries about society made in communal associations.

c. advocated the violent overthrow of existing governments.

d. agreed with liberal principles.


14. What set evangelicals apart from liberal Protestants?

a. their insistence on the paramount authority of the Holy Scriptures

b. their adoption of many Deist ideas

c. their emphasis on ritual and sacraments

d. their opposition to the holiness movement


16. Which of the following scientific advancements did NOT occur between 1830 and 1871?

a. Data were collected showing that modern plants and animals had evolved from simpler forms through a process of natural selection.

b. The germ theory of disease was established.

c. The interior structure of the atom was fully mapped out.

d. Chloroform and other anesthetics were introduced.


18. In science, Pasteur

a. established the germ theory of disease.

b. marshaled data to support the theory of evolution.

c. introduced the anesthetic called chloroform.

d. formulated the periodic table of the elements.


20. French art in the Age of the Bourgeoisie was

a. dominated by an avant garde.

b. subject to pressures from official state institutions.

c. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.

d. a product of what the aristocrats dictated at the royal courts.


22. Romantic novelists concentrated on

a. scientific accuracy.

b. ordinary people without idealizing them.

c. the emotions of their characters.

d. the social and economic forces that determined the lives of their characters.


24. Which nineteenth-century writer helped inspire Martin Luther King Jr.’s protest marches?

a. Emily Dickinson     b. Walt Whitman      c. Henry David Thoreau      d. George Sand



26. England’s most popular writer of realist fiction was

a. Charlotte Brontë.          b. Charles Dickens.     c. George Eliot.           d. Elizabeth Gaskell.


28. Flaubert, in his Madame Bovary, made his heroine a(n)

a. ideal wife for other women to emulate.

b. woman caught up in her unrealistic dreams.

c. symbol of the corruption of French politics.

d. innocent victim of a cruel class-conscious society.


30. ________ emerged in the period immediately before the American Civil War.

a. Science fiction               b. The utopian novel        c. The slave narrative         d. The thriller


32. Who delivered the famous “Ain’t I a Woman?” speech?

a. Sojourner Truth             b. Emily Dickinson        c. George Sand        d. Charlotte Brontë


34. All of these are products of the romantic style EXCEPT

a. Ingres’s The Turkish Bath.

b. Delacroix’s Hamlet and Horatio in the Graveyard.

c. Barry and Pugin’s Houses of Parliament, London.

d. Verdi’s Rigoletto.


36. The artist most identified with militant realism in painting is

a. Delacroix.          b. Ingres.         c. Courbet.                  d. Manet.


38. The key element in Daumier’s approach to painting was

a. a love of exotic scenes.             b. a fascination with fiery action.

c. his satirical eye.                         d. a feeling for the geometry underlying nature.


40. Rosa Bonheur was

a. a romantic landscape artist who offered escapism for the French middle class.

b. an artist whose neoclassical style was favored by Napoleon III.

c. the daughter of a famous French painter who capitalized on her father’s name.

d. a member of the realist school who was influenced by science.


42. Romantic music was in part characterized by the

a. movement toward abstract composition.

b. abandonment of classical forms of music.

c. use of folk songs and ethnic dance rhythms.

d. trend toward atonality.


44. Who wrote under the pen name George Eliot?

a. Elizabeth Gaskell         b. Mary Ann Evans             c. George Sand     d. Emily Dickenson