Study Guide Second Exam

CH 202 Second Exam Fall 2014


Place the letter of the MOSTY CORRECT answer in the blank.


1. ___ The “crisis of the European conscience” that affected some European thinkers in the late seventeenth century meant that they

a. no longer believed in God.

b. had given up hope about the future of the world.

c. had come to the conclusion that the truth lay in divine revelation.

d. were slowly moving from traditional ideas to modern views.


2. ___ A central characteristic of medieval science was that it

a. rejected Muslim findings as a way to understand the physical world.

b. argued that on earth, matter was incorruptible and no change occurred in matter.

c. maintained that the sun was the center of the universe.

d. identified Aristotle’s Unmoved Mover with God.


3. ___  Which of the following is a correct statement about the Scientific Revolution?

a. Late medieval technology had little impact on the new learning.

b. Early modern scientists built on the work of medieval thinkers.

c. Most of the new discoveries were done within the context of the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic system.

d. Mathematics played a minor role in the discoveries.


4. ___ Copernicus’s explanation of the universe can be described as a

a. brand-new idea.

b. revival of an ancient Greek theory.

c. system compatible with medieval Christian theology.

d. revival of an ancient Babylonian theory.


5. ___ Galileo’s celestial observations proved that

a. the moon looked the same through a telescope as to the naked eye.

b. Jupiter has moons, or satellites.

c. Aristotle’s calculations were essentially correct

d. the universe was about the size of Ptolemy’s figures.


6.  ___  Bayle’s Historical and Critical Dictionary can be described as

a. a book that supported prevailing institutions and traditions.

b. a work that attacked the findings of the Scientific Revolution.

c. the last book to reflect medieval thought.

d.      a new form of book in which ideas were arranged in systematic form.

7. ___ Pascal’s attitude toward the existence of God was that

a. God did not exist.

b. one gained nothing by mistakenly believing in God but stood to lose everything by mistakenly asserting that God did not exist.

c. it made no difference if God did or did not exist.

d. no one could ever prove the existence of God.


8. ___ Hobbes based The Leviathan on the assumption that

a. humans are basically good.       

b. individuals act out of fear of death and the quest for power.

c. God controls human activity.

d. the world is run by chance.


9. ___ Locke argued that the social contract

a. was an ironclad agreement that could not be broken.

b. was written to give all the power to the state.

c. was a gift from God.

d. could be broken if a ruler did not govern equitably.


10. ___ When Locke argued that the mind at birth is tabula rasa, he meant that the mind is

a. already furnished with the germs of ideas.

b. empty, devoid of ideas.

c. ready to receive the ideas that God inspires.

d. muddled until internal reasoning can take over.


11. ___ The philosophes called for all of the following reforms EXCEPT

a. religious toleration.                   

b. an expanded, independent educational system.

c. women’s suffrage.                    

d. an end to bigotry.


12. ___The Encyclopédie was

a. a monumental work of seventeen text volumes and eleven books of illustrations.

b. sponsored by the French authorities.

c. edited by Voltaire.

d. dedicated to the high culture of the arts and humanities.


13. ___ ________, as a limited monarchy, became the ideal model for many philosophes.

a. Great Britain                 

b. France  

c. Sweden             

d. Spain


14. ___ Watteau specialized in which subject?

a. domestic interiors          

b. aristocratic entertainments                    

c. portraits

d. still lifes


15. ___ Of which painting style was Jacques-Louis David the primary exponent?

a. romanticism                  

b. rococo  

c. neoclassicism                

d. orphism


16. ___  Rousseau’s democratic ideas reflected his origins as a citizen of the

a. nation-state of England.    

b. world.      

c. city-state of Geneva.    

d. Holy Roman Empire.


17. ___ Voltaire’s chief aim in Candide was to satirize the

a. philosophy of optimism.                       

b. institution of monarchy.

c. practice of arranged marriages.             

d. legal system of France.


18. ___ Rousseau’s philosophy differed from that of Locke by asserting that

a. the state cannot give its citizens basic civil rights or a moral purpose.

b. human beings are born free and equal in nature.

c. the people are represented by the state through a legislature or parliament.

d. the people themselves collectively personify the state through the general will.


19. ___The music of Couperin is a perfect counterpart to the

a. paintings of David.                               

b. poems of Alexander Pope.

c. art of Watteau.                                      

d. architecture of Robert Adam.


20. ___ Which of the following musicians considered as demeaning his post as court musician in the service of the archbishop of Salzburg?

a. Franz Joseph Haydn                                         

b. Philippe Rameau

c. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart                              

d. François Couperin


21. ___The period between 1760 and 1830 can be described as a time when

a. rural values were paramount.                                                    

b. there were few artistic achievements.

c. the middle class began to win power from the aristocracy.       

d. peace reigned on the continent.


22. ___ Malthus’s argument about population held that

a. the future is inevitably brighter than the past.

b. wages inevitably fall behind prices.

c. population growth will inevitably outstrip food production, leading to natural calamities such as famines, plagues, and wars.

d. populations remain fairly stable in industrial states because of the widespread use of birth control measures.



23. ___ What was the major issue dividing England and her American colonies in 1776?

a. cultural differences                                                       

b. class conflicts

c. taxes and the cost of upkeep of the colonies.    

      d. the slave trade


24. ___  The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen included the guarantee of

a. a job and base wage scale.        

b. natural and civil rights.             

c. freedom of travel throughout the French Empire

d. the right to 20 acres of land given by the state to each farmer.


25. ___  Neoclassicism in literature continued in England after 1800 in the works of

a. John Constable.            

b. William Wordsworth.   

c. Lord Byron.                  

d. Jane Austen.


26. ___ The most profound influence on America’s classical heritage in architecture was exercised by

a. George Washington      

b. Benjamin Franklin             

c. Thomas Jefferson    

d. James Madison


27. ___ Romantic nationalism was at first

a. an attempt to reduce the influence of folk culture.

b. a rejection of aristocratic culture.

c. little more than a reaction against foreign influences.

d.      an aggressive attitude that insisted on the moral superiority of one people over all others.



28. ___  Wordsworth’s Lyrical Ballads

a. were written in a neoclassical style.

b. celebrate the joys and pleasures of ordinary life.

c. illustrate the alienation between humans and nature.

d. praise the benefits of the Industrial Revolution.


29. ___ Which painter’s treatment of color anticipated that of the impressionists?

a. Turner               

b. Ingres   

c. Goya     

d. Friedrich


30. ___ Hegel’s ideas influenced which of the following groups?

a. democrats, who shared his views on the role of people in history

b. monarchists, who believed in the divine right of kings

c. atheists, who agreed with him that spiritual forces do not exist

d. Marxists, who borrowed his concept of the dialectic operating in history


31. ___ Who, with his personal army of “Red Shirts,” invaded and liberated the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies?

a. Giuseppe Mazzini                     

b. Count Camillo Benso di Cavour

c  Otto von Bismarck                   

d. Giuseppe Garibaldi


32. ___ The seeds of World War I were sown in part by

a. the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869.                        

b. Britain’s introduction of free trade in 1846.

c. Prussia’s humiliating defeat of France in 1870–1871.

d. the unification of Italy in 1871.


33. ___ What set evangelicals apart from liberal Protestants?

a. their insistence on the paramount authority of the Holy Scriptures

b. their adoption of many Deist ideas

c. their emphasis on ritual and sacraments

d. their opposition to the holiness movement


34. ___  French art in the Age of the Bourgeoisie was

a. dominated by an avant garde.

b. subject to pressures from official state institutions.

c. under the influence of the Roman Catholic Church.

d. a product of what the aristocrats dictated at the royal courts.


35. ___ Which nineteenth-century writer helped inspire Martin Luther King Jr.’s protest marches?

a. Emily Dickinson    

b. Walt Whitman     

c. Henry David Thoreau  

d. George Sand


36. ___ Flaubert, in his Madame Bovary, made his heroine a(n)

a. ideal wife for other women to emulate.

b. woman caught up in her unrealistic dreams.

c. symbol of the corruption of French politics.

d.      innocent victim of a cruel class-conscious society.



37. ___ Who delivered the famous “Ain’t I a Woman?” speech?

a. Sojourner Truth            

b. Emily Dickinson             

c. George Sand     

d. Charlotte Brontë


38. ___ All of these are products of the romantic style EXCEPT

 a. Ingres’s The Turkish Bath.

b. Delacroix’s Hamlet and Horatio in the Graveyard.

c. Barry and Pugin’s Houses of Parliament, London.

d. Verdi’s Rigoletto.


39. ___The key element in Daumier’s approach to painting was

a. a love of exotic scenes.             

b. a fascination with fiery action.

c. his satirical eye.                        

d. a feeling for the geometry underlying nature.


40. ___Romantic music was in part characterized by the

a. movement toward abstract composition.                       

b. abandonment of classical forms of music.

c. use of folk songs and ethnic dance rhythms.                

d. trend toward atonality.


From the Lectures


41. ___ Which of the following was NOT a characteristic of the Enlightenment?

            a. A belief in natural laws

            b. Test everything through observation.

            c. A belief in direct democracy

            d. A belief in rationalism.


42. ___ Which of the following best describes the thinking of most Enlightenment philosophes about

             Human nature?

a.      Very optimistic

b.      Somewhat optimistic

c.        Somewhat pessimistic

d.       Very pessimistic


43. ___ He felt, that if left to their own devices, man would descend into a violent “state of nature”.

            a. Hobbes

            b. Voltaire

            c. Locke

            d. Rousseau

            e. Montesquieu


44. ___ He taught that man was born with a “blank slate” that was filled by his experiences.

a. Hobbes

            b. Voltaire

            c. Locke

            d. Rousseau

            e. Montesquieu


45. ___ Hobbes believed that , in the unwritten contract between the ruler and the ruled, the

             People are guaranteed which of the following?

a.      Freedom of religion

b.      Protection

c.       Freedom of speech

d.      The right to vote


46. ___ Locke believed, in the unwritten contract between the ruler and the ruled, the

             People are guaranteed which of the follow ng rights?

a.      Life

b.      The right to own property

c.       Protection

d.      The right to enjoy liberty

e.      All of the above


47. ___ Which of the following believed that, in the event of a corrupt ruler, the people had the right to

             Overthrow that ruler?

a.      Hobbes

b.       Erasmus

c.       Locke

d.      Diderot


48. ___ In Candide, Voltaire put forth this philosophy.

            a. If you strike a king, you must kill him.

            b. Prophets are seldom understood in their own time.

            c. Rulers must do what is best for the majority.

            d. Everyone must tend his own garden.


49. ___ His ideas were a direct challenge to the power of the Old Regime, yet, ironically, many modern

             Historians view him as the “father of modern totalitarianism”.

a.      Montesquieu

b.      Rousseau

c.       Locke

d.      Voltaire


50. ___ Most of the unrest in France in the mid-to-late 18th century came from the

            a. nobles

            b. bourgeoisie

            c. clergy

            d. peasants


51. ___ When warned that his policies would bring disaster to France, Louis XIV’s response was

            a. It will last my lifetime.  After me, the deluge.

            b. to call a meeting of the Estates General

            c. to end the tax privileges of the nobles and clergy.

            d. to call the first meeting of the Great Council in over 175 years.


52. ___ Why did discontent in France boil over in the mid-to-lat 1700’s?

            a. France lost the Seven Years War

            b. The unrest of the middle class

            c. economic difficulties

            d. (a & c)

            e. (b & c)


53. ___ The tipping point for Louis XVI was when

            a. France lost the French and Indian War

            b. the bankers of France announced that they would extend no more credit to the government.

            c. Austrian troops invaded France.

            d. the Pope withdrew his support of the King.


54. --- Louis XVI’s response to the answer to the previous question was to

            a. resign the throne.

            b. call a meeting of the Estates General.

            c. go on as before, hoping things would get better.

            d. declare martial law in France.


55. ___ Many historians call this the first act of the French Revoluton.

            a. The calling of the Estates General

            b. The issuing of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen.

            d. The delegates representing the Third Estate declaring themselves to be the National Assembly.


56. ___ Which of the following set forth the guiding principles of the French Revolution?

            a. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

            b. The Law of the 4th of August

            c. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy.

            d. The Constitution of 1791


57. ___ In this, the nobles surprisingly surrendered their special privileges.

a. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen

            b. The Law of the 4th of August

            c. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy.

            d. The Preamble to the Constitution of 1791


58. ___ Which of the following was NOT a leader of the Reign of Terror?

            a. Montesquieu

            b. Marat

            c. Danton

            d. Robespierre

            e. They were all leaders of the Reign of Terror.


59. ___ Napoleon’s invasion of this nation led to his eventual downfall.

            a. Italy

            b. Spain

            c. Britain

            d. Russia

            e. None of the above


60. ___ Which of the following was unleashed upon Europe by the French Revolution?

            a. nationalism

            b. imperialism

            c. totalitarianism

            d. total war

            e. ( a & d)


61. ___ Which of the following was NOT one of the four great powers who defeated Napoleon?

            a. Austria

            b. Britain

            c. Spain

            d. Russia

            e. Prussia


62. ___ He dominated the Congress of Vienna and the immediate period after in Europe.

            a. Metternich

            b. Napoleon

            c. Talleyrand

            d. Lord Castlereigh


63. ___ Which of the follow6ng guided the leaders at the Congress of Vienna?

            a. legitimacy

            b. balance if power

            c. revenge

d. imperialism

e. (a & b)


64. ___ One who wants to take things back to the way they were before changes were made

             Is called a

a.      Radical

b.      Liberal

c.       Conservative

d.      Reactionary


65. ___ One who wants to maintain the status quo is called a

            a. radical

            b. liberal

            c. conservative

            d. reactionary


66. ___ He is one of the founders of conservatism as a political ideology.

            a. Aristotle

            b. Bentham

            c. Malthus

            d. Mill


67. --- The man who was the answer to the previous question taught that government should

             Be anchored in

a.      Aristocracy.

b.      Tradition

c.       Liberal values

d.      Natural rights


68. ___ Which of the following could NOT be said of nationalism?

            a. Early nationalism tended to be liberal

            b. Nationalism had usually evolved from a feeling of cultural unity.

            c. Metternich was a staunch supporter of nationalism.

            d. Napoleon unwittingly advanced nationalism in Europe.

            e. (a & c)


69. ___ Which of the following was/were tenets of early liberalism in Europe?

            a. It was anchored in tradition.

            b. It called for strict government regulation of the economy.

            c. Freedom of the individual

            d. The inevitable corruption of authority

            e. (c & d)


70. ___ He wrote that all ideas had the right to be presented in the public marketplace.

            a. Locke

            b. Burke

            c. Benthan

            d, Mill


71. ___ He wrote that the economy os governed by the Laws of Supply and Demand and of Competition.

            a. Smith

            b. Mill

            c. Malthus

            d. Burke


72. ___ He wrote that population would always expand to exceed the food supply.

            a. Smith

            b. Malthus

            c. Ricardo

            d. Mill


73. ___ He formulated the “Iron Law of Wages”

            a. Smith

            b. Malthus

            c. Ricardo

            d. Bentham


74. ___ In what way was American literature heped by the War of 1812?

            a. The war provided a great source of stories for American authors.

            b. Americans felt good about themselves and wanted to read stories about America.

            c. The economic boom following the war gave most Americans a boost in disposable income.

            d. The acquisition of so much new territory provided American authors with much more

            material for their stories.


75. ___ He was the first American novelist to gain fame in Europe

            a. Thoreau

            b. Poe

            c. Melville

            d. Cooper


76. ___ Which of the following was a technique of Transcendentalism?

            a. All knowledge comes to the mind through the senses.

            b. Logic must be the basis for all human progress.

            c. Each person has an “Inner Light”.

            d. True peace comes from observing the world around each person.


77. ___ His masterpiece was not appreciated until the 20th century.

            a. Melville

            b. Poe

            c. Cooper

            d. Wordsworth


78. ___ His teachings on nonviolent disobedience inspired Dr. King.

            a. Thoreau

            b. Emerson

            c. West

            d. Poe


79. ___ His writings reflected his alcoholic nightmares

            a. Thoreau

            b. Emerson

            c. West

            d. Poe


80. ___ He may have invented the modern detective novel.

            a. Cooper

            b. Poe

            c. Irving

            d. Melville