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Ag Economics


Agricultural Economics

Standards and Benchmarks



Standard I:    Understand problem-solving, analysis, and decision-making in agriculture.


Analyze situation, use problem-solving approach and make appropriate decisions.


1.   Identify the three components of management.

2.   Explain the relationship of land, labor, and capital to management.

3.   Describe the types of record-keeping systems used in agriculture.

4.   Analyze marketing and pricing alternatives for agricultural commodities.

5.   Interpret charts, graphs, and maps to make specific decisions related to business.




Standard II: Understand leadership and ethics development in agriculture.


Apply principles of leadership and ethical behavior to selected situations in agriculture.


1.   Delegate duties.

2.   Manage conflict (personal and customer).

3.   Facilitate group interaction (teamwork).

4.   Take responsibility for mistakes and/or good work.

5.   Become personally involved in professional or organizations.

6.   Recognize relevant, ethical issues in business




Standard III: Understand the concept of cooperation and community service/ teamwork.


Demonstrate cooperation and teamwork skills.


1.   Explain the relationship between public and private sectors.

2.   Maintain clean and orderly work area.

3.   Cooperate with others.

4.   Respect the property of others.

5.   Exhibit dependability responsibility on the job.

6.   Demonstrate punctuality.

7.   Ask for help when needed.

8.   Comply with safety and health rules.

9.   Accept supervision willingly.

10. Follow directions.

11. Work effectively with others.

12. Develop positive community relations.





Standard IV: Understand the use of entrepreneurial knowledge and skills in agriculture.


Apply the principles of entrepreneurship in an agricultural experiential learning experience.


1.   Analyze business organizations.

2.   Identify skills required of a business owner.

3.   Identify the personal characteristics of entrepreneurs.

4.   Analyze the contents of a business plan.

5.   Recognize the importance of technical assistance.

6.   Explain types of business ownership.

7.   Identify factors in obtaining finances for a new business.

8.   Demonstrate the ability of market analysis.

9.   Identify the four types of agricultural business organizations.

10. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of the four types of agricultural business.

11. Explain the concept of competition.

12. Explain the concept of profit.


Standard V: Understand the use of communication skills in agriculture – interpersonal

                         and group; written and oral.


Use appropriate communication skills in a variety of occupational situations in agriculture.


1.   Identify factors that are important to human relations in agribusiness.

2.   Identify sources of marketing information.

3.   Demonstrate proper telephone answering skills.

4.   Demonstrate proper telephone etiquette.

5.   Interact with others in a courteous and tactful manner.

6.   Organize thoughts and clearly express point of view.

7.   Organize thoughts and write clearly.

8.   Lead a discussion.

9.   Listen effectively.

10. Speak effectively in front of others.


Standard VI: Understand the principles of goal setting - personal and organizational.


Explain the goal setting process.


1.   Define goals.

2.   Compose a resume.

3.   Manage time effectively.

4.   Follow rules and regulations.

5.   Demonstrate initiative.

6.   Construct an application.

7.   Utilize time effectively.


Standard VII: Understand the principles of planning.


Apply planning strategies in agriculture sales and service businesses and organizations.


1.   Identify skills, physical and emotional - requirements for a job.

2.   Complete required forms.

3.   Produce quality work.

4.   Work within guidelines.

5.   Prioritize a series of tasks.             (Standard VII: Understand the principles of planning cont.)

6.   Organize an event.



Standard VIII: Understand the concept of adapting to change in agriculture.


Develop strategies to effectively adapt to new situations and rapid changes in agriculture.


1.   Accept new challenges.

2.   Adapt to change/demonstrate flexibility.

3.   Adapt to environment/situation.



Standard IX: Understand global and cultural diversity issues.


Demonstrate a working knowledge of the relationship between global/cultural diversity and occupational success in agriculture.


1.   Determine the impact of biotechnology on world food production systems.

2.   Identify the monetary systems of selected countries and their impact on the United States.

3.   Explain the impact of government policy on the production and marketing of various commodities.

4.   Explain the nature of international trade.

5.   Determine the political role of governments and their impact on food production.

6.   Compare the differences between measurement systems in the United States and the world.

7.   Accept individual differences.



Standard X: Understand basic computational and informational technology.


Apply computational and informational technologies to analyze and solve mathematical problems.


1.   Calculate a least-cost ratio.

2.   Use the metric system to calculate specific weights and measurement.

3.   Calculate the amount of fertilizer and/or chemicals needed for a specific task or recommendation.

4.   Calibrate fertilizer and chemical equipment.

5.   Calculate finance charges.

6.   Operate office equipment.

7.   Utilize a data-base, word-processing, and spreadsheet program.

8.   Calculate margins and discounts for agricultural supplies.

9.   Show awareness of various forms of electronic communication: e-mail, ftp, Worldwide Web.

10. Describe basic hardware components.

11. Use the following hardware components: keyboard, mouse, disk drive, monitor.

12. Recognize what the operating system of a computer is.

13. Use an operating system to: open or chose programs, list files or program and file management.


Standard XI: Understand the concept of career development and improvement – lifelong



Develop strategies to make a successful transition from school to work.


1.   Identify agricultural career opportunities in management, sales and service.

2.   Demonstrate personal hygiene and cleanliness.

3.   Evaluate a job offer, benefits, time, and working environment.

Standard XII: Understand basic technical skills and knowledge in the occupational area

                          of agricultural business, supply and service.


Apply technical skills in a hands-on experiential setting in agriculture.


1.   List the steps used in purchasing fixed and variable assets in a business.

2.   Analyze the common types of financial and legal agreements used in agriculture.

3.   Identify resources for technical assistance.

4.   Identify governmental regulatory agencies related to agribusiness.

5.   Identify current government programs that support agricultural business.

6.   Determine the types of insurance available for both personal and business needs.

7.   Complete a cash flow projection worksheet.

8.   Identify types of credit.

9.   Determine available credit resources.

10. Develop a process for accurately determining business inventory.

11. Utilize accounting procedures to record cash receipts and expenditures.

12. Develop a balance sheet for business.

13. Complete a net worth statement.

14. Identify appropriate financial ratios.

15. Explain the different types of budgets used in business.

16. Prepare an enterprise budget.

17. Identify variable cost.

18. Explain fixed cost.

19. Utilize equipment correctly as shown/demonstrated by supervisor.

20. Perform routine maintenance on agricultural equipment using service manual schedules.

21. Identify different production techniques and their effect on the environment.

22. Perform plant propagation using sexual, asexual or tissue culture techniques.

23. Demonstrate the proper procedure for planting trees and shrubs.

24. Explain how the selection of hybrid and certified seed affects performance and profitability.

25. Explain the principles of plant breeding.

26. Identify the different types of discounts used in agricultural sales to increase sales.

27. Make change correctly.

28. Differentiate between marketing, pricing, and grading standards for agricultural commodities.

29. List the purposes of governmental farm agencies.

30. Develop a process for ordering and receiving goods based on inventory needs.

31. Generate periodic billing statements.

32. Explain factors in pricing agricultural merchandising.

33. Balance daily cash receipts.

34. Balance monthly bank statements.

35. Analyze the concept of supply and demand.

36. Explain the concept of organized labor and business.

37. Explain the concept of business cycles.

38. Demonstrate the principles of effective selling.

39. List the methods used to advertise an agricultural product.

40. Explain the developmental process used to prepare an appropriate advertisement.

41. Write a sales ticket.