Minerals of India


India’s future ‘Energy Vision’

“To reliably meet the demand for energy services of all sectors including the vulnerable households in all parts of the country with safe, clean & convenient energy at the least cost in technically efficient, economically viable and ecologically viable and sustainable ways considering different fuels and forms of energy, both conventional and non-conventional as well as new technologies and emerging energy sources."

•Coal, Petroleum, water, nuclear products etc constitute – main power resources
•South Asia – sufficient in coal, poor in petroleum
•Sufficient water in rivers and otherwise which ahs been successfully utilized for power generation
•Coal is used for generation of electric energy to maximum possible extent


Coal is valuable if used right…

C Convenient

O Obtainable

A Abundant

 Low cost

Clean Coal Technologies provide solutions to control EMISSIONS

Abundance of coal resources compared to oil and gas
--Indian energy supply largely dependent on coal
Coal contributes to about 55% of the commercial energy
consumption as compared to 27% world average
India is the 3rd largest coal producing country.
More than 65% of electricity generation capacities are
coal based.
Surging oil and international coal prices compels co
al Industry to play key role for energy security of the country.

Important source of power in south Asia
•Used in generation of electric power in thermal plants, in industries, in railways for locomotion and also for domestic purposes.
•Important raw material for various industries
•India and Pakistan – main producers


•India’s coal is mainly associated with Gondwana series of rocks and is primarily found in peninsular India.
•About 2% Indian coal is of new (tertiary)type and is found in Assam, Jammu and Kashmir

•Gondwana coal is mainly found in Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, in various river valleys such as Damodar-Jharia, Bokaro, North and South Karanpura, Daltonganj, Giridih, all in Bihar and Raniganj in West Bengal;
•Son Valley – Simiroklli, Umeria, Tatapani, Sohagpur, Jhilmili, Chirmiri in Madhya Pradesh
•Mahanadi Valley – Cobra, Sonhat, Talcher, Raigarh and Sambalpur
•Godavari Vardha Valley – Singharani, Tandur, Kothagudam, in Andhra Pradesh
•Panch Valley and Ballarpur in Maharashtra
•Tertiary coal is found in Namchak and Nakum in Assam
•Kalakot, Metka and Ladda in Jammu and Kashmir
•Lignite Coal is mined in Neyveli in south Arcot district of Tamil Nadu
•Also export to neighbouring countries 


a. Which is the best quality of coal? Name two states of India where it is found.
Anthracite is the best variety of coal. It is found in Jammu and Kashmir.

b. Why is it called black gold? Name one state where it is found in India (3)
It is called black gold because of its high utility as a source of energy and as a raw material for a large
number of Industries.
State: Jharkhand, West Bengal, Orissa, M.P., Chhatisgarh and Andhra Pradesh

c. Name the four types of coal. Which is the best for industrial purposes? Justify your answer. (3)
Anthracite – (90% carbon) : It is jet black in colour and burns slowly without smoke or soot. It is clean to handle and has a high heating value.
Bituminous coal (50-80% carbon) : Coke required for smelting of iron ore is derived from bituminous coal.
Lignite (40% carbon) : It is brown or brownish in colour. It has large quantities of ash and
moisture. Its by-products can funish several materials for industries.
Peat - It is considered to be inferior to other three varieties due to least carbon content.
Anthracite coal is the best for industrial purpose because it has high heating value and burns without smoke..

d. How the India coal field have been classified? Mention any three features of Gondwana coal fields of India. (3)
The India coal fields have been classified as : i) Gondwana coal fields ii) Tertiary coal fields.
* It accounts for about 98% of the total reserve and 99% of the total coal production in
· These coal fields occur mostly in the river valleys such as Damodar, Mahanadi, Godavari, and Narmada
· The Gondwana coal is a luminated bituminous coal within which dull and bright layers alternate..
· It is about 250 million years old.
· Gondwana coal is almost free from moisture but it contains variable quantities of sulphur and phosphorous. In general, Gondwana coal is good steam or gas coal.

e. Give India’s ranking in the world after China and USA in production of coal. Which state produces the most coal? Also name the main coal fields of this state.
India ranks third in the world after China and USA in production of coal.
The main coal fields are Jharia, Bokaro, Karanpura, Ramgarh and Girdih

f. Mention any two uses of coal.
* Manufacturing or iron and Steel & variety of chemicals depend upon the availability of coal.
* It is used for power generation.

g. Name any four Indian states where coal is found. (3)
Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh

h. Distinguish between Gondwana and tertiary coalfields.
1. It accounts for 98% of the total reserves and 99% of the total coal production in India.

1. It has very less reserves.
2. These are 250 million years old.
2. These are 15 to 60 million years old.
3. These coal mines provide superior quality coal.
3. These provide inferior coal.
4. less moisture compared to Tertiary coal.
4. higher moisture content and more sulphur.

i. State two main draw backs of the coal found in India. (2)
* The distribution of coal is unevern. This involves high transport cost to carry heavy commodity
like coal over long distances.
* Indian coal has high ash content and low calorific value.
* The coal seams are too thin (0.5m thick only) to allow modern machinery to work on them.
* Obsolete methods of mining, in most of the coal mines, reduces the total output.

j. What are the four varieties of coal? (3)
a) Anthracite (90% carbon) b) Bituminous (50-80% carbon) c) Lignite (40% carbon)

k.) Name an important coal producing state in India and a coal-mine located in that state.
The important coal producing state in India are :
i) Jharkhand - important mines are Jharia, Bokaro, Giridih
ii) Orissa – important mines ae Dhenkanal, Sambalpur, Sundargarh

l) Classify the Coal-fields in India. Name one State for each classification. (2)
GONDWANA COAL FIELS : i) Jharkhand – Jharia
ii) Bihar – Chandrapura
iii) West Bengal – Raniganj
iv) Chhattisgarh – Korba

TERTIARY COAL FIELDS : i) Assam – Nazira
ii) Rajasthan – Palna

m. Name an important coal producing state in India and a coal-mine located in that state.(2)
The important coal producing state in India are:
i) Jharkhand – important mines are Jharia, Bokaro and Giridih
ii) Orissa – Dhenkanal, Sambalpur, Sundargarh are important coal mines.

n. i) Which quality of coal is best for industrial purposes? - Anthracite

ii) Name a region of India where coal is found? - Gondwana coal fields, Jammu and Kashmir

iii) Which is the most popular coal for commercial use? - Bituminous

iv) Which is the largest producer of coal in South Asia? - India

v) Which is the poorest quality of coal? - Peat is the poorest quality of coal. Bihar

vi) Which are the two richest and oldest coalfields of India? - Jharia and Raniganj. They are in Bihar

vii) Which state is the largest producer of coal? - Jharkhand state

viii) Which state is major producer of Anhracite and Bituminous? - Anthracite – Jammu and Kashmir
Bituminous – Jharkhand and Orissa
ix. Name the largest coalfield in India - Lower Gondwana coalfield is the largest coalfield

o. Name the states where Gondwana coal is found.
Jharkhand, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashrtra, Andhra Pradesh

p. Name the main coal fields in the states of West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh.
Jharkhand - Jharia, Bokaro, giridih
West Bengal –Raniganj
Orissa - Raigarh, Talcher, Sonhat and Sambhalpur, Sundargarh, Dhenkanal
Andhra Pradesh – Singhareni, Kothagudem and Tandur
Maharashtra – Umrer, Kamptee and Wardha
Madhya radish – Chindwara and Singrauli

q. Name the states which tertiary coal fields are found.
Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir

r. Which state has maximum deposits of tertiary coal?
Tamil Nadu

t. Why are tertiary coal fields considered inferior? Name two states, one from North India and one from South India having such reserves.
Such reserves have a less carbon content since they are new and young.
North – Riasi/Lakhimpur
South – Neyveli

u. What is lignite? Name one place in India where it is mined.
Lignite is a brown coal with high moisture and low carbon content.
Tamil Nadu - Neyveli

v. Name two states with large deposits of coal. Name the coalfields in the states that you have named.
West Bengal – Raniganj Jharkhand – Jaria

9.a. What are the advantages of the anthracite coal?
It has a carbon content of 90 percent and burns slowly without smoke. it burns for a long time and leaves very little ash behind.

b. Which type of coal has the maximum carbon contents? Which coal variety has the least carbon contents? Which type of coal is used for smelting iron-ore? Which type of coal has a large quantities of ash and moisture?
* Maximum carbon contents - Anthracite (more than 80 % carbon)
* Least carbon content - Peat
* used for smelting iron-ore - Bituminous
* coal that has large quantities of moisture and ash - Lignite

c. Which is the most important source of power in India? - Coal

d. ‘Coal plays major role in the industrialization process”. Justify the statement by giving two examples.
* It is the main source of energy. More than 60% of commercial energy is obtained from coal.
* It is used as basic input in iron and steel industry.

e. Name any four major centres of coal mining in South India.
# Adilabad # Karimnagar # Warrangal # Khamman

f. Name two centres of coal mining of the following states: West Bengal and Maharashtra
WEST BENGAL – Raniganj and Daling Kot
MAHARASHTRA – Kamptee and Wardha Valley

g. Which varierty of coal is used for the production of coke and gas ? Name a state of India where it is found.
Bituminous is used for the production of coke and gas. It is found in Bihar, Orissa and West Bengal

h. How coal is powerful power resource?
Coal is used in generation of electric power in thermal plants. In railways, coal is used for locomotion. It is most important raw material for various industries. In this way, it is powerful power resources.

i. Describe in detail coal under the following heads: i) Distribution of coal in India
ii) Demerits of Indian coal (any two) iii) Need of conservation of coal.
i. Nearly three fourth of the coal deposits are located in the Damodar river valley. The places are
Raniganj, Jharia, Giridih, Bokaro and Karanpura
The other river valleys associated with coal deposits are the Godavari, Mahaadi, Son, and Wardha.
The coal fiels of Singreni in Andhra Pradesh, Talcher in Orissa and Chanda in Maharashtra are also
very famous.

* The quality of coal required for producing coke as an essential input in steel industry is deficient.
* the Indian coal has high ash content and low carorific value.

· Because it is a non-renewable resource.
· It is backbone of industrialization process.

10.a. Name some countries which are the main producers of coal.
India and Pakistan are the main producers of coal.

b. In Pakistan, where we find coal? Which type of coal we find in Pakistan?
In Pakistan, we find coal in Baluchistan, Mack field and Koistan region of western Sind.
In Pakistan, we find sub-bituminous and lignite varieties of coal.

c. Which type of coal we find in Bangladesh? In which part of Bangladesh , coal is found?
In Bangladesh, we found poor quality coal. (Pete and lignite)
In Sylhet, Tippera, Mymensingh and Faridpur discticts we find coal in Bangladesh.

d. What steps should be taken to conserve coal?
Following steps should be taken to conserve coal.
i) Wastage of coal should be prevented by discouraging selective mining.
ii) New reserves of coal are needed to be explored.
iii) New technology should be adopted in mining, production and use of coal.
iv) Inferior coal should be blended with superior quality coal.
v) Private sector investment in the coal mining should be encouraged.

e. Explain why coal is often used near the source of production and mineral oil is often transported to great distances.
Coal is often used near the source of production because it is found abundantly in many regions in India which is sufficient for various industries and power plants.
Mineral oil is often transported to great distances because a major part of its requirement is met through import. So, it has to be transported from the port to the refineries.

f. How is the poor quality Indian coal being utilized?
The poor quality Indian coal, specified as Lignite is used mainly in combustion in the industries of fertilizers, paints, chemicals, etc.
Another poor quality coal, the Peat, is usually used as fuel in households and various small-scale or cottage industries.

g. What are the uses of coal?
* Coal is known as the basic source of energy. It plays an important role in the growth of industries. The electricity (Thermal Power) is generated by coal.
* Our Railway system is still dependent on coal.
* Coal is not only used as energy resources, but also it is used as a raw material in smelting iron ore.


•Important ferro alloy mineral used in making steel. 
•In south Asia, primarily produced in India, while Pakistan also produces some manganese

•Largest producer of manganese in South Asia 
•Like other minerals, is also produced in peninsular India with Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, West Bengal 
•Indian manganese is of high quality and is in great demand 
•More than 2/3rd of the country’s manganse reserves and deposits are found in the Nagpur and Bhandara belt of Maharashtra and Balaghat, Chhindwara belt of Madhya Pradesh. 
•Largest producer – Orissa – about 40%-mined in districts of Sundergarh, Kalahandi, Koraput, Keonjhar, Bolangir and Mayurbhanj 
•Karnataka – 2nd largest – 30% prodn- North Canara, Bijapur, Chickmanglur, Bellary, Shimoga, Chitradurga, Tumkur districts 
•Gujarath – Panch Mahal, Vadodara dist 
•Rajasthan – Banswara district 
•Andhra Pradesh – Kurnool, Vishakhapatnam, Kurnool, Srikakulam dist 
•Bihar – Singbhum dist 
•Exports to Japan, USA, west European countries.


•Bauxite ore provides aluminium. 
•India – largest producer in South Asia 
•Is self sufficient in aluminium production
•Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka- leading producing states 
•Orissa – largest producer in India- 40%- Palahandi and Sambalpur districts 
•Bihar – Palamanu districts, Ranchi 
•Madhya Pradesh – Bilaspur, Balaghat, Jabalpur, Shahdol, Durg, Mundala districts 
•Tamil Nadu – Nilgiri, Salem, Madurai districts

1.a. Name two states in India where manganese is found. State one use of manganese. 
Orissa, , Madhya Pradesh,. Andhra Pradesh 
Manganse is used in making ferro-manganese alloy and in the manufacture of bleaching powder. 

b. Why is Manganese considered to be an important mineral for industrial purposes? (2) 
Manganese is used in production of steel. It makes steel strong, removes impurities and makes it immune to rusting. 

c. A mineral X is used for making iron and steel. It increases the strength of steel. Identify the mineral. 
Which country of South Asia is the leading producer of that mineral? 
Mineral X is manganese. India is the leading producer of manganese. 

d. Where is Manganese found in South Asia? 
In South Asia, manganese is found in India and Pakistan. 

e. Manganese is which type of mineral and where we can find it? 
Manganese is ferro alloy mineral, used in making steel. 
In South Asia, India is a primarily producer of manganese. Pakistan also produces some manganese. In India we can find manganese in Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Orissa produces largest manganese (40%) and Karnataka produces 30% manganese. 


4a. Which country in South Asia is the largest producer of bauxite? Why is bauxite considered an important mineral? 
India is the largest producer of Bauxite. Bauxite is considered an important mineral as 
· The mineral bauxite has various used in refining kerosene, abrasives and cement. 
· it is light and is rust-resistant material 
· It is good conductor of electricity. 
· used in air crafts 
· used in automobiles and aluminium industry 
· alluminium has a variety of applications from domestic to industrial. 
b. Name some bauxite producing states. 
Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka 

c. In Pakistan, at which place we find out bauxite? 
At Hazara, and Sibi in Baluchistan we found bauxite


•Important fossil fuel – south Asia-deficient
•Spend huge amount of valuable foreign currency to import crude oil
•India and Pakistan – important producers
•Some oil and natural gas are also found in Bangladesh


•Has about 0.5% of world’s petroleum reserves amount to about 762 million tonnes
•Oil- first discovered in Inida at Makum in North East in Assam in 1867.
•More were discovered in different parts of the county.

Main Areas:
1.Off shore sea near Mumbai
2.Digboi, Naharkatiya, Rudra Sagar and Nunmati in Assam
3.Ankleshwar, Koyali, Kalor and Navgaon in Gujarat

1. Oil fields in the Eastern Region

•Oil – first discovered in Makuk (Assam)in 1867,
•First well – drilled- DIGBOI in Lakhimpur district of Upper Assam
•Other centres of oil in Assam are at Bappapung, Hansapung, Naharkatiya and Moaran 

2. Oil Fields in the Western Region

•In the Western Region, the oil fields are scattered over a large area from Rajasthan to Maharasthra.
•Some areas-Ajmleshwar, Nawagaon, Kalol, Kosamba, Sanand, Kathana 

3. Bombay High

•ONGC- discovered oil on the continental shelf area off the coast of Maharashtra about 176 km North West of Mumbai in 1974
•Structure containing oil in Mumbai High and Bassein basins named Sagar Samrat, are spread over 2500 km
•Prodn started in 1976
•Another structure HIRA is also in operation
•Region produces 1/3rd of crude oil output of India, - it is refined in the refineries of Trombay. 


•Cauvery, Krishna, Godavari basins.
•Possibility of oil- in Coramandel continental shelf area, Sunderban delta of Sher area and Gulf of Cambay region
•Important refineries are at Cochin, Chennai, Vishakhapattnam, Haldia and Barauni

a. Briefly mention how petroleum is obtained?
Petroleum is being obtained from the sedimentary rocks. It is formed from the organic decomposition of the remais of marine products deposited in silt or mud inside the sea bed for a long period of time. The pressure due to overlying sediments along with the movements of earth converts the silt and mud into rock and the afore-originated pores with the rock are occupied by the organic remains. High heat and pressure changes those organic remains into mineral oil and natural gas.

b. Why does India have to import mineral oil? (2)
* Less reserves as compared to production.
* Increasing number of automobiles and industries day-by-day.
* Lack of technology and capital for exploiting the present reserves.

c. Why petroleum is called mineral oil? (2)
The word ‘petroleum’ has been derived from two latin words ‘petro’ meaning rock and ‘Oleam’ meaning oil. It is obtained from rocks, particularly sedimentary rocks of the earth. So it is called mineral oil.

d. Distribution of mineral-oil in India. (2)
Assam : It is the oldest oil producing state of India. Major oil fields are:
i) Digboi: It is the oldest oil field of India.
ii) Naharkatiya: It is located in S.W. Digboi . Rudrasagar, Sib, Sagar are other oil fields of Assam.

e. Name two important oil fields in India. (2)
Mumbai High (Mahrarashtra), Ankaleshwar, Digboi, Maharkatla, Rudrasagar, Numati, Hansapang and Morah (Assam), Koyali, Kosamba and Kolar (Gujarat).

f. Name two centres in North-East of India where petroleum is found. Which is the largest petroleum producing country in South Asia?
Digboi and Naharkatiya are two centres in North-East of India where petroleum is found.
India is the largest producer of mineral oil in South Asia.

f) State the conditions necessary for the formation of Natural Gas. Mention two advantages of using Natural gas as a source of energy.
Natural gas accompanies petroleum accumulations. Whenever a well for is drilled, it is natural gas which is available before oil is truck. Natural gas is formed under the earth by the decomposition of vegetable matter lying under water. The decomposition is carried out by anaerobic bacteria in the absence of oxygen.
* It can be used both as a source of energy and also as an industrial raw material in petro-chemical industry.
* It takes less time to build a power plant based on natural gas.
* For Indian agriculture, it has a capacity to boost its production through the building of fertilizer plants based on natural gas.
* It is easy to transport gas through pipe lines.

g) Mention two products of an Oil refinery. Name two Oil refineries in India, one along the coast and one away from the coast. (2)
Two products of an oil refinery are – Natural Gas and LPG (Liquified Petroleum Gas)
Oil refinery along the coast – Vishakapatnam
Oil refinery away from the coast - Bongaigon

h. Where is petroleum found in the earth’s crust?
Petroleum is found in sedimentary rocks.

j. Which two India states are leaders in oil production? Name an oil field from each of these.
Assam – Digboi/Naharkatia/Moran
Gujarat – Ankleshwar/Kalol

k. Why are petroleum refineries located near the coast of India. Name two of its by-products.
Two-thirds of the petroleum required is imported, thus refineries are near the coast.
By-products – Lubricants/kerosene/caselene/tar

l. What is Off-Shore Drilling? What is Bombay High?
The drilling which has been carried out not in the main land but along the sea-shore line, i.e. drilling at the submerged portion of the sea-shore, is called off-shore drilling.
Bombay High is the most productive oil field which is 176 km off Mumbai in the Arabian Sea. Oil was discovered by ONGC in 1974.It is the largest reserve of natural gas and mineral oil in India. The drilling functions has been happening here along the off-shore line. Two refineries has ben established there to minimize the cost of transporting the crude oil towards the refinieries.

m. Name the following: a) A private sector oil refinery - Reliance Petroleum Limited.
ii) A joint sector oil refinery - Mangalore Refienry and Petro-chemical Limited

n. Name the two main belts of India where oil is found.
i) The Assam-Arakan belt which runs from extreme north-east of Assam to the eastern border of the
Brahmaputra and Surma Valley.
ii) The Gujarat Cambay belt which extends from Mahesana (Gujarat) in the north to the continental shelf off the coast of Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) in the south.

o. Mention two uses of mineral oil. Name an old and new mineral oil producing area.
* It is used to generate thermal power..
* It is used as a lubricating agent and is used as raw material for various petro-chemical
* Petrol and diesel obtained from mineral oil are used as fuels for automobiles, aircrafts
and railway engines.
* Kerosene oil, by-product of petroleum is used as a domestic fuel.
* It gives several valuable by-products such as lubricants, terylene, paraffin wax, tar and

Old – Digboi New – Mumbai High

p. Name one important oil field each in Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Oil field in Bangladesh - Sylhet
Oil field in Pakistan - Khaur

q. Demand for petrol and petroleum products is increasing. Why?
# It is one of major sources of commercial energy.
# Due to increased pace of industrialization in South Asian countries.

r. Which region is the largest producer of petroleum in India? Name the refinery where the production is refined?
Mumbai High is the largest producer of mineral oil. It produces more than 60% of the total production. The mineral oil obtained from the region is refined in Trombay.

s. Name the agency which explores mineral oil in India.
The Oil and Natural Gas Commission. (ONGC)

t. With reference to Bombay High oil field, answer the following:
i) Where is it located? Ii) Name the platform designed? iii) When was it found?
i) It is located on the continental shelf of the coast of Maharashtra about 176 km north-west of Mumbai.
ii) Sagar Samrat
iii) In 1974

u. With reference to Indian oil fields , name

i) Any two oil fields of North East India. - NORTH-EAST – Digboi and Naharkatiya

ii) Any two oil fields of Western India. - WESTERN INDIA – Ankleshwar and Kalol

iii)Any two off shore oil fields of India. - OFF SHORE OIL FIELD – Mumbai High and Basin

iv. Oldest oilfield in India - Digboi oilfield situated in Lakhimur district of Assam

v. Two coastal oil refineries - Trombay Refinery (BPCL) in Gujarat in West Coast
Barauni Refinery - east coast of India

vi . Two important oil fields - Digboi in Assam, Kalol in Gujarat

vii. Two important oil belts - Assam-Arakan belt and Gujarat Cambay belt
Digboi oilfield situated in Lakhimpur district of upper Assam
Jaydeep Mehta,
9 Sep 2015, 21:13