•Pakistan covers an area of 796,095 sq km lying between latitude 24 degree and 37 degree North and longitude 62 degree and 75 degree East. The country borders Iran on the west, India in the east, Afghanistan in the north and north-west and the People's Republic of China in the north-west to north-east.
Pakistan is a land of many splendours. The scenery changes northward from coastal beaches, lagoons and mangrove swamps in the south to sandy deserts, desolate plateaus, fertile plains, and dissected upland in the middle and high mountains with beautiful valleys, snow-covered peaks and eternal glaciers in the north. The variety of landscape divides Pakistan into six major regions: the North High Mountainous Region, the Western Low Mountainous Region, the Balochistan Plateau, the Potohar Upland, the Punjab and the Sindh Plains.
•The physical features of Pakistan are divided into five main land regions:
1. The Northern and Western Highlands
2. The Punjab Plain
3. The Sind Plain
4. The Baluchistan Plateau
5. The Thar Desert
•Pakistan has an area of about 307,374 square kilometers.
The Northern and Western Highlands:
These mountains cover much of the area of northwestern Pakistan.
•The world's second highest peak is K2 (Mount Godvin Austin). It is about 28,250 feet (8,611 meters) above sea level. It is located in Kashmir and it is controlled by Pakistan.
•The most famous mountain pass is Khyber Pass which is a link between Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Punjab and Sind Plains:
•These regions occupy most of the eastern part of the country. These regions are land growths of soil deposited by rivers.
•The North Punjab is watered by the Indus River. The water of Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi and Sutlej Rivers join the Indus River in east central Pakistan. The meeting point of south broadened Indus flows to the Arabian sea through the Sind Plain.
•The irrigation systems have made Punjab and Sind Plains into agricultural regions.
•This is located in the southwestern part of Pakistan. The plateau is dry and rocky, it has little plant life.
It is located in southeastern Pakistan. Pakistan extends into northwestern India. The irrigation projects have made parts of the desert near the Indus River suitable for farming.
The physiography of Bangladesh is varied and has an area characterized by two distinctive features: a broad deltaicplain subject to frequent flooding, and a small hilly region crossed by swiftly flowing rivers.
•Roughly 80 % of the landmass is made up of fertile alluvial lowland called the Bangladesh Plain. The plain is part of the larger Plain of Bengal, which is sometimes called the Lower Gangetic Plain. Although altitudes up to 105 meters above sea level occur in the northern part of the plain, most elevations are less than 10 meters above sea level; elevations decrease in the coastal south, where the terrain is generally at sea level. With such low elevations and numerous rivers, water--and concomitant flooding--is a predominant physical feature. About 10,000 square kilometers of the total area of Bangladesh is covered with water, and larger areas are routinely flooded during the monsoon season.
•The only exceptions to Bangladesh's low elevations are the Chittagong Hills in the southeast, the Low Hills of Sylhet in the northeast, and highlands in the north and northwest. The Chittagong Hills constitute the only significant hill system in the country and, in effect, are the western fringe of the north-south mountain ranges of Burma and eastern India. The Chittagong Hills rise steeply to narrow ridge lines, generally no wider than 36 meters, with altitudes from 600 to 900 meters above sea level. At 1,052 meters altitude, the highest elevation in Bangladesh is found at Mowdok, in the southeastern part of the hills. Fertile valleys lie between the hill lines, which generally run north-south. West of the Chittagong Hills is a broad plain, cut by rivers draining into the Bay of Bengal, that rises to a final chain of low coastal hills, mostly below 200 meters, that attain a maximum elevation of 350 meters. West of these hills is a narrow, wet coastal plain located between the cities of Chittagong in the north and Cox's Bazar in the south.
•Bangladesh constitutes the eastern two-thirds of the Ganges-Brahmaputra deltaic plain, which stretches northward from the Bay of Bengal. It has the largest area of river delta in the world, with three main rivers, the Ganges, theBhrahmaputra and the Meghna. Bangladesh occupies the alluvial plain and delta of the lower Bhrahmaputra River, together with a triangle between the Bhrahmaputra and the Ganges, and the triangular plain to the south of the Shillong plateau and the Arakan range on the east. A narrow coastal plain extends southwards at the foot of the Arakan Hills, some of the lower foothills lie within the frontier behind Chittagong. The southern part of the delta is crossed by a complex system of distributaries and interlinking waterways. The southern fringe consists of a series of low muddy islands separated by narrow tidal creeks, with mangrove swamps along the seaward margin. The soil is mostly fine alluvium but there are patches of coarser material, as in the Madhupur jungle. The myriad tributaries and distributaries of the three main rivers divide the entire country.
•In Bangladesh three geographical zones can be distinguished:
•Hills occupy 10 per cent of the country. The Chittagong Hill Tracts in the southeast consist of a series of parallel ridges reaching 1,000m. Other hill terrain occur in the northeast.
•The delta at the Bay of Bengal occupies the south and southwest.
•The plains, generally composed of level alluvium, occupy most of the country and are the most fertile.
•Nepal is a sovereign independent kingdom situated on the southern slopes of the mid-Himalayas, the formidable range of eternal shows. It is located between 26 degree 22' and 30degree 27' north latitude and 80o4' and 80degree12' east longitude.
•Total land area is 147,181 square kilometers
•It borders with the Indian border in the west, south and east and with Tibetan autonomous region of the People's Republic of China in the north.
•The Terai: The Terai lies in the southern part of the country, composed of a 26 to 50 kilometers wide belt of fertile alluvial plain. This belt extends all the way from the western to the eastern border, covers about 17% of the total area. It averages 600 to 1220 meters in altitude.
•The Hills: The Mahabharata range separates the Terai from the Hill region. This range averages 1525 meters to 3660 meters in altitude and 16 kilometers in width. Its structure is synclinal and the topography is steep and jagged. Forests are found on the higher elevations whereas lower slopes are used for terraced cultivation. North of this Range, lies the Pahad region covering 64% of Nepal, the major area for Nepalese settlement.
•The Himalaya: Everyone who has heard of Nepal must have heard about its Himalayas. Himalayas has been so far the most known fact about Nepal. Nepal has the eight of the world's fourteen highest giants. It has 22 out of 31 peaks over 7600 meters in the world.
•Water Bodies: Nepal is a landlocked country. So its water bodies consist of rivers, glaciers and lakes. The main three rivers of Nepal are Koshi, Gandaki, and Karnali.
•Main glaciers are Kanchenjunga, Yalung, Tukuche, Hidden Valley, Nupchu and Lamtang.
•There are many lakes in Nepal. The most widely known lake in Nepal is Lake Phewa, which lies in Pokhara. Other major lakes are Rara Lake and Phoksundo Lake (this is the most beautiful lake in Nepal but not many people go there because of lack of proper transportation)
•Nepal's boundary limits are as follows:
•In the east, the Mechi River and Singallia ridge separate the country from Sikkim and West Bengal.
•In the south, the boundary pillars and about nine meters of no-man's land on either side demarcate the Nepalese territory from the Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.
•In the west Mahakali River is the natural border separating the Kingdom from Uttar Pradesh.
•Nepal's northern boundary merges with the Tibet Autonomous region of the People's Republic of China.
Nepal is a land-locked country, the nearest seacoast being 1,127 kilometers away in India.
•The major part of the country is of high mountains and rolling hills.
•It accounts for about 83% of the total land and the plain of Terai occupies the remaining 17%. Altitude varies from 152 meters above the sea level in the Terai in the south to 8848 meters in the north Himalayas.