Cotton Textiles

COTTON TEXTILES


Cotton is a soft, staple fiber that grows in a form known as a boll around theseeds of the cotton plant, a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the AmericasIndia and Africa. The fiber most often is spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile, which is the most widely used natural-fiber cloth in clothing today. 

Cotton was cultivated by the inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization by the5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC. The Indus cotton industry was well developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the modern Industrialization of India. Well before the Common Era the use of cotton textiles had spread from India to the Mediterranean and beyond.






India's cotton-processing sector gradually declined during British expansion in India and the establishment of colonial rule during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. This was largely due to the East India Company's exposing of India to foreign competition, which made cotton processing and manufacturing workshops in India uncompetitive. Indian markets increasingly supplied only raw cotton and were obliged to purchase manufactured textiles from Britain.


The textile industry in India occupies a unique position in our economy contributing to nearly a third of the country's export earnings. This industry includes manufacturers, suppliers, wholesalers and exporters of Cotton Textiles, Handloom, and Woolen Textiles etc. From the production of textile machinery and equipment, dyes and raw materials to the delivery of finished textiles, fabrics and garments, the textile industry in India has the vast potential for creation of employment opportunities. The number of textiles manufacturers, suppliers, wholesalers and textiles exporters in India has increased rapidly after independence. Today, handloom and cotton textiles exports in India is counted among the most important sectors.



The first cotton textile mill on modern lines was started in Bombay in 1854. Later the mills were started at Ahmedabad in 1858, then in Kanpur, Nagpur, Sholapur, Surat and other places. As I said before, today India holds the third place among the cotton textile producing countries of the world. It provides emplyment to a large number of people and also helps to ear foreign exchange. Gujarat and Maharashtra states, lead the country in cotton textile production. Mumbai and Ahmedabad are the important centres. Mumbai has the largest number of cotton textile mills. It is themain cotton textile centre in India. Mumbai is called COTTONPOLIS OR MANCHESTER of India. (Manchester is the main cotton textile centre of England.) The other important centres of cotton textiles are Nagpur and Sholapur in Maharasthra, Kokatta in West Bengal, Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh, Indore in Madhya Pradesh, Surat in Gujarat, Salem, Coimbatore and Chennai in Tamil Nadu, Bangalore and Davangere in Karnataka and Delhi.
Handloom industry is concentrated in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Assam and U.P. In recent years, ready-made cotton garment industry has been developing fast and earns a good amount of foreign exchange.
Cotton textiles and ready-made garments are exported from India to foreign markets. Europe, USA, and many countries of Africa and Australia are our main markets. Rough cotton cloth and cotton thread are exported to Myanmar, Middle East, Thailand and other countries.


Two important factors that are responsible for decentralization of cotton textile mills in India are :-
•Availability of raw material.
•High demand of cotton textile throughout India.

The largest proportion of workers is found in the textile industry’ because:
•It is spread all over the country.
•It is labour intensive.
•Demand is found all over India.





•India holds the third place among the cotton textile producing countries of the world. 
•Provides employment to a large number of people
•Helps toearn foreign exchange.
•Gujarat and Maharashtra lead the country in cotton production.
•Mumbai and Ahmedabad are important centres







•The challenges faced by cotton industry are:
•The industry faces the problem of building up a regular supply of its raw material – cotton – inadequate quantities.
•The textile industry in our country had suffered badly for want of adequate and unfailing supply of Power. The inadequacy of coal supplies had also affected the progress of the industry.
•The Indian cotton textile industry has been facing increasing competition in world markets. This is largely due to low productivity and high cost and consequently high prices of Indian cotton textile.



•Obsolete machinery and need for modernization – The mill sector has been working with obsolete machinery. Over 80% of the machinery in the cotton mill is old and should be scrapped.
•The invention of synthetic as a substitute for cotton has resulted in the decline of cotton industry


Cotton textile industry is largely concentrated in Maharashtra for the following reasons-
•AVAIALBILITY OF RAW MATERIALS- Cotton is the basic input of cotton textile industry and Maharashtra is the leading producer of cotton.
•TRANSPORT AND EXPORT FACILITY– Mumbai has excellent transportation network. It is also a port city and so export facilities are available. Therefore through it, good quality cotton, machines and the raw material are easily imported and finished products can be easily exported.
•LABOUR AND MARKET – Maharashtra has high density of population . So skilled and unskilled labour is easily available. Due to high density of population, demand for the products is also high.
•FAVOURABLE CLIMATE – this region has equitable climate which ensures the production of cotton


•Mumbai is called cottonpolis or Manchester of India. It has the largest number of cotton textile mills.
•Other important textile centres are Nagpur, Sholapur in Maharashtra, Kolkotta in West Bengal, Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh, Indore in Madhya Pradesh, Surat in Gujarat,
•Cotton textiles and ready-made garments are exported to Europe, USA, and many countries of Africa and Australia.
•Rough cotton cloth and cotton thread are exported to Myanmar, Middle East, Thailand and other countries.





Cotton textile industry is distributed all over the country while iron and steel industry is confined to Peninusular India.”

•RAW MATERIAL: The main input of cotton textile industry is cotton. Cotton is easily available in most of the states. Though Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana are the leading producers but it is produced in many other states. The main input of iron and steel industry is iron which is available in Peninsular India only.
•LIGHT RAW MATERIAL AND FINISHED PRODUCTS: Raw material and finished products of cotton textile are light so the cost of transportation is less whereas raw material and finished products of iron and steel industry are heavy so the cost of transportation is high.
•MARKET – Market of cotton textile is very wide because products of cotton textile are demanded throughout the country. Market of iron and steel plants are concentrated in the industrial zones only.


Why is cotton textile industry concentrated in and around Mumbai and Ahmedabad?
Cotton textile industries in India are largely concentrated in and around Mumbai and Ahmedabad due to following reasons:
Availability of Raw Material: In the surrounding areas of Mumbai and Ahmedabad there is large scale production of cotton. Hence there is regular supply of the basic raw material required for this industry in the adjoining region.
Favorable Climate: Because of maritime situation they enjoy humid climate, and the thread does not break quite often. So the climate of these regions is favourable for the cotton textiles.
Port Facility: Mumbai is the major sea port. Through it good quality cotton, machines and the raw material are easily imported and the finished products are easily exported to foreign countries.
Transport Facilities: Both of these centers are connected to the remaining parts of the country by well developed means of transport. So the trained labour can move from one place to another. Moreover, the finished products are easily sent to the local markets for sale.
Sources of Power: The power is available from Bihar and Khapoli centers of the TATA Hydro-electric power station.


Mention any two factors responsible for decentralization of cotton textile mills in India.
Two important factors that are responsible for decentralization of cotton textile mills in India are :-
§ Availability of raw material.
§ High demand of cotton textile throughout India.

2. The largest proportion of workers is found in the textile industry’. Justify by giving three reasons.
The largest proportion of workers is found in the textile industry’ because:
* It is spread all over the country.
* It is labour intensive.
* Demand is found all over India.

3. “Cotton textile industry is distributed all over the country while iron and steel industry is
confined to Peninusular India.” Give three reasons.
RAW MATERIAL: The main input of cotton textile industry is cotton. Cotton is easily available in most of the states. Though Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana are the leading producers but it is produced in many other states. The main input of iron and steel industry is iron which is available in Peninsular India only.
LIGHT RAW MATERIAL AND FINISHED PRODUCTS: Raw material and finished products of cotton textile are light so the cost of transportation is less whereas raw material and finished products of iron and steel industry are heavy so the cost of transportation is high.
MARKET – Market of cotton textile is very wide because products of cotton textile are demanded throughout the country. Market of iron and steel plants are concentrated in the industrial zones only.

4. Mention any three challenges faced by cotton industry in India.
The challenges faced by cotton industry are:
· Fluctuations in the production of raw material: Production of cotton is uncertain. It fluctuates depending on the climatic conditions. It makes the supply of raw material irregular.
· Poor Quality of Cotton: Fine quality of cotton is not produced in India. For manufacturing fine and costly cloth, we have toimport fine quality cotton from other countries.
· The textile industry in our country had suffered badly for want of adequate and unfailing supply of Power. The inadequacy of coal supplies had also affected the progress of the industry.
· Competition in global market: The Indian cotton textile industry has been facing increasing competition in world markets, especially from countries like Japan, Korea, the USA and Taiwan, both in cost and quality This is largely due to low productivity and high cost and consequently high prices of Indian cotton textile.
· Old and outdated machinery and need for modernization : Cotton textile industry is one of the oldest industries of India. So it has a major problem of old and outdated machinery which are inefficient and , hence, uneconomic.
· Rivalry: Strikes, lock-outs and market rivalry have also made the industry sick.
· The invention of synthetic as a substitute for cotton has resulted in the decline of cotton industry.

5. Explain why cotton textile industry is largely concentrated in Maharashtra/Mumbai.
Cotton textile industry is largely concentrated in Maharashtra for the following reasons-
· AVAIALBILITY OF RAW MATERIALS- Cotton is the basic input of cotton textile industry and Maharashtra is the leading producer of cotton.
· TRANSPORT AND EXPORT FACILITY– Mumbai has excellent transportation network. It is also a port city and so export facilities are available. Therefore through it, good quality cotton, machines and the raw material are easily imported and finished products can be easily exported.
· LABOUR AND MARKET – Maharashtra has high density of population . So skilled and unskilled labour is easily available. Due to high density of population, demand for the products is also high.
· FAVOURABLE CLIMATE – this region has equitable climate which ensures the production of cooton.
· SOURCE OF POWER: The Western Ghats provide suitable conditions for the generation of cheap hydro-electricity required for this industry.
· FINANCE: There is no dearth of financial and banking institutions to make available finances for the growth of this industry.
6. Which cotton textile centres of India are known as ‘Lancashire of India’ and Manchester of India’?
Mumbai and Ahmedabad are known as the Lancashire of India and Manchester of India respectively. Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh is known as the ‘Manchester of Northern India.’

7. What makes Khadi and Handloom sector of the textile industry still very important even in this
modern large-scale industrial era? Give two reasons.
Khadi and handloom sector of textile is competing with modern industry withits innovative colours, styles, diversification, choice, rate and corporate ethics. The following are the reasons of its importance:
· It is a widespread industry which provides large employment and contributes about one-fifth of the total cloth production.
· They can be started with low investment by using local raw material and local talent encouraging optimum use of national resources.

8. Name some of the items produced by the cottage industry of India.
A variety of products are produced by the cottage industries:
FOOD PROCESSING: Edible and non-edible oils through ghanis, khandsari, sugar, palm,gur, etc.
FOREST BASED ITEMS: Cane and bamboo articles, paper, gums, resins, katha, soap ,matches, etc.
HANDLOOM ITEMS: Lungi, dhotis, shawls, saris, etc.
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