[CANCELLED] 2020 Conference

Seventh Annual Graduate Conference
3–4 April 2020

The Temple University Theory, History, and Ethnomusicology Society (THEMUS) is pleased to announce the program for its seventh annual graduate conference on 3–4 April 2020. The conference program, location, and registration details are listed below: the program is free and open to the public. Please direct any additional inquiries to Lydia Huang (lhuang@temple.edu), or follow us on Facebook for additional program information and updates as they become available.

Conference Day One
Friday, 3 April 2020

Presser Hall, Room 142
2001 North 13th Street (main entrance on Norris Street)
Philadelphia, PA 19122

12 PM • Registration

1 PM • Opening Remarks
1:15 PM • Keynote

Timbre, Tuning, and Implicit Learning of Absolute Pitch: Sharing the Voices of AP Musicians
Elizabeth West Marvin, Eastman School of Music

It is often assumed that musicians with absolute pitch (AP) identify pitches without any external reference. This collaborative research with Su Yin Mak (Chinese University of Hong Kong) reexamines this assumption through qualitative analysis of interview data acquired from AP musicians in Rochester, NY and Hong Kong. We interviewed 50 AP musicians from music schools in these cities to collect first-hand accounts of their AP abilities and challenges. From the full data set, we present select cases that illustrate how AP abilities may be impacted by early musical experiences—in particular, implicit learning of a fixed-pitch template and tuning/temperament standards. We found that most informants demonstrated strong preference for A440 tuning and impaired AP processing when listening to music involving unequal temperament (e.g., Baroque tuning or Chinese traditional music). We discuss these findings in light of the two AP “types” (heightened tonal memory vs. differences in perceptual encoding) posited by Ross, Gore, and Marks (2005). We suggest that AP is intimately linked to an external instrumental standard, either as a template in long-term memory or through continuous updating via implicit learning, or both.

Elizabeth West Marvin is the Minehan Family Professor, and Professor of Music Theory at the Eastman School of Music.  Her research interests include music cognition, absolute pitch, pedagogical implications of music-cognitive research, and comparisons between language and music processing.  She is a past president of the Society for Music Theory and the Music Theory Society of New York State.  Her articles appear in Music Theory Spectrum, Journal of Music Theory, Music Perception, and Journal of Music Theory Pedagogy, among others.  She is 2013 recipient of the Gail Boyd de Stwolinski Prize for Lifetime Achievement in Music Theory Teaching and Scholarship, and co-author of The Musician’s Guide textbooks, with Jane Clendinning, Joel Phillips, and Paul Murphy (W.W. Norton).

2:15 PM • Break

2:30 PM • Dr. Aleck Brinkman's Special Session 

When Theories of Psychology and Music Intersect: The Influence of Cognitive Psychology in Henri Dutilleux’s Métaboles 
Elisabeth Roberts, University of Missouri

The music of French composer Henri Dutilleux (1916–2013) has often been examined alongside his acute interest in French literature, most notably the works of Marcel Proust (1871–1922). His music is less frequently considered from a psychological standpoint, despite traceable evidence that his style evolved from communicating an early neoclassical background to reflecting concepts of cognitive psychology in memory. Although Dutilleux's “progressive growth” technique and interest in memory have been acknowledged, specific analyses dedicated to documenting the unfolding parallels between psychology and motivic development in his music are less prevalent. In my research I consider Dutilleux’s formative orchestral work
Métaboles (1964) in the light of the early cognitive theories of French neuroscientist Paul Sollier (1861-1933)—Proust’s mental health practitioner.

Although behaviorist theory dominated Western psychology in other countries during the twentieth century, French scientists continued to privilege the introspective concepts of psychoanalytic practice, which are evident in the interests of Dutilleux. In reviewing the composer’s formal approach, which he called “progressive growth,” I indicate how the recurrence and transformation of motives in Métaboles mimic the concept of memory recall and lability (the state in which memories may easily be altered) observed in human psychology. I have concluded that Henri Dutilleux was indirectly influenced by the psychological studies of Sollier by way of Proust and, as a result, departed from his early compositional methods to a form that became a defining aspect of one of his most frequently performed pieces.            

Elisabeth Roberts is a master's candidate of musicology at the University of Missouri where she also earned an MM in composition. Her primary focus of special interest concerns music psychology and the compositional process. In addition to research, Libby has composed music for a variety of mediums to include orchestral pieces for the Mississippi and Saint Louis Symphonies, chamber pieces, and interactive electronic music with an interest in body movement and exercise science. Her studies in music began with piano performance, in which she has over twenty years of chamber, collaborative, and solo experience in both contemporary and standard classical repertoire.

Difference Across Sameness: Erroll Garner's Titles and the Folding of Time 
Irene Monteverde, University of Pittsburgh

Erroll Garner (1921–1977) was a prolific, Grammy-nominated, African American jazz pianist and composer who won international acclaim performing for audiences in concert halls worldwide and releasing many of his own compositions as well as popular songs on more than forty record labels throughout his career. Of his more than 400 compositions, at least twelve were released more than once under different titles, and the underlying reasons seem to be varied. For example, Garner recorded “French Doll” in March 1958 on piano, but re-titled it “Just Blues” just two months later when he recorded it on harpsichord; “Perpetual Emotion” was also known as “Erroll at the Philharmonic” under Atlantic record company’s 1950 master log, but was later released on the Blue Star record label under the title “Garnerology”; and “Shadows” (1961) became “No More Shadows” four years later to fit the lyric written by Edward Heyman. It is not uncommon for jazz artists to borrow harmonic structures and to rework the melodies; in fact, this is a feature of the many bebop-styled contrafacts
some of the most popular being the compositions which morphed out of George Gershwin’s “I’ve Got Rhythm,” for instance. However, it is less popular to re-record the same melodies under differing titles, not to mention musicians who are re-releasing their own works using this tactic. Relying on discographic and archival material and the process of descriptive transcription analysis, this paper will argue that the confusion surrounding Garner’s song titles is somewhat of a phenomenon with respect to his contemporary composers in the jazz idiom, like Thelonious Monk and Mary Lou Williams. As an artist who had full control of the naming of his songs, it is curious as to why Garner would have wanted up to four different titles to reference just one of his works. Yet, the diversity of song names may lead to a deeper understanding behind the mystique of Garner’s legacy. Artists can re-record and re-perform the same tune, but because of human nuances, it is new each time. The repetitions overlap but are never completely commensurate. We can think of these repetitions as folds in time, wherein each new title points into the future and looks back into the past. This study borrows from critical race theory, jazz studies, and art history in order to develop an observation about why Garner may have wanted an assortment of names for recognizably similar tracks.

Irene Monteverde is a Pittsburgh native and a graduate student in the department of Jazz Studies at the University of Pittsburgh. She is writing her dissertation on pianist Erroll Garner, particularly how various systems of time reflect different aspects of his artistry. She is a graduate of Siena Jazz in Italy.

3:30 PM • Closing Remarks

3:45 PM • Reception
The Art of Bread Café 
Presser Hall
2001 North 13th Street (at West Norris Street) 
Philadelphia, PA 19122

Conference Day Two
Saturday, 4 April 2020

Charles Library

1900 North 13th Street 
Philadelphia, PA 19122

9 AM • Registration
Light refreshments provided

9:10 AM • Opening Remarks
9:15 AM • Session I

Rebel Grrrl: Punk Aesthetics and Musical Egalitarianism 
Blake Ritchie, Rutgers University

Kathleen Hanna of the band Bikini Kill first began making DIY (Do It Yourself) punk music after the rape of her roommate in the early 1990s. Pussy Whipped, the band’s first studio album, blends the characteristic features of DIY punk (musical amateurism, quick tempi, and heavy distortion) with aggressively feminist sentiments. The history of Riot Grrrl acts has been charted by multiple authors, who provide sociological readings of gender performance in DIY punk spaces, gendered performance of DIY music production, and other such considerations. Despite the wealth of historical research, no published musical analysis exists.

I argue that punk music’s DIY sound production enhances the anti-patriarchal nature of female-led groups like Bikini Kill and creates a democratizing musical effect. In this paper, I analyze a selection of works from Pussy Whipped, primarily focusing on “Rebel Girl” and “Double Dare Ya,” through the lens of sound studies and feminist theory. My work with sound studies focuses on sound production—I am interested in the interaction of timbre and recording techniques that contribute to the DIY aspect of Bikini Kill.

For my analysis, I draw on Kate Hidemann’s (2016) work with vocal timbre to explore sound production and materiality in Bikini Kill. More specifically, I will investigate the way that vocal and instrumental timbre interact to create a soundscape that differs drastically from traditional studio-recorded work in what I argue can be read as an undermining of traditionally hierarchical sonic structures. This work allows for a better understanding of how punk aesthetics and feminism intersect in music, and could be extended to allow for feminist readings of other genres through sound studies.

Blake Ritchie is a current PhD candidate in music theory at Rutgers University. She has a master's in music theory from the University of Oklahoma and a bachelor's in music education from Stephen F. Austin State University. She currently serves as the webmaster for the SMT Russian Music Theory Interest Group and board member for the SMT Queer Resource Group. In addition, Blake is a part-time lecturer in music theory at Rutgers University, and serves as the clarinet instructor at Newark School of the Arts.

“Be Careful with Me,” Cardi B, Vulnerability, and #metoo
Hannah Strong, University of Pittsburgh

Famous for her aggressive, braggadocious, and angry Instagram rants that attack both rude fans and high taxation rates alike, Cardi B is well known for her over-the-top personality. As her career began to take off, however, Cardi B released a hit song that showed a significantly different persona. “Be Careful with Me” shows a more vulnerable side to the singer, revealing her struggles with self-doubt. This is a far cry from her other hits like “Bodack Yellow” and “Bickenhead” that revolve around threats of stealing other women’s boyfriends, explicit descriptions of sex, and donning luxury clothes in luxury cars. In fact, those three subjects are more than just the norm for Cardi B, they are the industry standard for female rappers, who are forced by record executives and fans to conform to hypersexualized images and lyrics. “Be Careful with Me” is an outlier in this trend and is indicative of the culture shift incited by the #metoo movement, released just one year after Alyssa Milano’s tweet.  After the movement began, empowered women throughout the U.S. and around the world began speaking up in unprecedented numbers, unabashedly speaking their truths. Cardi B discussed the #metoo movement in an interview with Cosmopolitan, and though she denied supporting it, she, on many occasions, has detailed her struggles with bodily sovereignty as a stripper and dancer. Cardi B stated that she appreciates the movement but believes that it excludes women whose sexuality is at the forefront of their careers, like strippers and video vixens. Indeed, the #metoo and feminism has a history of exclusion, with a discourse that frequently disregards the voices of women who are not wealthy and white. In this paper I analyze the lyrics of Cardi B’s hits, especially noting their place in the timeline of her career to demonstrate that “Be Careful with Me” is unlike the rest. I build on the scholarship of Tricia Rose and Joan Morgan, the Combahee River Collective statement, and the activism of Tarana Burke. I also situate black feminism within hip hop, and analyze Cardi B’s engagement with its tenets. I conclude that “Be Careful with Me” is unprecedented not just for Cardi B, but for female rappers in general as it reflects the cultural shift caused by the #metoo movement. Perhaps instead of saying “me too,” Cardi B says, “be careful with me.”                                                                         

Hannah Strong is a current doctoral student in Musicology at the University of Pittsburgh, where she focuses her research on rap and hip hop, social movements, feminism, and early electronic music. She has presented her research on Beyoncé and the #metoo movement at the Diva Symposium and the IASPM US meeting. The publication of this paper is forthcoming. She received a Master’s in Music from Temple University in 2019, where she studied with Steven Zohn and Shana Goldin-Perschbacher. Strong attended Westminster Choir College for her undergraduate degree, focusing on operatic singing, German Lied, and music history.

Teresa Teng “in” Mainland China: Media, Censorship and Cultural Identity

Eva (Yi) Yang, Eastman School of Music

This presentation demonstrates the cultural and ideological changes brought on by Teresa Teng during a unique political and cultural context in Mainland China. As a Taiwanese pop singer of the twentieth century who had never stepped foot in Mainland because of the hostile climate, Teng came to be regarded as a cultural representative and personified expression of Chinese-ness. It is uncertain when exactly her songs reached Mainland. However, according to some Mainland scholars, it was approximately between 1978 and 1979. This presentation demonstrates that because of the unique atmosphere both in Mainland and between Mainland and Taiwan during that era, the media, which was involved in the distribution of her songs, was unlike anything that came before, and likely anything that will come again. 

This presentation illustrates three social and political movements before and around the time Teresa Teng’s songs debuted, and the influences Teng has brought. Firstly, Teng’s songs came about during the distribution of Cross-Strait propaganda between Mainland and Taiwan, where the media erected The Broadcasting Wall and enacted unique methods such as using balloons, floating carriers, and radio. Secondly, the Economic Reform in Mainland opened its market and enabled easier access to Teng’s music. Lastly, the Cultural Revolution before the arrival of Teng’s songs created a gap between traditionalism and modernization for people in Mainland, which was in some way closed by the images of the past that Teng’s songs depicted and what Mainland listeners could imagine from their content. The identity of Chinese culture was integrated into her songs, not only by the use of traditional elements, but through her search for how to most authentically express Chinese-ness. Whether Teng was willing or unwilling to be involved in the social affairs, this presentation argues that the complexities of her time imposed different interpretations of her songs, and that the songs have become even more powerful by the various re-interpretations created by individuals. 

Eva (Yi) Yang is a current master's student in Ethnomusicology at Eastman School of Music. She graduated from Wheaton College (MA) with a B.A. in Economics and Music. During her time at Wheaton, she completed her research papers entitled Chinese Music During the Cultural Revolution and In the Shadow of Globalization: Sex Workers in China. She plays both traditional Chinese and Western musical instruments including dizi and piano. Her research interests include Chinese pop and traditional music associated with minority ethnic groups, cultural identity and nationalism, religion, media, gender studies, and globalization. Her current project at Eastman focuses on the music of minority ethnic groups in Yunnan Province, southwestern China.

10:45 AM • Break

11:00 AM • Session I

Fremin le Caron and Stylistic Development in the Fifteenth Century Cyclic Mass 
John Ahern, Princeton University

Ever since Rob Wegman was able to place Fremin le Caron securely in Amiens during the third quarter of the fifteenth century (Wegman 2011), much about the composer’s confusing biography has come into clearer focus. According to the contemporaneous witnesses such as Tinctoris, Caron belonged at the center of musical activity in Europe during the 1460s and 1470s, alongside Dufay and Busnois; his transmission speaks to an even wider influence than Ockeghem’s own. Yet Caron’s work by modern scholars has gotten scant treatment, with a few notable exceptions (Giller 1981, Montagna 1987, Reynolds 1995). I will look at
Missa Jesus Autem Transiens, a work David Fallows has suggested was Caron’s earliest mass cycle. The mass cycle evinces a curious and insistent use of repetition in its low bassus contratenor voice, unlike anything else from the period except, perhaps, Busnois’ masses. I will use this contrapuntal feature to pinpoint Caron in the Burgundian court alongside Busnois and also to support Giller’s suggestion that Caron is the composer of several or all of the anonymous Naples L’homme armé masses (Naples VI E 40). Caron’s early use of repetition flagrantly violates Tinctoris’ ideal of varietas and is a surprising forerunner to the crucial features that will distinguish the outputs of later composers like Obrecht and Josquin.

John Ahern is a PhD student at Princeton University, writing a dissertation on the music of Fremin le Caron. His interests lie primarily in the sacred polyphony of the fifteenth century, but he also enjoys the history of theory and questions of music's relationship to theology, aesthetics, and secularization. He is an occasional substitute organist for the Princeton University chapel and he enjoys singing and playing in various early music ensembles in the New Jersey area.

Our Time Drifting Away: Gentle Giant’s “On Reflection” and Progressive Rock’s Rediscovery of the Renaissance 
Andy Jarema, Wayne State University

Emerging from England in the 1970s, progressive rock is a genre of music that sought to resolve the stylistic dichotomies between rock, jazz, classical, and folk music.  Several sources have cited bands from this period as being influenced by Renaissance-era madrigals and galliards, though several other sources have questioned the authenticity of these claims.  To what extent do these progressive rock groups authentically embody the stylistic aspects of Renaissance music?  Furthermore, what where the socio-cultural conditions that would have driven musicians in this time period to adopt the music of the Renaissance?

Written in 1975 by the English rock band Gentle Giant, the song “On Reflection” will be used as a case study to reveal the methods progressive rock musicians used to co-opt the stylistic aspects of Renaissance music.  Instrumentation, points of imitation, and ornamentation will be analyzed in order to determine the authentic (as well as inauthentic) stylistic traits that embody Renaissance music.  Special attention will be given to the song’s use of a strict, parallel canon and its adoption of elements from the galliards of John Dowland.  Gentle Giant’s music will be assessed as a representative piece within the broader cultural fabric of its time, illuminating the aspects of post-WWII English culture that would have spurred twentieth-century musicians in the revival of Renaissance music.

Andy Jarema is a music educator, composer, and trumpet player in the metro-Detroit area.  He is a graduate of Michigan State University (B.M. in Music Education/Jazz Studies) and is currently pursuing a degree at Wayne State University (M.M. in Music Composition).  He has been active as a public school teacher for nine years, currently serving as a K-6 elementary music/ band teacher in the Warren Woods Public Schools.  In 2018 and 2019, Andy was selected to be a National Park Service Artist-in-Residence at Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Hawaii Volcanoes National Park (respectively).  His residencies involved recording natural sound throughout the national parks and creating electronically processed soundscapes and “nature beats” using the computer software Max/MSP.  He is currently working on his master's thesis, a musical sonification project that translates climate and weather data from NOAA’s web servers into notated music and electronically processed music.

12:00 PM • Lunch 
Complimentary with online registration in advance

1:30 PM • Keynote

Nahenahe: Hawaiian Music in Interesting Times 
Kevin Fellezs, Columbia University

The music of Kanaka Maoli or Native Hawaiians, which, despite a history of commodification beginning in the late nineteenth century, allows us to reclaim visions, or better, soundings, of a world that more fully served human flourishing because it was created under social relations based on a more equitable distribution of life-giving and life-sustaining resources. I do not mean to suggest that thinking about Hawaiian music in this way is a wistful longing to return to some imagined prelapsarian utopia. Rather, I want us to recalibrate our imaginations to encompass ways of life that more readily supported and maintained human flourishing through a more holistic conception of humans in nature, of nature, with nature; indeed, of humans inseparable from other forms of life and sentience on a shared biosphere we all call home. I want to suggest further that music has always been a vital part of that critical vision for Kanaka Maoli. With this broader context in mind, I will be speaking to the ways Native Hawaiians use—and have used—music as a signal element in their struggles to regain sovereignty, which include efforts to reestablish their sustainable Native Hawaiian agricultural and aqua-cultural practices, as a case study of musicking in interesting times.

Kevin Fellezs is an Associate Professor of Music at Columbia University, where he shares a joint appointment in African-American and African Diaspora Studies. His book titled Birds of Fire: Jazz, Rock, Funk and the Creation of Fusion (Duke University Press, 2011), a study of fusion (jazz-rock-funk) music of the 1970s, was awarded the 2012 Woody Guthrie Book Award. His second book, Listen But Don’t Ask Question: Hawaiian Slack Key Guitar Across the TransPacific (Duke University Press, 2019) is a transPacific study conducted in Hawai‘i, Japan, and California, into the ways in which Kanaka Maoli (Native Hawaiian) and non-Hawaiian guitarists articulate Hawaiian values and notions of belonging through their performances of kī hō’alu, or Hawaiian slack key guitar, in those three distinct locations. He has published articles on everything from jazz to heavy metal and Japanese enka in Jazz Perspectives, the Journal of Popular Music Studies, the Journal of the Society for American Music, the Journal of Metal Music Studies, and in numerous anthologies.

2:30 PM • Break

2:45 PM • Session III

New Techniques, New Sounds: Exploring and Developing Extended Techniques in Wesleyan’s New Music Ensemble, Fall 2019 
Devanney Haruta, Wesleyan University

Tyshawn Sorey, director of Wesleyan’s New Music Ensemble, expressed to me in an interview: “A lot of [new music] is very much sound-based. People are interested in dealing with the instrument on a timbral level and just exploding the possibilities of what an instrument can do.” Tyshawn highlights a relationship between improvised sound and instrumental technique, and this perspective frames my ethnography of Wesleyan’s New Music Ensemble of fall 2019. In this paper, I explore how students in the New Music Ensemble (NME) develop extended techniques on their instruments and how the ensemble’s foundation in improvisation encourages students to explore beyond traditional modes of performance, in both individual and group settings. I define “extended techniques” as ways of sounding an instrument that are non-traditional or unconventional, with the goal of exploring an instrument’s timbral possibilities. Many of the instruments in the NME – for instance, guitar, piano, and cello – carry “traditional” modes of performance, informed by historical practice and physical morphology. I show how students intentionally subvert or look outside the realm of these traditional techniques in order to access new sounds that they then contribute to ensemble rehearsals. In addition, I analyze “DISM,” a student composition that we rehearsed in preparation for our final concert, and show how we sonically and visually interpret other students’ techniques in order to successfully perform the piece. I draw from individual interviews that I conducted with each member of the ensemble, including the director, as well as from my fieldnotes, audio recordings, videos, and my role as a participant-observer. In addition, as an active performer with the NME from September to December 2019, I reflect on my own experience playing oboe in rehearsals and on my personal practice developing extended techniques. In this study, I am interested in considering musical instruments in dialogue with performers and as active participants in music-making. My instrument-centered approach follows in the footsteps of several ethnomusicologists, including John Baily (1977) and Eliot Bates (2012). This ethnography of the NME contributes to a broader understanding of how we perform, hear, and interpret instrumental techniques, both traditional and extended.

Devanney Haruta is a master’s student in Ethnomusicology at Wesleyan University, focusing her research in organology with a perspective that considers instruments as active agents in music-making. Her past research has focused on player pianos in domestic America during the early 20th century, exploring themes of agency, play, fantasy, and class. Passionate about engaging and educating public audiences in music, Devanney has worked for arts organizations in Rhode Island, Oregon, and Montana. At Wesleyan, she currently plays with the gamelan and taiko ensembles and is a graduate TA with the Wesleyan World Instrument Collection.

Expressing Mongolian Identity through Piano Performance 
Shuree Enkhbold, University of Arizona

This research focuses on musical works based on Mongolian folk elements and phenomena. Of the many folk-based works in the repertoire, most are influenced by pastoral lifestyle, folk songs, traditional instruments, or dance. Using Sharav Byambasuren as a focus composer, I explore characteristics of Mongolian classical piano compositions written after 1960. Mongolian studies and researches in ethnomusicology over the past decades have broadened people's understanding of the Mongolian culture, encouraging my work for the musical analysis of compositions inspired by the characteristics of Mongolian folk art. Dr. Jennifer Post's research article on Music, Musicians, Climate Change, and New Mobilities in Western Mongolia in which she discusses whether nostalgia plays any role in performances in the lives of the newly urban musicians as they reflect on pastoral lives has 
inspired my research. Tumen Ekh (Myriad’s Leader) piano cycle by Sharav Bymbasuren exhibit Mongolian identity through Mongolian folk elements; refined compositional techniques, and informed by the historical, social, and political context produced nationalistic treasures with enduring value. Sharav Bymbasuren's piano cycle directly quotes traditional songs from his homeland, the Hentii province, and from different ethnic groups. The overall research method for this study combines historical and ethnomusicological approaches to examine the phenomenon of Mongolian piano music and an analytical approach to studying musical scores. Analysis of this piano cycle demonstrates how Sharav uses Mongolian folk elements and successfully combined with modern compositional techniques. Through reflecting on my own experience of participating in music in Mongolia, I will present my editorial adjustments to distill guidelines for the interpretation of the folk song. The piano performance is redefining the old process of musical communication when communicating to urban and global audience. My interest in this research is to promote Mongolian music through my informed performance as it demonstrates the values of my documentation on unique styles and interpretations needs to be passed on to the next generation of pianists and audiences in both Mongolia and abroad. This research focuses on specific harmonic, melodic, and rhythmic choices that illustrate Mongolian identity, and that simultaneously define the composer's styles.

Shuree Enkhbold is a Mongolian-American pianist pursuing a PhD at the University of Arizona. She completed her undergraduate degree summa cum laude at age 19, received her Master of Music with distinction from DePaul University, and completed a Professional Performance Certificate at Lynn Conservatory of Music. Through a variety of professional and creative endeavors, Enkhbold has expanded her horizons and redefined what it means to be a doctoral student in the arts. She recently completed a minor in Entrepreneurship at the Eller School of Management and hopes to shape the world of classical music as an artist and cultural entrepreneur. As a naturalized immigrant, she is also interested in bringing the beauty of Mongolian culture to a wider, international audience. She received research funding for a seven-week fieldtrip to the Mongolian countryside, where she studied folk music. Enkhbold was featured in a documentary film titled 147 Pianos, which premiered at the Chicago International Music and Film Festival and Tucson Film Festival; she was a guest performer at both. She also produced a music video playing Ravel on a South Florida beach. As a consummate classical pianist, she won concerto competitions in 2014 and 2016 and performed with the Lynn and Mongolian Philharmonic Orchestras. She gave her debut performance at Carnegie Hall in 2016. Enkhbold was receipt of the Field Research Fellowship to work on her research project sponsored by the American Center for Mongolian Studies (ACMS), the Council of American Overseas Research Centers (CAORC), and the U.S. Department of Education.

3:45 PM • Break

4:00 PM • Session IV

Day of (Metrical) Wrath: Finding Meter Through the Dies irae Motive in Rachmaninoff’s Études-Tableaux Op. 39, No. 2 
Zachary Lookenbill, Michigan State University

Finding meter in Rachmaninoff’s Etude-Tableaux, Op. 39, No. 2., presents an issue as a result of various manipulations of the Dies irae motive. Temperley’s (1995) studies on motivic parallelism highlight the importance motive has on establishing meter, and Gretchen Horlacher’s method of retrospective reinterpretation (1995) is helpful in understanding how a listener might experience meter with the displacement of motive. The opening measures present the first four notes of the Dies irae motive, followed by a fragmentation of only two notes, resulting in a confusing metrical context. I consider various methods that allow for a parallel metrical reading of this passage, and others like it. Danuta Mirka’s parallel multiple-analysis processor (2009) provides a view for the possible constructions of meter given the multiple contexts in which the motive is presented. Almost every measure in the etude contains some reference to the motive, albeit transformed, and with each presentation comes a different abstraction of meter. Rachmaninoff often places this motive in a metrically dissonant context, so I rely on using analyses of the motive to aid in the definition of meter. Various manipulations of the Dies irae motive create a narrative that guides listeners through the metrically dissonant landscape, as the motive struggles to fit into a clear meter. Through analysis and discussion, I hope to better understand the use of this motive in a metrically dissonant and ambiguous environment, as it serves as an anchor to latch onto while guiding the listener through a metrical narrative.

Zachary Lookenbill is currently a master’s student in Music Theory at Michigan State University, and holds a B.M in Music Theory and Composition from West Chester University of Pennsylvania. He grew up studying piano and percussion and has performed in a variety of ensembles, including several years performing and teaching drum corps and drumline. Currently, his research is focused on Music Cognition, particularly concerning meter and rhythm, but is also interested in the piano music of Rachmaninoff. Zachary is a member of the Music Cognition lab at MSU where he assists faculty and undergraduate students with projects concerning timing, attention, and perception.

Metric Disruption as Text Expression in Three Songs by The Beatles 
Samantha Waddell, Michigan State University

In rock music, metric dissonance often articulates formal sections (Biamonte 2014). While this observation holds across the discography of The Beatles, metric dissonance also serves as an important text-expressive device. This dual role is especially pronounced in “She Said She Said,” “I Want You (She’s So Heavy)” and “Happiness Is A Warm Gun,” where metric dissonance portrays the protagonists’ inner thoughts. I account for these dissonance-producing metric disruptions using Lerdahl and Jackendoff’s (1983) Metrical Preference Rules (MPRs) and Metrical Well-Formedness Rules (MWFRs), Temperley’s (2001) modifications to these rules, and Krebs’s (1999) theory of metrical dissonance.

These songs feature three specific kinds of text-expressive metric disruption: (1) manipulation of the hypermeasure through the subtraction of weak beats or (2) through the addition of weak beats, and (3) grouping dissonances between interpretive layers. In “She Said She Said,” the subtraction of beats conveys the protagonist longing for the simpler times of childhood. He abruptly beings to reminisce, cueing the change of meter, with the rests between each statement of “Everything was right,” conveying his recollection of childhood memories. In “I Want You (She’s So Heavy),” the addition of beats delays the vocal entrance and builds tension—the listener is now anxiously awaiting the entrance of the voice, and this parallels the sexual tension between the protagonist and the woman he desires. In “Happiness Is A Warm Gun,” both of the previous techniques plus an instance of grouping dissonance (Krebs 1999) help to convey the protagonist’s euphoric state while immersed in a sexual fantasy.

Samantha Wadell is a first-year music theory master's student at Michigan State University. She earned her bachelor's in piano performance from the University of Evansville in Evansville, IN. While her research interests are still developing, her current interests include rhythm and meter in pop and rock music, and theme and variation.

5:00 PM • Closing Remarks

5:15 PM • Afterword
Draught Horse
1431 Cecil B. Moore Avenue 
Philadelphia, PA 19121

Travel To and From Campus

There is usually some street parking available on campus during the weekends. We suggest looking for spaces in an area marked by Cecil B. Moore Avenue to the south, West Norris Street to the north, North 10th Street to the east, and Broad Street to the west. If you would prefer a campus lot, daily and hourly rates are listed at the Campus Operations website.

Public Transportation
The local Broad Street Line serves Temple University from the Cecil B. Moore station. Be sure to take a Local train, as Express service will bypass campus. In addition, all regional rail lines that pass through center city Philadelphia stop at Temple, including the Airport line. The SEPTA website has a complete set of maps and schedules.