Complete List of Publications


  • Dessler, A.E., Mauritsen, T., and Stevens, B.: The influence of internal variability on Earth's energy balance framework and implications for estimating climate sensitivity, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 5147-5155, 2018. Reprint
  • Ye, H., Dessler, A.E., and Yu, W.: Effects of convective ice evaporation on interannual variability of tropical tropopause layer water vapor, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18, 4425-4437, 2018. Reprint


  • Smalley, K. M., Dessler, A. E., Bekki, S., Deushi, M., Marchand, M., Morgenstern, O., Plummer, D. A., Shibata, K., Yamashita, Y., and Zeng, G.: Contribution of different processes to changes in tropical lower-stratospheric water vapor in chemistry–climate models, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 8031-8044, 2017. Reprint
  • Avery, M. A., S. M. Davis, K. H. Rosenlof, H. Ye, and A. E. Dessler (2017), Large anomalies in lower stratospheric water vapour and ice during the 2015-2016 El Nino, Nature Geosci., 10, 405-409, 2017. Reprint 


  • Dessler, A.E., H. Ye, T. Wang, M.R. Schoeberl, L.D. Oman, A.R. Douglass, A.H. Butler, K.H. Rosenlof, S.M. Davis, and R.W. Portmann, Transport of ice into the stratosphere and the humidification of the stratosphere over the 21st century, Geophys. Res. Lett., 43, doi: 10.1002/2016GL067991, 2323-2329, 2016. Reprint
  • Schoeberl, M., A. Dessler, H. Ye, T. Wang, M. Avery, and E. Jensen, The impact of gravity waves and cloud nucleation threshold on stratospheric water and tropical tropospheric cloud fraction, Earth and Space Sci., 3, 295-305, doi:10.1002/2016EA000180, 2016. Reprint


  • Zhou, C., M.D. Zelinka, A.E. Dessler, and S.A. Klein, The relationship between interannual and long-term cloud feedbacks, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 10,463-10,469,  doi: 10.1002/2015GL066698, 2015. Reprint
  • Wang, T., A.E. Dessler, M.R. Schoeberl, W.J. Randel, and J.-E. Kim, The impact of temperature vertical structure on trajectory modeling of stratospheric water vapor, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 3517-3526, doi:10.5194/acp-15-3517-2015, 2015. Reprint
  • Yi, B., P. Yang, A. Dessler, and A. da Silva, Response of Aerosol Direct Radiative Effect to the East Asian Summer Monsoon, IEEE Geosci. and Remote Sensing Letters, 12,  597-600, doi: 10.1109/LGRS.2014.2352630, 2015. Reprint


  • Zhou, C., A.E. Dessler, M.D. Zelinka, P. Yang, and T. Wang, Cirrus feedback on interannual climate fluctuations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, 9166–9173, doi:10.1002/2014GL062095, 2014. Reprint
  • Schoeberl M. R., A.E. Dessler, T. Wang, M.A. Avery, and E.J. Jensen, Cloud formation, convection, and stratospheric dehydration, Earth and Space Science, 1, doi:10.1002/2014EA000014, 2014. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., M.R. Schoeberl, T. Wang, S.M. Davis, K.H. Rosenlof, and J.-P. Vernier, Variations of stratospheric water vapor over the past three decades, J. Geophys. Res., 119, doi:10.1002/2014JD021712, 2014. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E. and M.D. Zelinka, Climate Feedbacks. Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, eds. G.R. North, J. Pyle, and F. Zhang, 2nd edition, Vol 2, pp. 18–25, 2014. Reprint
  • Wang, T., W.J. Randel, A.E. Dessler, M.R. Schoeberl, and D.E. Kinnison, Trajectory model simulations of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) in the lower stratosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7135-7147, doi:10.5194/acp-14-7135-2014, 2014.  Reprint
  • Wang, C., P. Yang, A.E. Dessler, B.A. Baum, and Y. Hu, Estimation of the cirrus cloud scattering phase function from satellite observations, Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 138, 36-49, doi: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2014.02.001, 2014. Reprint
  • Kummer, J.R. and A.E. Dessler, The impact of forcing efficacy on the equilibrium climate sensitivity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2014GL060046, 2014. Reprint


  • Dessler, A.E., M.R. Schoeberl, T. Wang, S.M. Davis, and K.H. Rosenlof, Stratospheric water vapor feedback, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 110, 18,087-18,091, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1310344110, 2013. Reprint
  • Schoeberl, M. R., Dessler, A. E., and Wang, T., Modeling upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric water vapor anomalies, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 7783-7793, doi:10.5194/acp-13-7783-2013, 2013. Reprint
  • Zhou, C., P. Yang, A.E. Dessler, F. Liang, Statistical properties of horizontally oriented plates in optically thick clouds From satellite observations, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., 10, 986-990, doi:10.1109/LGRS.2012.2227451, 2013. Reprint
  • Zhou, C., M.D. Zelinka, A.E. Dessler, P. Yang, An analysis of the short-term cloud feedback using MODIS data, J. Climate, 26, 4803-4815, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00547.1, 2013. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E. and N.G. Loeb, Impact of dataset choice on calculations of the short-term cloud feedback, J. Geophys. Res.118, 2821-2826, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50199, 2013. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., Observations of climate feedbacks over 2000-2010 and comparisons to climate models, J. Climate, 26, 333-342, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00640.1, 2013. Reprint and Supplement
  • Huang, X.L., H.W. Chuang, A. Dessler, X.H. Chen, K. Minschwaner, Y. Ming, V. Ramaswamy, Radiative-convective equilibrium perspective of the weakening of tropical Walker circulation in response to global warming, J. Climate, 26, 1643-1653, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00288.1, 2013. Reprint


  • Wang, C, S. Ding, P. Yang, B. Baum, and A.E. Dessler, A new approach to retrieving cirrus cloud height with a combination of MODIS 1.24- and 1.38-micron channels, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L24806, doi: 10.1029/2012GL053854, 2012. Reprint
  • Wang, T. and A.E. Dessler, Analysis of cirrus in the tropical tropopause layer from CALIPSO and MLS data – A water perspective, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D04211, doi: 10.1029/2011JD016442, 2012.  Reprint
  • Zhou, C., P. Yang, A.E. Dessler, Y. Hu, and B.A. Baum: Study of horizontally oriented ice crystals with CALIPSO observations and comparison with Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations, J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol.51, 1426–1439. doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-11-0265.1, 2012. Reprint
  • Li, Y., P. Yang, G.R. North, A.E. Dessler: Test of the fixed anvil temperature hypothesis. J. Atmos. Sci., 69, 2317–2328, doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-11-0158.1, 2012. Reprint 
  • Schoeberl, M.R., A.E. Dessler, T. Wang: Simulation of stratospheric water vapor and trends using three reanalyses, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 6475-6487, doi: 10.5194/acp-12-6475-2012, 2012. Reprint


  • Schoeberl, M. R., and A. E. Dessler, Dehydration of the stratosphere, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, doi: 10.5194/acp-11-8433-2011, 8433-8446, 2011. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., Cloud variations and the Earth's energy budget, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L19701, doi: 10.1029/2011GL049236, 2011. Reprint


  • Dessler, A.E., A determination of the cloud feedback from climate variations over the past decade, Science, 330, doi: 10.1126/science.1192546, 1523-1527, 2010. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., and S.M. Davis, Trends in tropospheric humidity from reanalysis systems, J. Geophys. Res., 115, D19127, doi: 10.1029/2010JD014192, 2010. Reprint
  • Yang, P., G. Hong, A.E. Dessler, S.S.C. Ou, K.-N. Liou, P. Minnis, Harshvardan, Contrails and induced cirrus: Optics and radiation, Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 91, doi: 10.1175/2009BAMS2837.1, 2010. Reprint


  • Lee, J., P. Yang, A.E. Dessler, B.-C. Gao, S. Platnick, Distribution and radiative forcing of tropical thin cirrus clouds, J. Atmos. Sci., 66, doi: 10.1175/2009JAS3183.1, 3721-3731, 2009.  Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., Energy for air capture, Nature Geosci., 2, doi: 10.1038/ngeo691, 811, 2009.  Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., Clouds and water vapor in the northern hemisphere summertime stratosphere , J. Geophys. Res., 114, D00H09, doi: 10.1029/2009JD012075, 2009. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., and S. Wong, Estimates of the water vapor feedback during the El Nino Southern Oscillation, J. Climate, 22, 6404-6412, doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI3052.1, 2009.  Reprint
  • Wong, S., A.E. Dessler, N.M. Mahowald, P. Yang, and Q. Feng, Maintenance of lower tropospheric temperature inverstion in the Saharan Air Layer by dust and dry anomaly, J. Climate, 22, 5149-5162, doi: 10.1175/2009JCLI2847.1, 2009.  Reprint
  • Casey, S.P.F., A.E. Dessler, and C. Schumacher, Five-year climatology of midtroposphere dry air layers in warm tropical ocean regions as viewed by AIRS/Aqua, J. Appl. Met. Clim., 48, doi: 10.1175/2009JAMC2099.1, 1831-1842, 2009.
  • Dessler, A.E., and S.C. Sherwood, A matter of humidity, Science, 323, 1020-1021, doi: 10.1126/science.1171264, 2009.  Reprint
  • Fueglistaler, S., A.E. Dessler, T. J. Dunkerton, I. Folkins, Q. Fu, and P.W. Mote, The tropical tropopause layer, Rev. Geophys., 47, RG1004, doi: 10.1029/2008RG000267, 2009. Reprint


  • Dessler, A.E., Z. Zhang, and P. Yang, The water-vapor climate feedback inferred from climate fluctuations, 2003-2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L20704, doi: 10.1029/2008GL035333, 2008. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., P. Yang, J. Lee, J. Solbrig, Z. Zhang, and K. Minschwaner, An analysis of the dependence of clear-sky top-of-atmosphere outgoing longwave radiation on atmospheric temperature and water vapor, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D17102, doi: 10.1029/2008JD010137, 2008. Reprint
  • Wong, S., A.E. Dessler, N.M. Mahowald, P.R. Colarco, and A. da Silva, Long-term variability in Saharan dust transport and its link to North Atlantic sea surface temperature, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L07812, doi: 10.1029/2007GL032297, 2008. Reprint


  • Dessler, A.E. T.F. Hanisco, and S. Fueglistaler, Effects of convective ice lofting on H2O and HDO in the tropical tropopause layer, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D18309, doi: 10.1029/2007JD008609, 2007. Reprint
  • Casey, S.P.F., A.E. Dessler, and C. Schumacher, Frequency of tropical precipitating clouds as observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar and ICESat/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D14215, doi: 10.1029/2007JD008468, 2007.
  • Wong, S., and A.E. Dessler, Regulation of H2O and CO in Tropical Tropopause Layer by the Madden-Julian Oscillation, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D14305, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007940, 2007. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., and K. Minschwaner, An analysis of the regulation of tropical tropospheric water vapor, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10120, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007683, 2007. Reprint
  • Hanisco, T.F., et al., Observations of deep convective influence on stratospheric water vapor and its isotopic composition, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L04814, doi:10.1029/2006GL027899, 2007.


  • Minschwaner, K., A.E. Dessler, and P. Sawaengphokhai, Multi-model analysis of the water vapor feedback in the tropical upper troposphere, J. Climate, 19, 5455-5464, 2006. Reprint
  • Wong, S., P.R. Colarco, and A.E. Dessler, Principal component analysis of the evolution of the Saharan Air Layer and dust transport: Comparisons between a model simulation and MODIS and AIRS retrievals, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D20109, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007093, 2006. Reprint
  • Wu, W., A.E. Dessler, and G.R. North, Analysis of the correlations between atmospheric boundary-layer and free-tropospheric temperatures in the Tropics, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20707, doi: 10.1029/2006GL026708, 2006. Reprint
  • Wang, L., and A.E. Dessler, Instantaneous cloud overlap statistics in the tropical area revealed by ICESat/GLAS data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L15804, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024350, 2006. Reprint
  • Lee, J., P. Yang, A.E. Dessler, B.A. Baum, and S. Platnick, The influence of thermodynamic phase on the retrieval of mixed-phase cloud microphysical and optical properties in the visible and near infrared region, IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett., 3, 287-291, 2006. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., S.P. Palm, and J.D. Spinhirne, Tropical cloud-top height distributions revealed by the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat)/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS), J. Geophys. Res., 111, D12215, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006705, 2006. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., S.P. Palm, W.D. Hart, and J.D. Spinhirne, Tropopause-level thin cirrus coverage revealed by ICESat/GLAS, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D08203, doi: 10.1029/2005JD006586, 2006. Reprint


  • Wong, S., and A.E. Dessler, Suppression of Deep Convection over the Tropical North Atlantic by the Saharan Air Layer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L09808, doi: 10.1029/2004GL022295, 2005. Reprint


  • Dessler, A.E., and S.C. Sherwood, Effect of convection on the summertime extratropical lower stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 109(D23), D23301, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005209, 2004. Reprint
  • Wu, D. L., W. G. Read, A. E. Dessler, S. C. Sherwood, and J. H. Jiang, UARS MLS cloud ice measurements and implications for H2O transport near the tropopause, J. Climate, 62, 518-530, 2004.
  • Minschwaner, K., and A.E. Dessler, Water vapor feedback in the tropical upper troposphere: Model results and observations, J. Climate, 17, 1272-1282, 2004. Reprint
  • Kim, H., and A. E. Dessler, Observations of convective cooling in the tropical tropopause layer in AIRS data, Atmos. Chem. Phys, in discussion, 2004. On-line Discussion


  • Dessler, A.E., and S.C. Sherwood, A model of HDO in the tropical tropopause layer, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 3, 2173-2181, 2003. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., and E.M. Weinstock, Comment on "Balloon-borne observations of water vapor and ozone in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere" by H. Vömel et al., J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4136, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002811, 2003. 
  • Dessler, A.E., and P. Yang, The distribution of tropical thin cirrus clouds inferred from Terra MODIS data, J. Climate, 16, 1241-1248, 2003. Reprint
  • Sherwood, S.C., and A.E. Dessler, Convective mixing near the tropical tropopause: Insights from seasonal variations, J. Atmos. Sci., 60, 2674-2685, 2003. Reprint


  • Alcala, C.M., and A.E. Dessler, Observations of deep convection in the tropics using the TRMM precipitation radar, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D24), 4792, doi: 10.129/2002JD002457, 2002. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., The effect of deep, tropical convection on the tropical tropopause layer, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D3), 4033, doi: 10.1029/2001JD000511, 2002. Reprint


  • Sherwood, S.C., and A.E. Dessler, A model for transport across the tropical tropopause, J. Atmos. Sci., 58, 765-779, 2001. Reprint
  • Wu, J., and A.E. Dessler, Comparisons between modeled and measured polar ozone loss, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 3195-3201, 2001. Reprint


  • Dessler, A.E., and S.C. Sherwood, Simulations of tropical upper tropospheric humidity, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 20,155-20,163, 2000. Reprint
  • Sherwood, S.C., and A.E. Dessler, On the control of stratospheric humidity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2513-2516, 2000. Reprint


  • Dessler, A.E., Reply to a comment on “A reexamination of the ‘stratospheric fountain’ hypothesis” by Voemel and Oltmans, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2739, 1999. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., and H. Kim, Determination of the amount of water vapor entering the stratosphere based on HALOE data, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 30,605-30,607, 1999. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., J. Wu, M.L. Santee, and M.R. Schoeberl, Satellite observations of temporary and irreversible denitrification, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 13,993-14,002, 1999. Reprint


  • Considine, D.B., A.E. Dessler, C.H. Jackman, J.E. Rosenfield, P.E. Meade, M.R. Schoeberl, A.E. Roche, and J.W. Waters, Interhemispheric asymmetry in the 1 mbar O3 trend: An analysis using an interactive zonal mean model and UARS data, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 1607-1618, 1998.
  • Dessler, A.E., A reexamination of the "stratospheric fountain" hypothesis, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 4165-4168, 1998. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., M.D. Burrage, J.-U. Grooss, J.R. Holton, J.L. Lean, S.T. Massie, M.R. Schoeberl, A.R. Douglass, and C.H. Jackman, Selected science highlights from the first five years of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) program, Rev. Geophys., 36, 183-210, 1998. Reprint


  • Dessler, A.E., D.B. Considine, J.E. Rosenfield, S.R. Kawa, A.R. Douglass, and J.M. Russell, III, Lower stratospheric chlorine partitioning during the decay of the Mt. Pinatubo aerosol cloud, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 1623-1626, 1997. Reprint
  • Morris, G.A., D.B. Considine, A.E. Dessler, S.R. Kawa, J.B. Kumer, J.L. Mergenthaler, A.E. Roche, and J.M. Russell, III, Nitrogen partitioning in the middle stratosphere as observed by the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 8955-8965, 1997.


  • Dessler, A.E., S.R. Kawa, D.B. Considine, J.W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, and J.B. Kumer, UARS measurements of ClO and NO2 at 40 and 46 km and implications for the model "ozone deficit", Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 339-342, 1996. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., S.R. Kawa, A.R. Douglass, D.B. Considine, J.B. Kumer, A.E. Roche, J.W. Waters, J.M. Russell, III, and J.C. Gille, A test of the partitioning between ClO and ClONO2 using simultaneous UARS measurements of ClO, NO2, and ClONO2, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 12,515-12,521, 1996. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., K. Minschwaner, E.M. Weinstock, E.J. Hintsa, J.G. Anderson, and J.M. Russell, III, The effects of tropical cirrus clouds on the abundance of lower stratospheric ozone, J. Atmos. Chem., 23, 209-220, 1996. Reprint
  • Minschwaner, K., A.E. Dessler, J.W. Elkins, C.M. Volk, D.W. Fahey, M. Loewenstein, J.R. Podolske, A.E. Roche, and K.R. Chan, Bulk properties of isentropic mixing into the tropics in the lower stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 9433-9439, 1996. Reprint
  • Schoeberl, M.R., A.R. Douglass, S.R. Kawa, A.E. Dessler, P.A. Newman, and R.S. Stolarski, The development of the Antarctic ozone hole, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 20,909-20,924, 1996.


  • Boering, K.A., et al., Measurements of stratospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor at northern midlatitudes: Implications for troposphere-to-stratosphere transport, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2737-2740, 1995.
  • Dessler, A.E., et al., Correlated observations of HCl and ClONO2 from UARS and implications for stratospheric chlorine partitioning, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 1721-1724, 1995. Reprint
  • Dessler, A.E., E.J. Hintsa, E.M. Weinstock, J.G. Anderson, and K.R. Chan, Mechanisms controlling water vapor in the lower stratosphere: "A tale of two stratospheres", J. Geophys. Res., 100, 23,167-23,172, 1995. Reprint
  • Fahey, D.W., et al., In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at midlatitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 3065-3074, 1995.
  • Weinstock, E.M., E.J. Hintsa, A.E. Dessler, and J.G. Anderson, Measurements of water vapor in the tropical lower stratosphere during the CEPEX campaign: Results and interpretation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 3231-3234, 1995.


  • Dessler, A.E., E.M. Weinstock, E.J. Hintsa, J.G. Anderson, C.R. Webster, R.D. May, J.W. Elkins, and G.S. Dutton, An examination of the total hydrogen budget of the lower stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2563-2566, 1994. Reprint
  • Hintsa, E.J., E.M. Weinstock, A.E. Dessler, J.G. Anderson, M. Loewenstein, and J.R. Podolske, SPADE H2O measurements and the seasonal cycle of stratospheric water vapor, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2559-2562, 1994.
  • Salawitch, R.J., et al., The diurnal variation of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals: Implications for the heterogeneous production of HNO2, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2551-2554, 1994.
  • Salawitch, R.J., et al., The distribution of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals in the lower stratosphere: Implications for changes in O3 due to emission of NOy from supersonic aircraft, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2547-2550, 1994.
  • Weinstock, E.M., E.J. Hintsa, A.E. Dessler, J.F. Oliver, N.L. Hazen, J.N. Demusz, N.T. Allen, L.B. Lapson, and J.G. Anderson, New fast response photofragment fluorescence hygrometer for use on the NASA ER-2 and the Perseus remotely piloted aircraft, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 65, 3544-3554, 1994.


  • Avallone, L.M., D.W. Toohey, W.H. Brune, R.J. Salawitch, A.E. Dessler, and J.G. Anderson, Balloon-borne in situ measurements of ClO and ozone: Implications for heterogeneous chemistry and mid-latitude ozone loss, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 1795-1798, 1993.
  • Dessler, A.E., et al., Balloon-borne measurements of ClO, NO, and O3 in a volcanic cloud: An analysis of heterogeneous chemistry between 20 and 30 km, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 2527-2530, 1993. Reprint


  • Wennberg, P.O., R.M. Stimpfle, E.M. Weinstock, A.E. Dessler, S.A. Lloyd, L.B. Lapson, J.J. Schwab, and J.G. Anderson, A test of modeled stratospheric HOx chemistry: Simultaneous measurements of OH, HO2, O3, and H2O, Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 1909-1912, 1990.