Afrikos, Anglijos ir Pasaulio sveikatos organizacijos mokslininkai
nustatė, kad kas keturiolikta moteris pasaulyje buvo išprievartauta ne
intymaus partnerio, o svetimo asmens. Mokslininkai atliko 77 tyrimų
metaanalizę, kur sukaupti duomenys iš 56 valstybių apie 15 metų ir
Ne intymus partneris - tai nepažįstamas, draugas, kolega, mokytojas, kaimynas ar šeimos narys.
nustatė, kad 7.2 proc. moterų patyrė seksualinę prievartą. Tyrimo
išvados publikuojamos žurnale The Lancet (2014-02-11).
valstijose ir Kanadoje šis skaičius siekia 13 proc., Kongo
demokratinėje respublikoje - 21 proc., Namibijoje, Pietų Afrikoje ir
Zibabvėje - 17.4 proc., Naujojoje Zelandijoje - 16.4 proc..
Mažiausias procentas nustatytas Turkijoje (4.5proc.), Indijoje ir Bangladeše po 3.3 proc.
Europoje kaip Lietuvoje, Ukrainoje ir Azerbaidžane po 7 proc.- mažiau
nei centrinėje Europoje kaip Čekija, Lenkija, Kosovas, Serbijoje ir
Juodkalnijoje (po 10.7 proc.). Vakarų Europoje - Šveicarijoje,
Ispanijoje, Švedijoje, Jungtinėje Karalystėje, Danijoje, Suomijoje ir
Vokietijoje po 11.5 proc.
lytinio gyvenimo aspektai tampa šiek tiek sudėtingesni po menopauzės,
tačiau daugelis moterų išlieka seksualiai aktyvios, nes pripažįsta
lytinio gyvenimo svarbą, rašoma žurnale JAMA Internal Medicine (2014m.
Tyrime dalyvavo 354 moterys nuo 40 iki
60metų amžiaus, kurios tyrimo pradžioje buvo lytiškai aktyvios. Po
ketverių metų lytiškai aktyvios išliko 85 proc. moterų, tarp kurių
daugiausiai baltaodės ir neturinčios viršsvorio.
kurios manė, kad lytinis gyvenimas svarbus, tris kartus dažniau gyveno
lytinį gyvenimą nei tos, kurios sekso svarbos nesureikšmino.
HealthDay News. Jauniems vyrams testosteronas didina agresiją ir norą konkuruoti. Tačiau keturiems iš dešimties vyresnio nei 45 metų amžiaus vyrams testosterono kiekis ryškiai sumažėja, dėl ko vyrai jaučiasi pavargę, mažiau domisi seksu, tampa nevaisingi, plonėja kaulai. Pakaitinė testosterono terapija gali padėti kai kuriems vyrams, tačiau tai ne panacėja. Plačiau... 'Low T' Therapy: Is It for Me?
(HealthDay News) -- When men are young, testosterone tends to get a bad rap, often blamed for aggressive and overly competitive behavior. But as men get older, the bad rap continues, though for a different reason.
In older men, it's low testosterone that has captured attention.
Testosterone, the male hormone, plays a vital role in many body functions, and low testosterone levels can leave men tired, uninterested in sex, infertile and with thinning bones, according to the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
It's also a fairly common problem in older men. As many as four in 10 men older than 45 have lower than normal levels of testosterone, according to the American Urological Association.
But, replacing lost testosterone isn't a panacea, despite what you might have seen on TV.
"There's been a lot of advertising, and every guy that comes in now asks about testosterone," said Dr. Ryan Terlecki, a urologist at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center in Winston-Salem, N.C. "They've been led to believe that it's a fountain of youth, but it's not a cure-all."
For example, many men hope that testosterone therapy will help treat erectile dysfunction. But, Terlecki said that though testosterone is a treatment for low libido and taking replacement testosterone may increase a man's sex drive, it's not a direct treatment for erectile dysfunction.
Testosterone replacement also isn't an option for men who want to preserve their fertility. That's because when a man takes testosterone therapy, the testosterone receptors in the body tell the brain that there's enough testosterone, and, in turn, the brain signals the testes to stop producing sperm.
Terlecki said it's possible that sperm production could return to normal levels after testosterone therapy is stopped. But there's no solid evidence that it will, so doctors prefer to err on the side of caution if a man believes he might still want to have children.
Men who have active prostate cancer or male breast cancer also aren't candidates for testosterone therapy.
However, other men with symptoms of low testosterone may want to consider it. For starters, that includes men who "might notice a drop in energy and low libido," Terlecki said.
Dr. Steven Canfield, chief of urology at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, said that symptoms of low testosterone that men might notice also include "the development of breast tissue, a loss of body hair, small or shrinking testicles, no need for shaving, flushing, sweats and bone loss."
But, he said, there are less specific symptoms, too. Men with low testosterone might also notice "a decrease in self-confidence, feeling sad or depressed, problems with sleeping, memory problems, reduction in body mass, and a decrease in work performance," Canfield said.
All it takes to tell if a man's testosterone level is low, he said, is a simple blood test.
Although low testosterone is common in older men, it's not necessarily a normal part of aging. Other conditions that are common with aging, such as obesity or depression, can cause lower levels of testosterone, according to research presented at the Endocrine Society meeting in Houston this year.
Canfield said that testosterone levels can drop if testicular tissue is lost, which can happen with age. And Terlecki said that prior testicular trauma, undescended testicles and radiation treatment to the testicles also can cause lower testosterone levels. Testosterone levels can drop because of a pituitary tumor, though that's rare, he said. And some medications, such as narcotics, can also lower testosterone levels.
Several options exist for treating low testosterone. For men who want to keep their fertility, Terlecki said, the drug clomiphene can be prescribed. In men for whom that's no longer an issue, testosterone replacement therapy can boost testosterone levels.
Options for testosterone replacement, Canfield said, include injections, patches, a gel and implantable pellets. He said that a pill form of testosterone is available in other parts of the world, but not in the United States.
Injections are given once every two weeks, Terlecki said. The downside to this option is that injections provide a large dose of testosterone in the beginning but it drops fairly quickly.
Topical formulations, such as testosterone gel, are put on in the morning and absorbed within two to six hours and, if used consistently, provide a steady consistent dose of testosterone. "But, men have to remember to do it," Terlecki said. "And, they have to wait while the gel dries. It may leave the area feeling a little tacky."
Also, it's important not to expose children, pregnant women or women who may become pregnant to the testosterone on the skin because it can alter their hormonal balance.
Patches can provide a longer-term steady dose of testosterone, but they may cause irritation, Terlecki said. And implantable pellets, according to Canfield, can provide a steady, long-acting dose of testosterone. They're injected just underneath the skin on your backside during an outpatient office procedure.
This option is becoming increasingly popular because it lasts for four months and generally is inexpensive, Terlecki said.
Risks of testosterone therapy include an increase in the size of the prostate, water retention, worsening sleep apnea, a lower sperm count and an increase in the platelet count, which could increase the risk for blood clots, according to Canfield.
Both men agreed that testosterone therapy won't solve all of a man's health issues.
"The most important thing men need to know is that testosterone therapy isn't a substitute for taking care of overall health," Terlecki said. "A lot of men come in obese, with a poor diet and no exercise, and they want to blame low testosterone. While testosterone may play a role in their overall health, it needs to be viewed in context with these other factors."
The Urology Care Foundation has more about low testosterone.
SOURCES: Ryan Terlecki, M.D., urologist, Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Winston-Salem, N.C.; Steven Canfield, M.D., chief, division of urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
Medical Daily. Pirmą kartą istorijoje Kanados mokslininkai įrodė, kad nepakankama tėvo mityba, kurio dietoje trūksta vitamino B9 (folato), lygiai taip pat kaip ir motinos mityba turi ilgalaikį poveikį jų vaikams. Iki 30 proc. apsigimimų susiję su mažu vitamino B9 kiekiu vyro-tėvo organizme. Plačiau...
Father's Diet Before Conception Affects Health Of Offspring
When it comes to the health of offspring, it’s usually the mother who receives the focus about what to eat as well as what to avoid in the environment before and during pregnancy. But a recent Canadian study found that a father’s diet before conception could carry just as much weight with regard to a child's well-being.
A research team at McGill University that was headed by Sarah Kimmins showed for the first time that a father’s level of vitamin B9, or folate, is just as vital to the development and health of their offspring as the mother’s. The finding indicates that fathers need to be as mindful as mothers about their lifestyle and diet before conceiving a child.
Carrots Boost Sperm Performance By 8%
“Despite the fact that folic acid is now added to a variety of foods, fathers who are eating high-fat, fast food diets, or who are obese may not be able to use or metabolize folate in the same way as those with adequate levels of the vitamin,” Kimmins commented in a press release. “People who live in the Canadian North or in other parts of the world where there is food insecurity may also be particularly at risk for folate deficiency. And we now know that this information will be passed on from the father to the embryo with consequences that may be quite serious.” Green leafy vegetables, cereals, fruit, and meat are known to be good sources of folate, according to the study.
The researchers reached this conclusion about diet and heredity by adjusting folate levels in the diet of male mice. Male mice that had a folate deficiency had offspring with significantly more birth defects, such as craniofacial and musculoskeletal malformations, than mice that had fathers with sufficient folate levels.
“We were very surprised to see that there was an almost 30 percent increase in birth defects in the litters sired by fathers whose levels of folates were insufficient,” co-author, Romain Lambrot, of McGill’s Department of Animal Science, noted in the release. “We saw some pretty severe skeletal abnormalities that included both cranio-facial and spinal deformities.”
Mother’s Stress Passed On To Child Biologically
The researchers explained that the bridge between a father’s dietary habits and the health of their offspring lies in the epigenome; the mechanism that influences how genes are turned on and off. Parts of the sperm epigenome, explains the Kimmins team, are sensitive to life experience and diet. A father’s diet, for instance, can alter his so-called epigenome map in a manner that influences the development of his offspring, which can ultimately have a long-term impact on a progeny’s metabolism and vulnerability to diseases.
“Our research suggests that fathers need to think about what they put in their mouths, what they smoke and what they drink and remember they are caretakers of generations to come,” said Kimmins. “If all goes as we hope, our next step will be to work with collaborators at a fertility clinic so that we can start assessing the links in men between diet, being overweight, and how this information relates to the health of their children.”
Medical Daily. Nors daugelis bandymų sukurti kontraceptines tabletes vyrams baigėsi nesėkme, tačiau Melburno mokslininkai teigia, kad jų sukurtas hormonų ir proteinų kokteilis yra efektyvus eksperimentuose su pelėmis. Plačiau...
When Can We Expect A Contraceptive Pill For Men?
Of the advances in medical science, the ongoing quest to develop a male contraceptive pill is perhaps the most persistent. Unfortunately, many of the efforts have simply led to loose ends. Now, researchers from the University of Melbourne and the University of Leicester have collaborated on a study that they suggest could feasibly lead to the world’s first pill for men.
What makes this study unique compared to prior attempts is its treatment of the male’s sperm. Where others have sought to inhibit the sperm’s fertilization with the egg, or more popularly, destroy sperm altogether with a cocktail of hormones, the present study involves some logistical mix of the two. Scientists discovered that two key proteins along the smooth muscle cells, ?1A-adrenoceptor and P2X1-purinoceptor, which mediate sperm transport, made the sperm’s “launch” during ejaculation impossible.
"Previous strategies have focused on hormonal targets or mechanisms that produce dysfunctional sperm incapable of fertilization,” said study researcher Dr. Sab Ventura in a statement, “but they often interfere with male sexual activity and cause long term irreversible effects on fertility.”
Carrots Boost Sperm Performance By 8%
Blocking the triggering transport system in mice models could enable scientists to develop contraceptive options for men that bypass hormone treatments. These methods often employ a combination of testosterone and desogestrel, a synthetic steroid found in the female pill, which temporarily inhibits sperm production. The problem, frequently, is that hormonal options can create feelings of moodiness, depression, and even loss of sex drive.
The latest research claims to have avoided such side-effects with short-term infertility and long-term health of the sperm. "We've shown that simultaneously disrupting the two proteins that control the transport of sperm during ejaculation causes complete male infertility,” Ventura said, “but without affecting the long-term viability of sperm or the sexual or general health of males. The sperm is effectively there, but the muscle is just not receiving the chemical message to move it.”
Bacon Lowers Sperm Count
The cycle of research bubbling up, appearing hopeful, only to flat line later has made some people skeptical of new innovations. One of these skeptics is the father of the female version of the pill, himself, the eminent Stanford University chemist, Dr. Carl Djerassi. Djerassi noted in an essay for Wired in early November that he believes the male version of the pill is all but a fantasy.
A young woman will not ask whether continued use of her Pill would affect her fertility at 45 or 50, whereas many 20-year-old men would require a guaranteed answer. To provide an epidemiologically valid answer to a young man would be expensive, time-consuming (thus cannibalizing most of the potential patent life) and open to lawsuits, since men may blame their Pill for age-related erectile dysfunction and prostate-gland problems.
Despite Djerassi’s speculations, a 2005 survey suggests the demand is there. Some 55 percent of more than 9,000 male respondents on four continents said they’d be receptive to male fertility control (MFC). The one caveat researchers mentioned, however, was that such decisions are often made jointly between partners. And if they’re made by one person, it will often be the female. “This strong in?uence of females with regard to contraceptive choices,” the researchers conclude, “requires that the attitudes of women toward contraception in general, and MFC in particular, be more explicitly assessed in future studies of this nature.”
In the meantime, Ventura suggests the next avenue for exploration is developing the pill itself, given the immense success he and his colleague observed in their mice models. "This suggests a therapeutic target for male contraception,” he said. “The next step is to look at developing an oral male contraceptive drug, which is effective, safe, and readily reversible."
More from Medical Daily:
Medical Daily. Ištyrus daugiau kaip 15000 asmenų lytinio gyvenimo pokyčius technologijų amžiuje nustatytos trys esminės tendencijos: žmonės lytinius santykius turi rečiau, tačiau daugiau itechnologijų pagalba eško seksualinių ryšių, o moterys turi daugiau atitiktinių santykių. Plačiau...
How Technology Is Changing Sexual Habits
People are having sex less frequently in Britain, and some experts believe technology is to blame.
“People have tablets and smartphones, and they are taking them into the bedroom, using Twitter and Facebook, answering emails,” Dr. Cath Mercer, of University College in London, told BBC News.
Britain’s National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles polled over 15,000 people between the ages of 16 and 74 about their sex lives. Researchers conducted interviews with participants from Sept. 2010 to Aug. 2012, and then compiled the data into a comprehensive six-paper series. The survey boasts that it is “one of the biggest and most comprehensive studies of sexual behavior undertaken in a single country.” From their interviews, researchers found three important things: people are having sex less frequently, people are more apt to expand their sexual repertoire than before, and women are engaging in sex with more partners than before.
Women Are Less Likely To Orgasm During Casual Sex
“It reflects a shift away from sex being seen purely in the context of reproduction, [and] toward a greater emphasis on pleasure and recreation," said Kaye Wellings, head of social and environmental health research at the London School of Hygiene and Topical Medicine, according to the Associated Press.
Half of the study participants reported having sex at least three times during the month before the interview. When the survey was done in 1990, about half of the participants said that they had sex at least five times during the previous month. Wellings attributes the drop in how frequently people engage in sexual activity to the more widespread use of technology and the financial crisis. And she may be on to something.
"Technology is clearly a rampant influence in today's society and naturally it pulls focus from actual people,” Jo Hudson, founder of the Kinky Times, told the Huffington Post UK. “People touch their smart phones more than they touch their partners. For our money, phone bans at bedtime are as crucial as technology embargoes at the dinner table."
Pornography Increases Sexist Attitudes Among Men, But Not Women
And frequency of sex isn’t the only thing that’s changed since 1990. Brits reported expanding their sexual repertoire to include different body parts and more same sex partners. About 16 percent of women reported having had a same-sex experience, as compared to about seven percent of men. And both genders reported having more anal and oral sex as well.
But women, by far, seem to have embraced sexuality in a whole new way since the first study. According to AP, the average number of sexual partners reported by women has doubled since the first survey, moving up from four to eight. Among men, the average number of sexual partners rose from nine to 12.
“There's been a relaxation of constraints on sexual expression," said Debra Lynne Herbenick, who led a similar survey in the United States, according to AP. "People are now more free to explore their sexual interests."
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Medical Daily. Hormonas prolaktinas, kuris stimuliuoja moterų pieno liaukos vystymąsi ir pieno produkciją, vyrams yra vienas pagrindinių lytinės disfunkcijos veiksnių. Ištyrus beveik 3000 vyrų nuo 40 iki 79 metų testosterono ir prolaktino kiekius kraujyje nustatyta, jog kuo didesnis prolaktino kiekis kraujyje, tuo didesnė vyrų impotencijos rizika. Plačiau...
Men's Sexual Problems Linked To Breast Milk Hormone
The breast milk hormone responsible for stimulating breast development and milk production in women is found to be the major culprit of erectile dysfunction and other sexual issues in men. Low levels of prolactin may impair men’s sexual functioning as well as their psychological health, according to a recent study.
Prolactin is released by the pituitary gland as well as throughout other parts of the body, including the uterus, immune cells, the brain, breasts, the prostate, skin and adipose tissue in both men and non-pregnant women, according to You and Your Hormones, the official public information website of the Society for Endocrinology. The hormone is released into the bloodstream and circulates in the human body.
High levels or prolactin may lead to a condition called hyperprolactinaemia, which is commonly caused by pregnancy, medications that reduce dopamine action in the body, thyroid underactivity, and benign pituitary tumors. Female patients with hyperprolactinaemia may experience unwanted milk production, disturbances in their menstrual cycle, and symptoms of estrogen or testosterone deficiency. While high levels of prolactin have been associated with impotency in men, low levels of the hormone have now been found to increase sexual dysfunction.
Male Enhancement Through 4 Natural Libido Boosters
Researchers sought to investigate how levels of prolactin affected men’s sexual and psychological health. Nearly 3,000 men between the ages of 40 and 79 years old were measured for their testosterone and prolactin levels, body mass index (BMI), and blood cholesterol and sugar levels.
The participants were asked to fill out questionnaires about their general health, particularly about smoking, alcohol consumption, and sexual functioning in order to determine factors that trigger sexual problems in men. The McKinley Health Center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign says too much alcohol consumption may alter sexual response, which may cause anxiety for men when they try to attain an erection in the future.
Prolactin levels were shown to play the biggest role in the participants' sex drive. Men with low prolactin levels were found to have more issues with sexual health, as well as psychological health. The participants who had lower than average levels of the hormone — but still within the normal range — reported their sexual issues becoming increasingly worse, including their ability to orgasm. The researchers found health issues such as high BMI, lower levels of exercise, and feeling unhealthier were prevalent in men with less prolactin when compared to their counterparts, LiveScience reported.
Men With Big Necks More Likely To Be Bad In Bed, Suffer From Erectile Dysfunction
These findings contradict the well-accepted idea of high prolactin levels being linked to men’s sexual issues. The results of this study suggest that the hormone could have a positive impact in initiating or stabilizing male sexual behavior. The study does not prove a cause-and-effect relationship between prolactin and sexual functioning. The researchers speculate that low prolactin reflects a change in the levels of signaling chemicals in the brain that are responsible for regulating sexual behavior. Also, poorer physical and mental health could be an underlying reason for low prolactin and a lower sex drive, said the researchers.
Another study on prolactin levels found that participants between the ages of 65 and 70 who were married, physically healthy, and had no psychopathology or marital problems, had decreased libido when their levels of the hormone were high. Mild hyperprolactinaemia in aging men may possibly be associated with decreased sexual desire and frequency of sexual activity as suggested in this study.
The two studies provide contrasting findings of prolactin levels and its effects on male sexual behavior which may lead to the possibility of conducting further studies to further examine this indirect relationship.
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HealthDay News. Beveik ketvirtadaliui moterų, kurioms kliniškai pasireiškia inkstų ar šlapimo takų infekcija, šlapimo tyrime nenustatoma bakterijų, rašoma žurnale New England Journal of Medicine. Gydytojai teigia, kad gydymą būtina skirti net ir neradus bakterijų, todėl jau artimiausiu laiku šlapimo tyrimai gali nebūti būtini. Plačiau... Urine Tests Don't Always Confirm Urinary Infections, Study Finds
HealthDay News) -- When doctors suspect a patient has a urinary tract infection, they often request a urine sample so they can test for the presence of bacteria. Now, new research suggests this step may be unnecessary.
Nearly one-quarter of women who had signs of a urinary tract infection -- a burning feeling when urinating or feeling an urgent need to pee -- had no evidence of bacteria in their urine or in their bladders, the study found. And although a number of urine culture tests found a variety of different bacteria, only one bug --Escherichia coli -- was found in both the urine test and the bladder.
These findings suggest that today's lab tests may not be refined enough to detect very small quantities of bacteria in the bladder. It's also possible that the symptoms may not be caused by a bladder infection, but instead may be caused by an infection in the urethra, the tube that allows urine to pass out of the body. Or, inflammation in the urethra might be causing the symptoms, rather than bacteria.
"Our study provides further evidence that midstream urine cultures don't routinely need to be done. Most labs don't quantify low enough unless you specifically ask them to. Most women are treated right away for symptoms anyway, because the urine culture doesn't come back for two days," explained the study's lead author, Dr. Thomas Hooton, a professor of medicine at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine in Florida.
Hooton added that a short course of antibiotics is likely to be effective, and that it's important to keep studying urinary tract infections. In particular, he said, "we need to know more about exactly what causes symptoms."
Results of the study were published in the Nov. 14 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Urinary tract infections (also called UTIs or acute cystitis) are common bacterial infections, responsible for about 9 million doctor's visits in the United States every year, according to the study.
The bacteria responsible for the infection is generally found through a test of urine collected when someone goes to the bathroom. Urine collected directly from the bladder would yield more accurate results because there are fewer places for the urine to potentially become contaminated. But collecting urine from the bladder requires insertion of a catheter, an uncomfortable, invasive and more expensive procedure.
However, the 226 women included in the current study volunteered to collect a midstream urine sample, and immediately after allowed another sample to be collected directly from their bladder via a catheter.
All of the women were healthy, premenopausal women who had symptoms of a bladder infection.
When the researchers found E. coli in the midstream urine sample, it was also quite likely that they would find it in the bladder urine, too. However, when other types of bacteria were found in the midstream urine sample, they often didn't correlate to bacteria in the bladder.
The researchers also found that when other bacteria were in the midstream urine sample, E. coli was often present in the bladder urine samples.
"E. coli is probably causing most infections," said Hooton.
"Our findings are further confirmation that collection of urine has limited usefulness. You don't get the results back for two days, and just practically speaking, it's an added cost because we know E. coli causes most UTIs," noted Hooton.
If your physician decides to treat you without asking for a urine sample to culture, that's reasonable, said the author of an accompanying journal editorial, Dr. Michael Donnenberg, a professor of medicine, microbiology and immunology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore.
But Donnenberg noted that this study raises a number of questions, too: "Do bacteria in the urethra cause symptoms? And, if they do, does treating them make the symptoms go away more quickly?"
The test relied on today needs to be refined if it continues to be used in clinical practice, he suggested. Millions of these tests are still performed annually, he wrote in the editorial.
Both experts said more research on when antibiotics are helpful and when they're not might help reduce potentially unnecessary antibiotic use. Reducing unnecessary antibiotic use is important because of concerns about growing antibiotic resistance.
Learn more about urinary tract infections from the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
SOURCES: Thomas Hooton, M.D., professor of medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine; Michael S. Donnenberg, M.D., professor of medicine, and professor of microbiology and immunology, and director, medical scientist training program, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore; Nov. 14, 2013, New England Journal of Medicine
DailyRX. Asmenys, išgeriantys daugiau kaip 2 karbonizuotų gėrimų skardines per dieną, turi 1,28 karto didesnę riziką išsivystyti proteinurijai, teigiama naujo Japonų mokslininkų atlikto tyrimo išvadose. Tyrime dalyvavo 12026 asmenų. Plačiau...
Your Kidneys are Not Thirsty For Soda
It's okay to enjoy a soft drink every once in a while. But drinking lots of soda on a regular basis could be harmful for your kidneys, according to a recent study.
Video Overview: Your Kidneys Are Not Thirsty For Soda
Healthy kidneys filter waste products from the blood and keep other substances like protein in the blood. Proteinuria occurs when protein isn't properly filtered by the kidneys and is found in the patient’s urine.
Proteinuria is a sign of chronic kidney disease and other diseases that cause inflammation in the kidneys.
This recent study showed that people who drank two or more sodas a day were at greater risk of developing proteinuria compared to those who did not drink as much soda.
"Drink more water and limit your soda intake."
This study, which looked at the link between soft drink intake and proteinuria, was conducted by Ryohei Yamamoto, MD, PhD, from the Department of Geriatric Medicine and Nephrology at Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine in Japan, and colleagues.
These researchers analyzed data collected during the annual health exams of 12,026 employees at Osaka University Health Care Center between April 2006 and March 2011. Of these, 7,976 employees (66.3 percent) with normal kidney function were selected.
The 7,976 participants (average age 33, 50 percent male) with no signs of kidney malfunction answered a questionnaire regarding their daily soft drink intake, and proteinuria was assessed on a yearly basis from their first annual physical examination to March 2012.
The study reported that among these participants, 3,579 did not drink soda on a daily basis, 3,055 drank one soda daily, and 1,342 drank more than two sodas per day.
More: Kidney Disease News & Videos
The researchers found that some of the participants developed proteinuria during the observation period, which usually lasted between 1.5 years to 4.0 years. More specifically, 8.4 percent of the participants who did not drink soda, 8.9 percent who drank one soda daily and 10.7 percent who drank more than two sodas developed proteinuria during the median 2.9 years period of observation.
When the authors used statistical methods to estimate the rate of proteinuria among the three groups of participants (0, 1 and 2 or more drinks), they found that individuals who drank two or more sodas per day had a 1.28 times greater rate of proteinuria compared to those who did not drink any soda.
The researchers did not find significant differences between those who did not drink soda compared to those who drank one soda per day.
More: Healthy Eating & Diet News & Videos
Dr. Yamamoto further explained to dailyRx News, “Annual health examinations are mandatory in Japan. In future work, we will report results of longer observational periods. However, I believe that we’ll observe a similar trend.”
He concluded, “Overconsumption of soft drinks can potentially cause damage to your kidneys. Our study that included nearly 8,000 Japanese people revealed that consuming two or more soft drinks per day is a risk factor for proteinuria, a pivotal marker of kidney damage.”
This study was presented on November 9 at the American Society of Nephrology's Kidney Week in Atlanta, Georgia.
dailyRx: Relevant Health News
HealthDay News. naujo tyrimo duomenimis, vyrams, kurie vartoja testosterono papildus, po nedidelių kardiologinių procedūrų dažniau išsivysto insultas, infarktas ar net mirtis. Testosterono papildų vartojimo bumas prasidėjo po televizinės reklamos, kuriose teigiama, kad maža testosterono koncentracija sumažina libido ir didina nuovargį. Per pastarąjį dešimtmetį testosterono papildų vartojimas išaugo tris kartus. Plačiau...
Study Raises Questions About Testosterone Therapy
(HealthDay News) -- New research suggests that men who take testosterone supplements after undergoing a minor cardiac procedure are more likely to suffer strokes, heart attacks or die.
But it's not clear if there's truly an extra risk for these men. And urologists aren't calling for caution beyond the usual warnings about potential overuse of testosterone supplements.
"The investigators simply do not know all of the potential differences between the men who were treated with testosterone and those who were not," said Dr. Bradley Anawalt, an endocrinologist and chief of medicine service at the University of Washington Medical Center in Seattle. He was not involved with the study.
VA Eastern Colorado Health Care System cardiologist Dr. P. Michael Ho, a study co-author, acknowledged that the results don't confirm that testosterone supplements are especially risky for men with suspected heart problems. However, "this hopefully provides information that doctors can use when they discuss with their patients about whether to start or continue testosterone therapy," he noted.
Testosterone therapy has become a hot topic in doctor's offices in recent years as late-night TV ads warn male viewers that "low T" could explain fatigue and low libidos. A study earlier this year found that the use of testosterone therapy by U.S. men aged 40 and up tripled between 2001 and 2011.
Some urologists and endocrinologists warn that doctors are overprescribing the supplements, which can cost thousands of dollars a year and are linked to side effects such as blood clots, male breast growth and infertility.
In the new study, researchers looked at the medical records of more than 8,700 men in the United States who underwent angiographs, a procedure that uses scans to examine blood flow in the body. Angiographs are different from angiograms, in which doctors send catheters up into an artery to determine whether blood vessels are clogged.
All of the men in the study had testosterone levels that were considered to be on the low side; on average, the men were in their early 60s. A total of 1,223 of the men used testosterone therapy after their angiographs.
The researchers tracked the men for an average of 28 months and adjusted the study's statistics so they wouldn't be thrown off by high or low numbers of men with heart disease (almost all had signs of it). The investigators found that the men in the study were about 30 percent more likely to suffer a heart attack or stroke and to die after going on testosterone therapy, although these conditions weren't extremely common overall. (Nine percent of the men died.)
The study has limitations. It's not clear why men who went on testosterone therapy sought it in the first place. And the study didn't examine the benefits that the treatment could have brought to the men in terms of things like their sex lives, energy levels and overall happiness.
Study co-author Ho pointed out that the researchers tried to account for the possible effect of health conditions such as diabetes. It's conceivable that testosterone supplements could worsen sleep apnea and boost the risk of blood clots, he suggested.
Dr. John Amory, a professor of medicine at the University of Washington Medical Center, said the findings shouldn't worry people because they could easily be misleading. But they do point to the importance of research that will do a better job of identifying any risks from testosterone supplements. "The final verdict will wait," he said.
Amory added that testosterone treatment is definitely a good idea in certain cases, such as in a young man who's lost his testicles to cancer. In other men, especially those who are older and sicker, it's not as clear that the benefits outweigh the risks, he said.
The study appears in the Nov. 6 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association.
For more about testosterone, try the U.S. National Library of Medicine.