Naujo tyrimo duomenimis, prostatos vėžio stebėjimo taktika nėra taikoma taip jau dažnai, kaip rekomenduojama, ir taikomas gydymas, kuris nėra būtinas, rašoma žurnale JAMA Oncology. Tyrimo autoriai teigia, kad prostatos vėžiu sergantys pacientai gydomi per dažnai ir per dažnai jiems taikoma radioterapija. Plačiau...
(HealthDay News) -- New research suggests that a wait-and-watch approach for prostate cancer isn't being used often enough, and that more men are being treated than may be necessary. The study appears online Feb. 19 in JAMA Oncology.
Additionally, the researchers expressed concern about the numbers of men being treated with radiation therapy, regardless of their tumor specifics. "Too many men are being treated for prostate cancer, and too many are being treated with radiation therapy," study lead author Karim Chamie, M.D., an assistant professor of urology at the University of California in Los Angeles, told HealthDay.
In the new study, the researchers aimed to figure out why many men don't choose the wait-and-watch option. The investigators tracked 37,621 men in the United States who were diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2004 and 2007. The researchers followed the men, who were all at least 65 when diagnosed, through 2009. Only 10 percent of those diagnosed chose to forgo treatment, at least temporarily, the investigators found. Almost 58 percent of the men chose radiation therapy, while 19 percent had their prostate removed.
Sandip Prasad, M.D., an assistant professor of urology at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston, who co-wrote a commentary in the same issue of the journal, didn't go as far as to say that radiation is overused. Still, he told HealthDay: "We believe treatment -- radiation or surgery -- shouldn't be 90 percent of what's being done."
Saulės ultravioletinių spindulių sukeltas odos pažeidimas, tęsiasi dar ilgai po saulės poveikio. Ląstelėje susidarantis melaninas ne tik apsaugo nuo UV spindulių (teigiams poveikis), bet ir pažeidžia DNR (neigiamas poveikis). Melanocituose, kuriuose nėra melanino, DNR pažeidžiamas tik veikiant UV spinduliams. Plačiau...
(HealthDay News) -- Skin damage caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation continues long after sun exposure, even in the dark, according to a study published in the Feb. 20 issue of Science.
Researchers exposed mouse and human melanocytes to UV radiation. In melanocytes with melanin, DNA damage occurred not only immediately, but also hours after UV exposure ended. In melanocytes that didn't have melanin, the damage occurred only during UV exposure.
It was thought that melanin protected the skin by blocking UV light, but this study found that melanin has both protective and harmful effects. "If you look inside adult skin, melanin does protect against cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. It does act as a shield. But it is doing both good and bad things," said study author Douglas Brash, Ph.D., in a Yale University School of Medicine news release. Brash is a clinical professor of therapeutic radiology and dermatology at Yale.
Scientists explained the process that caused DNA-related damage in the dark. UV light activated enzymes that stimulated melanin. This process, called chemiexcitation, created the same DNA damage in the dark that sunlight caused in daytime, according to the researchers. Chemiexcitation is a slow process and it may be possible to develop ways to prevent it, such as "an evening-after" sunscreen that might be able to block the transfer of damaging energy to the skin cells, the researchers said.
Propranololis efektyvus ir kol kas vienintelis vaistas gydant kūdikių hemangiomas, rašoma žurnale New England Journal of Medicine. Skiriant propranololio 3 mg/kg per dieną, po 24 gydymo savaičių 60 proc. gydytų kūdikių hemangiomos išnyko arba beveik išnyko, palyginus su placebo - 4 proc. Plačiau...
(HealthDay News) -- Propranolol (Inderal) appears to be effective in treating infantile hemangiomas, according to research published in the Feb. 19 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
The researchers identified 460 infants 1 to 5 months old with infantile hemangioma. They were randomly assigned to take one of four doses of propranolol, or a placebo. After 24 weeks of treatment, the most effective dose of propranolol was 3 milligrams per kilogram of body weight daily, the researchers found.
Among infants receiving that dose, 60 percent had their birthmark disappear or nearly disappear, compared with 4 percent of babies receiving a placebo. In all, 88 percent of infants treated with propranolol showed improvement by the fifth week, compared with 5 percent of the infants given the placebo. The researchers added that one in 10 babies getting propranolol needed another round of therapy. Side effects of propranolol were rare, the researchers said. And the rate of side effects did not differ significantly between the propranolol group and the babies receiving a placebo.
"Propranolol is the first and only medical treatment approved to treat infantile hemangioma," lead study author Christine Leaute-Labreze, M.D., a pediatric dermatologist at the University of Bordeaux in France, told HealthDay.
The study was funded by Pierre Fabre Dermatologie, the French drug company that makes propranolol for infants.
Likopenai, kurių gausu pamidoruose, aitriuosiuose pipiruose, mažina inkstų ląstelinės karcinomos riziką, rašoma žurnale Cancer. Nustatyta, kad gausesnis likopenų vartojimas susijęs su 39 procentais mažesne vėžio rizika. Tyrime dalyvavo 240 pomenstruacinio amžiaus moterų. Plačiau...
(HealthDay News) -- For postmenopausal women, lycopene intake seems to be inversely associated with the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), according to a study published in the Feb. 15 issue of Cancer.
Won Jin Ho, M.D., from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, and colleagues examined the correlation between antioxidant micronutrients and the risk of RCC. Data were included for 96,196 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative between 1993 and 1998 who were followed through July 2013. A baseline food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate dietary micronutrient intake, and an interview-based inventory procedure was used to collect data on supplement use. Follow-up surveys were used to ascertain RCC cases.
The researchers identified 240 women with RCC during follow-up. There was an inverse correlation for lycopene intake with RCC risk (P = 0.015); the highest versus the lowest intake was associated with a 39 percent lower risk of RCC (hazard ratio, 0.61). There were no other correlations for micronutrients with RCC risk.
"The current results suggest that further investigation into the correlation between lycopene intake and the risk of RCC is warranted," the authors write.
Nors per pastarasias dekadas kolorektalinio vėžio atvejų skaičius mažėja, tačiau per pastaruosius 20 metų šio vėžio atvejų padaugėjo tarp jauno ir vidutinio amžiaus amerikiečių, rašoma žurnale Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology. Informacija surinkta iš 231544 kolorektinio vėžio atvejų. Pusė atvejų nustatyta vyrams ir 71 proc. baltaodžiams. Pagal amžiaus grupes - 0,4 proc. nuo 20 iki 29 metų, 2 proc. nuo 30 iki 39 metų, 7 proc. - nuo 40 iki 49 metų. Plačiau...
(HealthDay News) -- Although the overall rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) has fallen in recent decades, new research suggests that over the last 20 years the disease has been increasing among young and early middle-aged American adults. Results of the study were published in the December issue of the Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology.
The study focused on data collected by the California Cancer Registry. This registry included information on 231,544 CRC cases diagnosed between 1988 and 2009. Half the cases were in men, and 71 percent occurred in whites. Less than half a percent (0.4 percent) of those with CRC were between the ages of 20 and 29. Two percent were between the ages of 30 and 39 and 7 percent were between the ages of 40 and 49 when diagnosed with CRC.
The researchers found that between 1988 and 2009, the biannual CRC rates had been rising by 2.7 percent among males 20 to 29 and 40 to 49. Among males 30 to 39, the biannual increase was found to be even higher, amounting to 3.5 percent. In young women, the increases were even higher. Women aged 20 to 29 saw a 3.8 percent biannual increase, according to the study. Those in their 30s saw a 4.5 percent increase, and women in their 40s had a 2.6 percent biannual increase. By contrast, both males and females in their 50s, 60s, and 70s saw a decrease in their CRC rates during the study period.
"We're not saying the proportion is shifting," study coauthor Jason Zell, D.O., M.P.H., an assistant professor in the departments of medicine and epidemiology at the University of California, Irvine, told HealthDay. "Most colon cancer is still happening to older people. But I do think we need to do a much better job at early-age detection. Because another thing we observed is that those young adults who get colon cancer have a higher stage of cancer at diagnosis. And that has terrible implications when we look at survival." But what exactly is driving the trend? "That's the 20-million-dollar question right there," said Zell, who acknowledged that there is no simple explanation at hand. "But what I can say is that we need more awareness of the trend among both patients and doctors. Because at this point, key symptoms among young adults, like blood in the stool, weight loss, or other complaints, are often ignored."
Amerikos klinikinės onkologijos asociacija (ASCO) paskelbė, kad didžiausias pasiekimas klinikinė onkologijoje yra lėtinės limfocitinės leukemijos gydymo transformacija - atsirado du skirtingi imunoterapijos vaistai (obinutuzumab ir ofatumumab), kurie stabdo ligos progresavimą kai kombinuojami su standartine chemoterapija chlorambucilu. Taip pat atsirado du nauji vaistai (ibrutinib ir idelalisib), kurie naudojami, kai išsivysto atsparumas standartiniam gydymui ar liga recidivuoja. Plačiau...
(HealthDay News) -- The biggest clinical cancer advances for 2015 have been identified in an annual report from the American Society of Clinical Oncology, published online Jan. 20 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.
Gregory A. Masters, M.D., from the American Society of Clinical Oncology in Alexandria, Va., and colleagues note that the biggest advance in cancer research for 2015 is the transformation of treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), with the approval of four new therapy options for the most common form of adult leukemia. The new treatment options include two different immunotherapy drugs, obinutuzumab and ofatumumab, which delay disease progression when given in combination with the standard chemotherapy chlorambucil. These drugs are suitable for previously untreated patients who are unable to tolerate the adverse effects of standard CLL treatments. In addition, new targeted drugs, ibrutinib and idelalisib, are effective therapies for patients with previously treated CLL that has become resistant to standard treatment or relapsed.
The report also addresses the importance of value in cancer care, and emphasizes the role of federally funded cancer research, with almost one-third of featured studies supported by federal funding. This research includes survival gains for advanced prostate cancer and preservation of fertility for women with early-stage breast cancer.
"These new therapies fill an enormous need for thousands of patients living with CLL," Masters said in a statement.
Several authors disclosed financial ties to the pharmaceutical industry.
Danijos mokslininkai, ištyrę 317 smegenų glioma pacienčių ir 2126 šia liga nesergančių bendraamžių, nustatė, kad hormoniniai kontraceptikai didina gliomos riziką. Rizikos dydis priklauso nuo kontraceptikų vartojimo trukmės. Metus vartojant hormoninius kontraceptikus, gliomos rizika padidėja 40 proc., o vartojant 5 metus ir daugiau - beveik du kartus. Glioma yra retas auglys, kuris išsivysto penkioms iš 100000 moterų nuo 15 iki 49 metų amžiaus. Plačiau...
(HealthDay News) -- The risk for developing a glioma appears to go up with long-term use of hormonal contraceptives, new research suggests. The findings were published online in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology.
David Gaist, M.D., Ph.D., professor of neurology at Odense University Hospital in Denmark, and colleagues looked at government data on all Danish women between the ages of 15 and 49 who had developed a glioma between 2000 and 2009. In all, investigators identified 317 glioma patients, among whom nearly 60 percent had used a contraceptive at some point. They then compared them to 2,126 glioma-free women of similar ages, about half of whom had used contraceptives.
Use of hormonal contraceptives did appear to bump up the risk for glioma, the researchers found, and the risk seemed to rise with the duration of use. For example, women who had used any type of hormonal birth control for less than one year had a 40 percent greater risk for glioma compared with non-users. And those who had used the drug for five years or more saw their risk nearly double compared to non-users. In addition, Gaist's team found that glioma risk seemed to go up most sharply for women who had used contraceptives containing the hormone progestogen, rather than estrogen.
Women under 50 with a glioma "were 90 percent more likely to have been using hormonal contraceptives for five years or more, compared with women from the general population with no history of brain tumor," Gaist told HealthDay, while stressing that the findings "need to be put in context" for women because "glioma is very rare." Only five out of every 100,000 Danish women between the ages of 15 and 49 develop the condition each year, according to Gaist. He said that figure includes women who take contraceptives such as the birth control pill. So, "an overall risk-benefit evaluation favors continued use of hormonal contraceptives."
Reguliarūs fiziniai pratimai nesumažina igalaikio sėdėjimo poveikio sveikatai. Igalaikis sėdėjimas didina širdies ligų, diabeto (rizika padidėja 90 procentų), vėžio (krūties, storųjų žarnų, gimdos ir kiaušidžių) ir mirties riziką. Plačiau...
(HealthDay News) -- Regular exercise doesn't erase the higher risk of serious illness or premature death that comes from sitting too much each day, a new review reveals. The research is published in the Jan. 20 issue of Annals of Internal Medicine.
Combing through 47 prior studies, Aviroop Biswas, a Ph.D. candidate at the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute-University Health Network, and colleagues found that prolonged daily sitting was linked to significantly higher odds of heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and dying. And even if study participants exercised regularly, the accumulated evidence still showed worse health outcomes for those who sat for long periods, the researchers said. However, those who did little or no exercise faced even higher health risks.
The biggest health hazard stemming from prolonged sitting, according to the review, was a 90 percent higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Among studies examining cancer incidence and deaths, significant links were specifically noted between sedentary behavior and breast, colon, uterine, and ovarian cancers. One study in the review showed that less than eight hours of sitting time per day was associated with a 14 percent lower risk of potentially preventable hospitalization.
Among the studies reviewed, the definition of prolonged sitting ranged from eight hours a day to 12 hours or more. Sitting, or sedentary activities ubiquitous with sitting such as driving, using the computer, or watching television, shouldn't comprise more than four to five hours of a person's day, Biswas toldHealthDay, citing guidelines issued by the Public Health Agency of Canada.
Atlikus 99128 moterų tyrimą, kuris truko 20 metų, nustatyta, kad paauglystėje sirgusios jaunatviniais spuogais moterys dažniau suserga melanoma, kintamųjų pakoreguotas rizikos koeficientas siekia 1,44. Taigi jaunatvinius spuogus moterims galima vertinti kaip naują melanomos rizikos veiksnį. Plačiau...
(HealthDay News) -- There appears to be an association between teenage acne and melanoma, according to a study published online Jan. 8 in Cancer.
Mingfeng Zhang, M.D., Ph.D., from the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, and colleagues followed 99,128 female nurses in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort for 20 years to examine the risk of eight specific cancers.
The researchers found that among women with a history of severe teenage acne, the relative risk increased for melanoma after adjustment for previously known risk factors for each cancer, with a multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of 1.44. In an independent melanoma case-control study involving 930 cases and 1,026 controls, the association was replicated (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio, 1.27). In both studies, those with teenage acne were more likely to have moles (52.7 versus 50.1 percent [P < 0.001] in the cohort study; 55.2 versus 45.1 percent [P = 0.004] in the case-control study).
"Our findings suggest that a history of teenage acne might be a novel risk factor for melanoma independent from the known factors, which supports a need for continued investigation of these relationships," the authors write.
Daugeliu gerybinių ginekologinių ligų gydymo atvejų turėtų būti pasiūlytas alternatyvus gydymas, o ne vien atliekamos histerektomijos, rašoma žurnale American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Ištyrus 3397 atvejus po gimdos pašalinimo operacijos dėl gerybinių indikacijų, kaip gimdos fibroidai, kraujavimai, endometrijozė ar dubens skausmai, nustatyta, jog alternatyvus gydymas nebuvo dokumentuotas 37,7 proc. pacienčių. Plačiau...
(HealthDay News) -- In many cases, treatments other than hysterectomies could be offered to women with benign gynecologic conditions, according to research published online Dec. 23 in theAmerican Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.
Lauren E. Corona, of Wayne State University in Detroit, and colleagues analyzed data for 3,397 women who underwent hysterectomies for benign indications, including uterine fibroids, abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), endometriosis, or pelvic pain, at 52 hospitals in a statewide collaborative.
The researchers found that no alternative treatment was documented prior to hysterectomy for 37.7 percent of patients. Alternative treatment was significantly more likely to be considered for women younger than 40 years (68 percent) than for those aged 40 to 50 years (62 percent) or those older than 50 years (56 percent). Unsupportive pathology for hysterectomy was found in 18.3 percent of patients. Unsupportive pathology was more frequently found in women younger than age 40 years, in those with indications of endometriosis or pelvic pain, and in those with smaller uteri.
"This study provides evidence that alternatives to hysterectomy are underutilized in women undergoing hysterectomy for AUB, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, or pelvic pain," the authors write.
One author disclosed financial ties to the biomedical industry.