Assessing Teaching Presence on Computer Conferences - Teaching Presence

Teaching Presence



Teaching Presence

Content Analysis

Theoretical Framework


Unit of Analysis

System Dynamics Model





EDTEC 650 Assignments HOME 

EDTEC Assignments Home



To examine learning and teaching in computer conferences, Garrison, Anderson, and Archer (2000) developed the “Community of Inquiry” model that contained three overlapping elements, cognitive presence, social presence, and teaching presence. They argued that these three elements were indispensable for supporting the creation of deep and meaningful learning results. Among the three, teaching presence was the one that assessed the role, behaviors and the primary responsibility of online teachers. Teaching presence is the most essential elements among the three because “Appropriate cognitive and social presence, and ultimately, the establishment of a critical community of inquiry, is dependent upon the presence of a teacher” (Garrison et al., 2000).

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According to Garrison et al. (2000), “Teaching presence is defined as the design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educational worthwhile learning outcomes.” Learning and teaching in an online environment are like teaching and learning in other formal educational context. Learner needs are analyzed; framework and strategies are prescribed; content is designed and developed; learning activities are implemented; and learning outcomes are assessed. However, computer-mediated platform creates a unique learning environment. The most compelling feature of this context is the capability for supporting synchronous or asynchronous educational interactions and the ability to deliver content in various formats such as text, video, audio, and multimedia.  Both teachers and students could create content that are accessible in every home and workplace. Today, many educators would agree that technology is ready for supporting effective teaching and learning; however, what kind of teaching presence tends to spur the most debate, discussion, critical thinking, and knowledge construction?

Effective teaching presence demand explicit and detailed discussion of the criteria on which student learning will be assessed. A teacher who cultivates a presence of flexibility, concern, and empathy will reflect these characteristics in the style and format of assessment (< xml="true" ns="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" prefix="st1" namespace="">Anderson, 2004).


Can teaching presence be established and sustained upon interposing of communication technologies? Garrison’s research (2000) suggested, “Teaching presence can be created and sustained in computer-conferencing environment, despite the absence of non-verbal and paralinguistic cues.”