Military Leaders

General MacArthur  (1880-1964)  was born in Arkansas on January 26, 1880. In 1910, he graduated from West Point, earning one of the highest academic records in the school's history. In World War I, he was named chief of staff of the 42nd Division. He also served in France. In 1930, he became the Army's chief of staff. He became frustrated however: due to the Great Depression, he was not able to update and modernize. In July of 1941, FDR named him Commander of U.S. forces in the Far East. He led the successful defense of the Philippines, for which he received the Congressional Medal of Honor. In October of 1944, he became a five-star general. For six years after the war, be oversaw the Allied occupation of Japan. He also led the U.S. Far East Command from 1947 to 1951.

 Admiral Chester Nimitz- Was a submarine commander in ww1. he was selected to serve as Chief of the Bureau of Navigation. He was in this role when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor.Ten days later, Nimitz was selected to replace Admiral Husband Kimmel as Commander-in-Chief of the US Pacific Fleet. Officially taking command on December 31, Nimitz immediately began efforts to rebuild the Pacific Fleet and halt the Japanese advance across the Pacific.On March 30, 1942, Nimitz was also made Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Ocean Areas giving him control of all Allied forces in the central Pacific. Initially operating on the defensive, Nimitz's forces won a strategic victory at the Battle of the Coral Sea.The following month, they scored a decisive triumph over the Japanese at the Battle of Midway.


General Jimmy Doolittle- As an army enlistee during World War I, he became an expert aviator and flight instructor. He stayed in the Army Air Corps after the war, was promoted to first lieutenant in 1920.With the outbreak of World War II, Doolittle returned to active duty in the Army Air Forces. On April 18, 1942, he commanded a bombing mission that began on the deck of the aircraft carrier Hornet. Sixteen B-25s struck Tokyo, Yokohama, and other Japanese cities. The planes then proceeded westward, and most of the crews arrived safely behind friendly lines on the Chinese mainland. While the raid did little damage, it greatly bolstered U.S. morale and caused the Japanese to shift precious resources to air defense.Doolittle, made a brigadier general after the raid, received the Congressional Medal of Honor for his actions and soon was promoted to major general.


General Hideki Tojo - Prime minister of Japan (October 1941 - July 1944). With a long militarist tradition, Japan became extremely militarist and aggressive in the 1930s and was practically governed by military leaders. Tojo, an aggressive army General, became minister of war in July 1941 and prime minister in October 1941. After a short attempt to improve relations with the US failed, he ordered to go to war and attack Pearl Harbor in December 1941. He gradually took more ministerial roles, and in Feb. 1944 also made himself the commander in chief, like Adolf Hitler did. When he realized that Japan was going to lose the war he resigned. The military continued to control Japan until the end of World War 2, which came when the Emperor Hirohito which was until then passive, ordered to surrender in order to prevent further inevitable destruction of Japan. After the war Tojo was executed for his responsibility to Japan's war crimes.


Lieutenant General Ushijima- Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushijima was the Japanese Army commander in southern   Okinawa during the American invasion. He had two divisions and two mixed brigades of the 32nd Army under his command. After losing ground to the advancing American forces, he refused to surrender. A few days later Ushijima commited suicide after losing Okinawa.


Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto- Minister of the Navy and Commander in Chief of the 1st Fleet. Yamamoto was the architect of the Japanese carrier forces and planned the surprise attack on the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbour. Yamamoto was killed when his aircraft was shot down following the discovery of his flight plans by the Americans in April 1943