McKimm, Jollie, & Cantillon. (2003). Web based learning. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 326(7394), 870-873.
Retrieved from: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1125774
This article spoke to the entire web based learning audience with emphasis on the medical field. An explanation of how web based learning works and the assessing of it. A detailed outline of the technology involved and the role each device plays was discussed and dispalyed. This article spoke volumes to the benefits of online or distance learning where strong support and resources are available. These writers opted to explain and compare e-learning to virtual learning environment (VLE) and managed learning environment (MLE) and stated that the choice should be based on each individual’s needs. Assessing the advantages and disadvantages of web based or e-learning strongly supported web based learning and its benefits.
This article impressed me with advocating for web based learning for those that a focused on the medical field. As we know doctors are very busy, but should be learning about new drugs and new procedures daily. With the internet and e-learning it is possible for doctors to remain aware of new and proven practices while remaining available to their patience.
Submitted: 10/03/2015 adean
Sundberg, M. D. (2002). Assessing student learning. Cell Biology Education, 1, 11–15. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.02-03-0007
This article was written with a primary focus on assessing biology education research. This article shared many assessment practices, advantages, disadvantages, and other assessment tools. This article also explains that there are many ways to examine a student’s learning, but also evaluates the instructor’s abilities as well. This article explained the importance of quantitative assessments, the difference between qualitative and quantitative assessments, advantages and disadvantages of both post and pretests. Lastly, this article addressed mandatory assessments and why these rules are in place for accredited higher learning facilities.
This article was well written and was easy to read, follow, and understand. Several suggestions were given for ideas on which assessments work best for each study. This article was geared toward biology majors, but most ideas could be used in other scenarios as well. http://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.02-03-0007
Submitted: 10/03/2015 adean
Aleckson,J (2011) Evaluating E-learning. Retrieved on: March 18, 2012
This article was both informative and interesting , what I found to be most helpful was, “what is the purpose of the course” he suggests that answering this question can make all the difference in regards to what needs to be incorporated in the development of the course. This article discusses from an evaluator’s perspective and the necessary components that make the program effective and successful. The author also touches what he looks for in regards to the standards in the evaluation process, there are four and they all deal directly with the course components and address certain aspects of the course development. Finally he mentions the importance of looking at the course as a whole but paying attention to detail as well.
I found this article to be very descriptive and informative, regarding what needs to be in place in order to establish and develop a good e-course. Approaching the article from the perspective of a student, I agree with the author’s statement that graphics and aesthetics are important and that engaging and connecting with the learner is crucial. Getting their attention is one of the most important aspects of course development. I think that this article would be useful for someone who is researching what is necessary to develop and establish an effective e learning course or program.http://managingelearning.com/2011/01/27/evaluating-elearning/
Submitted by Tharper
Bender, E. (October, 2004). A LINC for E-Learning. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved from http://www.technologyreview.com/web/13779/ Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has created a forum titled LINC. This forum is comprised of many international educators that meet yearly. Their goal is to provide assistance to countries seeking ways to improve the delivery of a college education through distance learning. The forum has the intention of establishing an infrastructure for the purpose of providing e-learning to as many countries as possible. The project first started out with helping students in Gaza in 2003. As of 2003, the LINC forum had expanded to over sixty countries. The forum has also provided a conduit for the needed distance education.
This article is creative in
utilizing the successful platform of MIT to gain the reader’s attention. The
strengths of the article are clearly expressed through the needs of the
students and the needs of the other countries when it comes to education
reaching around the world. The author has done a remarkable job describing the
audience, which allows the reader to feel some of those same feelings the
audience is experiencing. The article is slightly dated, but still very
relevant to educators and students. The article also serves as a valid reminder
of why distance education is very significant today.
Brandon, B. (October 11, 2004). Closing the loop in E-Learning Development: How to reconnect instructional design and project management. Learning Solutions. Retrieved March 17, 2012 from http://www.learningsolutionsmag.com/articles/283/closing- the-loop-in-e-learning-development-how-to-reconnect-instructional-design-and-project-management This article tackles two major ideas. The first being that the model an instructional designer selects to develop an eLearning program will directly result in the outcomes including how it is later managed. The second major theme is the discussion of the skill sets needed for the various pieces of developing, designing and managing an eLearning program. The author points out that project management has a different focus than the design of the program. When the same person handles both the design and management that person may be conflicted between the two roles and how difficult it can be.
I found this article interesting in that it points out the fact that there are different skills needed to create, design, teach and even manage eLearning programs. I find this true and while there are some people that are good at and can do more than one of these roles well, he points out that many don’t realize how difficult it can be to maintain those various roles separately. He also points out that when a program goes from design to project management the right time is important to maintain the effectiveness of project management while keeping the integrity of the program.http://www.learningsolutionsmag.com/articles/283/closing-the-loop-in-e-learning-development-how-to-reconnect-instructional- design-and-project-management
Submitted: LGoodpaster 3/18/12
Childs, S., Blenkinsopp, E., Hall,
A., & Graham, W., (2005). Effective e-learning for health professionals and
students--barriers and their solutions. A systematic review of the
literature--findings from the HeXL project. Health Information and Libraries
This is a European article. It is
interesting to see that e-learning barriers are universal. The article provides
evidence of solid research and methodology that identifies barriers specific to
health professionals. The article specifically categorizes barriers and
solutions to organizational issues, economics, hardware and software problems,
psychological barriers, support, and pedagogical issues. It would be valuable
to anyone interested in management and support of e-learning by comparing
European implementation policies and best practices.
Davis, M. (2009). The challenges of managing e-ed.: It takes more than computers to make e-learning work. Education Week: Digital Directions, Vol 3, (1), 25-27. Retrieved from http://www.edweek.org/dd/articles/2009/10/21/01e-learning.h03.html?print=1 This article discussed distance education and how to manage the ongoing exchange of information. Communication by the instructors is vital to understanding how students are doing and what issues they may encounter during the course of the instruction. Balancing authority in communication to be a part of the student’s world but not creating a social relationship can be a fine line to walk. Consistency in how the online class is taught helps the student to move through the course smoothly. The right instructors and training for those instructors have to be a priority so that both instructor and learner get the most out of the online experience. Preparation of lesson plans by the instructor will benefit both instructor and student so that both can progress and accomplish the objectives set by the program.
This article was very well organized in what considerations make a successful online program. It was succinct and included a list of tips for the reader to refer back to periodically. The examples of communication and involvement between instructor and student in an online situation, as opposed to a traditional classroom setting were especially relevant. The article also validated the need for blended learning and onsite guidance for learners. http://www.edweek.org/dd/articles/2009/10/21/01e-learning.h03.html?print=1Submitted by evautrot 11/1/2011
Forsyth, H., Pizzica, J., Laxton,
R., & Mahony, J. (2010). Distance education in an era of elearning:
Challenges and opportunties for a campus-focused institution. Higher
Education Research & Development, 29(1), Retrieved from http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a918233223~frm=abslink This article was published in Higher Education Research & Development,
a publication of the Higher Education Research and Development Society of
Australasia. This refereed journal is published six times a year and
covers articles on theories and practices in higher education. The
authors discuss the impact of introducing distance education course offerings
into traditional, brick and mortar, institutions of higher learning. When
properly implemented, quality distance education offerings have the ability to
extend an institutions’ reach both geographically and academically. To
the detriment of these institutions at large, distance education has primarily
functioned autonomously and has gone unmonitored and unsupported.
Hadibuan, Z. & Santoso, H. (2004). Online academic administration system to support distance learning at faculty of computer science university of Indonesia. IADIS International Conference e-Society. Retrieved on October 30, 2011 from http://iadis.net/dl/final_uploads/200402C026.pdf This article discusses the online support system of the Computer Science University of Indonesia. The system includes learning management, transcripts, syllabi, etc.; all of which enable the university to meet all demands of the distance learning student. Using research based data-analysis and evidence, the administration is continually analyzing its effectiveness to support the academic program.
The authors of this
article do a great job describing how the administrators of analyzed its needs
to continue delivering a strong curriculum. From demographic to system
analysis, they were able to realize their needs and place resources in the
areas for improvement. This article gives the reader an excellent way to
chart flow dynamics to create a strong system design. A good article for
those looking for a management of distance learning reference.
Ketter, P. (2010). To Be or Not to Be: E-Learning. T+D, 64(1), 10. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.stfrancis.edu:2296/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=6d1d3dec-1fb2-4b2a-8b74-2ed9546f145f%40sessionmgr198&vid=4&hid=113This article is a debate hosted by the Oxford union on whether or not teaching e-learning skills will benefit the future or not. The article takes a deeper at the pros and cons of e-learning.
The article focused on the question if e-learning is capable to teach the skills of tomorrow. One side went on to say how e-learning is quicker and cheaper than the traditional forms of teaching and learning, but it can be much more effective. The other side combated it with saying e-learning is inadequate and ineffective. Side one went on to say how e-learning uses tutorials, scenario based learning, and problem- solving strategies . Group two said how e-learning will only hurt the future skills shortage in the workforce but also because younger members entering the workforce without the face to face interaction. What I found interesting was the look on e-learning. Is e-learning a blended learning such as simulations and technologies or is it just about electronic means to test skill levels and assess knowledge. What we need to look at are what are the skills for tomorrow, is it more important than the younger generation gain with the live face to face interaction with classmates or can it be learned through electronics. http://ezproxy.stfrancis.edu:2296/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=6d1d3dec-1fb2-4b2a-8b74-2ed9546f145f%40sessionmgr198&vid=4&hid=113Submitted: khannagan 10/5/13
Luchoomun, D., McLuckie, J., & van Wesel, M. (2010). Collaborative e-learning: e-Portfolios for assessment, teaching and learning. Electronic Journal of e-Learning, 8(1), 21-30. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=EJ880096
The article examines the use of e-portfolios as Personal Development Plans (PDPs) with collaborative elements as a form of assessment for teacher preparation in the United Kingdom. Challenges in implementing the e-portfolio process, collaboration, and use as a tool of assessment are explored, as well as, more general challenges with distance learning assessment. The paper also considers the potential for using such assessment as part of a blended learning format.
Although centered on higher education and teacher preparation, the article should be of value to anyone interested in e-portfolios for assessment, especially in distance learning settings. While the paper discusses collaboration, there is greater potential for social learning to occur using these tools that can be inferred from the discussion. The article is peer reviewed.
May, S. C. (n.d.) E-Learning: The evolution continues. Affiniscape. Retrieved March 17, 2012 from http://www.affiniscape.com/associations /9158/resource/?p=255. This article reviews the author’s research and data gathering over a few years and what she is finding as the trends of eLearning and the continuing development and management of eLearning. The author discusses short term and longer term results and expectations and how the associations she has researched have evolved their view of eLearning over time. It also shows that associations whether they are looking to outside vendors or internal staff to create and maintain eLearning, that they need to have long term strategies to be able to be ahead of or with the curve of eLearning.
I liked this article because not only did the author talk to various companies to get their honest input on where eLearning was and is going, but it seemed realistic. For example, when speaking about registration going down, the anticipation is that it will increase again and will capture a different audience. I liked that it discussed that organizations have recognized the value of eLearning but also the value of both internal and external support from multiple areas in an organization.http://www.affiniscape.com/associations/9158/resource/?p=255.
Submitted: LGoodpaster 3/18/12
Pappas, C. (2011, January). Introduction in e-learning. Elearning Resource from eFront. Retrieved from: http://blog.efrontlearning.net/2011/01/introduction-to-evaluation-in-elearning.html This post provided an overview of the importance of the quality improvement process within the course development cycle. The evaluation of an e-learning course must occur before, during and after course development. The process begins with a needs assessment to design the course. Secondly, a formative evaluation is completed to make any necessary changes. At the conclusion a summative evaluation is completed to evaluate the product. The author also provided numerous valuable links to several resources in PDF’s that address the areas of evaluation and assessment of e-learning.
I do agree with the author that is imperative for institutions that offer online learning to have a division that is exclusively dedicated to developing quality online courses. An excellent online course requires many hours of planning, developing, revising and evaluating.http://blog.efrontlearning.net/2011/01/introduction-to-evaluation-in-elearning.html
Submitted: 10/27/2012 hjones
Rivero, V. (2011, November 1). Interview with Julie Young: Staying human in a virtual school state. Internet@Schools. Retrieved from http://www.internetatschools.com/Articles/Editorial/Features/Interview-With-Julie-Young-Staying-Human-in-a-Virtual-School-State-78674.aspx
Virtual schools are growing rapidly, and Florida Virtual School (FLVS) is one of the largest public school districts in the U.S. With over 122,000 students in 259, 928 half-credit enrollments, their numbers are increasing rapidly, and “nothing short of explosive” (Rivero, 2011, para. 2). Though technology always changes to improve, and virtual schools are built on technology, Julie Young shares that there is little to discuss about the technology. She says “technology is just the vehicle for us to do what we do” ( para. 4). Even before the technology and the education, Young’s focus is on relationships between the teachers and students. “I think we need to be very careful going into this new age that we don’t lose the human factor with our kids,” she says (Rivero, 2011, para. 15).
Many articles interview those who have great knowledge or theories on an issue, but may not necessarily have an act in the game. In this article, Victor Rivero (2011) is able to interview the CEO of one of the nation’s largest public schools, FLVS. To have the CEO of the Florida Virtual School interviewed, who manages one of the largest providers of internet-based courseware and instruction for middle and high school students, Rivero is able to demonstrate how intentional we as a society must be as educators to not take out relationships from teaching with distance education. As Richard Clark states, media is used to deliver instruction.
Submitted 9/9/2015 mwilliams
Ruiz, J., Teasdale, T., Hajjar, I., Shaughnessy, M., & Mintzer, M. (2007). The consortium of e-learning in geriatrics instruction. Journal Of The American Geriatrics Society, 55(3), 458-463. This article is about bringing the e-learning to geriatric care. It explains that with the increasing number of elderly patients and with healthcare professions under a time crunch, e-learning would make for a great alternative. In addition to this, the newer generation they will be more adaptable to this style of learning. The authors go into depth about the challenges that would have to be faced when creating an e-learning curriculum. These challenges include: cost, keeping up on evaluations and efficiency, no incentives, and lacking in development.
This source seemed reputable. Those who are looking into creating an e-learning curriculum for medical science would benefit from this article. It provided many outside sources that would help in development and control of new curriculum.Submitted: 9/29/13 JGrubar
Russell, C. (2009). A systemic framework for managing e-learning adoption in campus universities: Individual strategies in context. Research in Learning Technology, 17(1), Retrieved from http://repository.alt.ac.uk/850/1/ALT_J_Vol17_No1_2009_A_systemic_framework_for.pdf
The author of this article notes that online classes have not been doing so well at his university since he began monitoring the data in the year 2000. He believes that creating the ideal framework for analyzing the individual departmental learning style and applying this framework, across the board, to the online class venue would centralize and make learning cohesive from subject to subject and college to college. As it stands, each instructor would have their own method of teaching online, and at times, these methods were not transferable to the online courses. If framework, with pedagogy, was in place, and teaching online was more standardized, it would have a better chance of becoming more useful at this facility.
This author has a valid point. If there is no prior framework to how a course
is to be taught, it can be confusing, not only to the instructor who really has
no idea what is expected of him in the venue, but also to the student, who had
an online class the previous semester which was totally different than the one
he was now taking. From working with online courses, it helps to have
continuity and consistency between courses. Of course instructors do and should
insert their own personality into a course, but keeping within a shared framework
is a positive for everyone.
Scalise, K., & Gifford, B. (2006). Computer-based assessment in e-learning: A framework for constructing "intermediateconstraints" questions and tasks for technology platforms. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 4(6). Retrieved from http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1653/1495 When planning and developing an e-learning course, the use of evaluation methods requires special attention. With computer-based assessment, designing questions and tasks with which computers can effectively interact, including scoring and score reporting, while still gathering meaningful measurement evidence can be accomplished very effectively. This article provides a taxonomy or categorization of 28 innovative item types based on 7 categories of ordering from constraints that are fully selected (multiple choice) to fully constructed (essay). These alternative formats require an examinee to supply, develop, perform, or create something. And, typically, these tasks attempt to be more engaging to the examinee than conventional multiple-choice items.
This article is extremely helpful in understanding the assessment process and the innovative alternatives to use when developing evaluation methods. It contains specific examples of questions and tasks and is classified as: selection/identification, reordering/rearrangement, substitution/correction, completion, and construction types. Maintaining test integrity and evaluating learning is more difficult to do in the e-learning environment when there is not face-to-face involvement with the student. But by creating a vast array of innovative assessment approaches, it becomes less of a problem. This article suggests evaluation methods that provide metacognitive interventions by increasing the ability to diagnose paths to competency rather than simply ranking. Students could arguably match assessment needs and evidence for many instructional design objectives using these alternative methods.http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/index.php/jtla/article/view/1653/1495
Submitted: 3/17/13 phiddinga
Schone, B.J. (2007). Managing eLearning development: Elearningweekly. Retrieved from http://elearningweekly.wordpress.com/2007/08/22/managing-elearning-development/
In this article by B.J. Schone we learn about implementing the idea of managing e-learning. The difficulty in managing new ideas and implementing them to people who may see them as foreign is always an issue. Customizing the courses can greatly improve the quality of a class rather than having a generic course. The difficulties of managing multiple tasks seems to become an inevitability when one doesn’t have the right software to help managing many issues at once. Sometimes the right applications can lead you to success.
I find this becomes a problem with
many on both sides of the coin. I’m sure instructors and students both get
bogged down with work. Having software to keep you in order is just as important
as ever. Many times we overlook these software options and just stick to the
major programs like word and power point. Using other programs to manage all
your other work and organize them correctly can make almost any experience a
breeze. I think as we become more technologically motivated we may see new
programs come about that will automatically organize all our work.
Spencer, R. CTDP (2015, June 3). Top 10 elearning trends for 2015. eLearning Industry. Retrieved from: http://elearningindustry.com/top-10-elearning-trends-2015
Ruby Spencer is the Director, Global Curriculum Development at PulseLearning. Passionate about all things training. Designed, developed, and implemented synchronous and asynchronous training for a number of national and international clients, including CA Technologies, VMware, IHG and Bank of America. She state that there are 10 trends for elearning students in the near future and some include: gamification (animation, narrative based games); corporate MOOCs or Massive Online Open Courses (the author states that 100% of degrees will be awarded through MOOCs); personalized learning (puts the learners in control); M-learning and BYOD or Bring Your Own Device (to access training anytime, anywhere); augmented learning (augmented or virtual reality); API’s or Application Programming Interface (inbuilt instructions for applications to talk to each other); wearable learning (smart watches).
I feel that the author’s assumptions of future learning forecasts are right on the target. With technologies changing minute by minute, learning should as well to keep up with the changing climate. I feel that being an online learner, even during this program time, technology has changed in leaps and bounds. I am looking forward to the learning methods and delivery techniques in the future as that is where our futures lie.
http://elearningindustry.com/top-10-elearning-trends-2015 Submitted: 9/20/2015 tsulita
Stayton, L. (2011). The pros and
cons of outsourcing e-learning services. Elearn Magazine. Retrieved from: http://elearnmag.acm.org/featured.cfm?aid=1966299 Prior to creating an e-learning
course or service, a needs analysis should be completed to ensure the service
produced can be managed by the current employees or should the service be
outsourced. The article discusses some important items that need to be
addressed prior to making a decision: Is there a time constraint and if so, are
the current employees able to meet that time-line? Does the organization have
employees with the experience needed to complete all needed projects? How much
control and security must be maintained?
Strother, J. B. (April 2002). An assessment of the effectiveness of e-learning in corporate training programs. The international review of research in open and distance learning. Retrieved March 18, 2012 from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/83/160 This article examines the effectiveness of e-learning in corporate training programs. Corporate managers are looking for any means that will provide a savings to their corporation. They have realized through e-learning there are a substantial savings for corporations. There is also no doubt that corporations are increasing their emphasis on e-learning. The corporations continue to monitor e-learning’s effectiveness. They measure the results at different levels for their effectiveness. The article concludes that there is still much research to be done to measure e-learning’s effectiveness. This article also insists that more research must be done to assure the meaningful results are maintained.
I found this article to be cumbersome. There were many steps involved leading to an unsurprising outcome. I would assume this is because the article is catering to corporate America and those steps are needed to obtain a result that would be considered measurable. The frustrating part for me was the need for further research. When reading about e-learning, so many of the articles touch on the fact that there needs to be further research. I am left with asking the question, why? This article presents the facts, but implies that there is not enough evidence to support the theory.http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/83/160
Submitted by: rthomas 3/19/12
Villems, A., Pilt, L., Plank, T., Varendi, M., Sutt, E., & Dremljuga-Telk, M. (2012, June). E-learning quality assurance as a tool for open innovation in educational institutions: An Estonian case. Retrieved from: http://eif.efquel.org/files/2012/09/EN_ET_Anne-Villems.doc This article provided an overview of the quality improvement process that was developed and implemented in Estonia for e-learning courses. The e-learning Development Centre formed a task force to research and develop criteria to evaluate e-leaning courses. The developed quality plan included resources for the instructional design and course development. Once the course was fully developed it was evaluated at three levels: self-assessment, organizational level and expert level. If the course was approved they were granted “Estonian e-Course Quality Label”.
I do agree that all faculty members need to do self-assessments of the courses that they teach. In the online environment, the success of instructor and the student is often dependent on the quality of the online course. The instructional designer is responsible for presenting the course content and materials in a professional and meaningful manner. The quality assessment / improvement process should then be continue to the next level for evaluation with the learning institution. Results should be documented, evaluated and acted upon of needed.http://eif.efquel.org/files/2012/09/EN_ET_Anne-Villems.doc
Submitted: 10/27/2012 hjones
Watson,J., Gemin, B., (2009) Management and operations of online programs: Ensuring quality and accountability, Promising Practices in Online Learning Retrieved: http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED509622.pdf This article addresses the fact that online courses are growing and serving a wide variety of students needs. Areas that require management in online programs are curriculum development and course quality, teacher management, student support, technology support and program evaluation. The article addressed each of the above topics individually and provided issues and variables that needed consideration with each topic. Two issues to consider are managing growth and keeping up to date. Online learning will be a key element in learning in the future.
Although Promising Practices in Online Learning provides articles geared toward the online programs in the K- 12 grades, the information from this article could be used to manage adult learning programs as well. This article addresses the differences between managing the online program verses the traditional classroom program. For example writing a script for an online program requires a different creativity than composing something you may lecture on in a classroom, therefore hiring and training educators for an online program requires a different set of skills as well.http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED509622.pdf
Herrington, A., Herrington, J., Oliver, R., Stoney, S. & Willis, J. (2001). Quality guidelines for online courses: The development of an instrument to audit online units. In (G. Kennedy, M. Keppell, C. McNaught & T. Petrovic (Eds.) Meeting at the crossroads: Proceedings of ASCILITE 2001, (pp 263-270). Retrieved: from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.465.8974&rep=rep1&type=pdf
The authors provide suggested guidelines for evaluating online learning programs. The article begins with a discussion of the need for guidelines and focuses on three key areas to consider in the evalution: pedagogies, resources and delivery strategies. Further exploration of each of the key components provides a chart or guideline listing the description of the activity with an example of each method.
This article was produced from a research group associated with Edith Cowan University in Australia. An initial consideration was the relevance to study in the United States. However, online learning goes beyond national borders and the article is relevant and offers excellent, consistent advice. While the article does represent itself as a guideline that does not offer data based evidence, it does state its goal to continue its evaluation.
http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.465.8974&rep=rep1&type=pdf.Submitted: 10/04/2015 dlandahl
Rowe, N. (2004). Cheating in online student assessment: Beyond plagiarism. Online Journal of Distance Learning. Volume VII, II. Summer 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/summer72/rowe72.html..
The author discusses the issue of cheating by students during online assessments. His presentation focuses on the different means by which students may change grades or access materials pre-test. His discussion focuses on means to combat the issue and strategies to encourage students to participate without cheating. He identifies three methods of cheating, then offers specific solutions that instructors may utilize to redirect cheating activities.
The author presents a good case regarding the issue of cheating. He explains how cheating occurs in an environment that may seem to be secure from tampering. He does discuss the practicalities and limitations of cheat prevention strategies. My concern is the sense that resolutions may be limited by the ability of students to hack into cites. Another concern is the age of the article, 2004 may not effectively identify solutions that are in place now that may limit access. However, it can be noted that hackers and/or determined cheaters do find effective means to circumvent security.