Artino, A.R. (2008). Promoting academic motivation and self-regulation: Practical guidelines for online instructors. TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 52(3), 37-45. doi:10.1007/s11528-008-0153-x.
Traditional research in online education focuses on comparing online learners to traditional classroom learners. A recent push toward focusing research on the attributes of learners who perform well in online learning situations has been proposed. The author discusses the concept of self-regulation learning “as a means of understanding how successful students adapt their cognition, motivation, and behavior to improve learning” (par 3). Using supporting evidence from several empirical studies, the author presents a set of practical, empirically-based guidelines for online instructors. The author encourages online instructors to consider learners’ academic motivation and self-regulation when constructing online instruction.
The article brings to the forefront of discussion an issue that is pertinent to both online and traditional learning – how to design instruction to motivate and engage students. For a class to be beneficial for a student, the instruction must address the students’ academic motivation and self-regulation. No instructor can make a student learn. All an instructor can do is build on what the student already has – motivate, regulate, think.
submitted 9/26/2010 kautrey
Barbara. (May 7, 2012). Instructional design and rapid prototyping: Rising from the ashes of ADDIE. Retrieved from: http://www.dashe.com/blog/elearning/instructional-design-and-rapid-prototyping-rising-from-the-ashes-of-addie
Barbara, from the Social Learning Blog, talks about the love/hate relationship that instructional designers and eLearning developers have had with ADDIE as they have tried to keep up with the rapid advances in business and the needs for rapid application development. ADDIE was the foundation for the design of most systems, but in some instances has evolved based on rapid prototyping, customer participation and many feedback loops built into the process. This rapid prototyping allows for more instructional flexibility that can help eliminate problems early in the development stages as users are able to offer immediate feedback.
This type of alternative to the ADDIE process allows instructors more flexibility with on-line development. ADDIE is a great framework for course development, but with the addition of many feedback loops the process has the opportunity to catch flaws or areas of improvement before the final course is developed. This not only makes the course better the first time around, but helps reduce additional time and costs that are involved with keeping classes up-to-date. It also allows flexibility while maintaining consistency in the process.
submitted: 9-30-12 tdelker
Bronson, J. W., Vanevenhoven, J. P., & Wagner, R. J. (2010). A top ten list for successful online courses. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, Volume 6, Number 2, 542-545 [PDF Document]. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol6no2/bronson_0610.pdf
In this article, the authors define what they feel are the top ten practices to guarantee a successful online course as well as sharing some of the mistakes that were made in the initial stages of online course development at the University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. The authors acknowledge and discuss the difference between designing courses for the classroom and those offered in an online format. The need for training and integration of new faculty into the program to maintain course quality is also recognized and the guidelines defined in this article are now being used as a part of new faculty training.
The authors come from positions that represent the roles of instructional designer, instructional technologist, and content expert. They also represent different levels of experience with teaching online. The experience of the authors and the common sense approach to their guidelines will be beneficial to instructors who are designing an online course as well as instructors who are taking over for a course that has been taught previously. As with courses taught in a traditional classroom format, communication is indicated as a key component to successful instructor/student interactions and the guidelines in this article will benefit students and teachers alike.
submitted 10/03/2010 s.engstrom-kestel
Conway, E. D. (2003, January). Teaching strategies for distance
education:Implementing the seven principles for good practice in online
education. Paper presented at the 5th Annual Science, Engineering & Technology Education Conference, New Mexico State University, Los Cruces, NM. Retrieved from http://spacegrant.nmsu.edu/NMSU/2003/conway.pdf
Conway explains that the strategy for distance education has had to shift from the traditional methods of focusing on accumulating the information to learning the skills to acquire and locate the subject matter. To be successful, distance education learners and teachers must be trained on how to learn in this new paradigm as much as they teach and learn on the course content. Conway points out that in order to offer the same quality education in distance learning as in traditional methods, it is important to incorporate a variety of technologies to help students achieve this equivalency.
Conway states that incorporating traditional teaching methods with distance learning is a good strategy. Taking information from Chickering and Gamsons “Implementing the Seven Principles: Technology as Lever” Conway reiterates their seven principles for good practice in education. 1. Encourage student/faculty contact. 2. Encourage cooperation among students. 3. Encourage active listening. 4. Give prompt feedback. 5. Emphasize time on task. 6. Communicate high expectations. 7. Respect diverse talent. This source was a reliable source with documented resources.
Doll, C. A. (2009). Teaching and learning by design. Library Media Connection, 28(2), 18-20.
In this article is the author discusses what is needed within a lesson plan in order to be successful as an educator. At the beginning, the author asks some simple questions about the lesson planning process, and the end section of the article goes into depth on each question. These are the “hows” and “whats” of instructional design. She brings up the planning, the delivery, the access, and the evaluating of instructional design. The author also utilized Bloom’s Taxonomy.
This source seems to be reliable. At the end of the article the author provides the reader with her professional background. This resource could be useful to those who are starting to design a course from scratch. It provides you with what is essential in order to make your instructional design successful. This could be most helpful to those who need to know what is a little more important when designing a course.
Submitted: 9/15/13 jgrubar
Elias, T. (2010). Universal instructional design principles for Moodle. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 11(2), 110-124. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
There are various reasons a learner selects online classes. During the design process it is important to keep the design suited to various learners. This paper provides universal design recommendations for instructional designers and online instructors. The paper highlights the functions of Moodle; however, the principles can be applied to all online instructional design.
This is a peer reviewed journal article describing instructional design principles for distance education. The information is geared toward Moodle but provides detailed design principles and methodology. The content would benefit instructional designers or online instructors.
Posted under E-Learning – Instructional Design - Planning
Submitted 10/2/11 sjurysta
Howell, S., Lindsay, N., & Williams, P. (2003) Thirty-two trends affecting distance education: An informed foundation for strategic planning. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, 6(3). Retrieved from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall63/howell63.html
This lengthy article discusses the strategic plans for distance education and identifies trends that can affect online learning in the future. Several trends from the past are in question. Will classrooms be needed? How many teachers will be needed? Will a campus be needed? Will physical books be needed? Additional strategic planning is needed for enrollment trends. The article indicates enrollment will continue to grow because online education is convenient and there is no common age demographic or age barrier in the online environment like there is in the traditional university setting. A trend regarding course material that fits the online learning coursework needs to be developed and assessed. Another interesting trend will include faculty tenure being challenged because distance education rarely move faculty members toward tenure.
I found this article to be very informative and strategic in planning for the future of online education. There are several good points that need to be considered regarding the future of the traditional university verses online education.
Submitted 9/26/13 tjohnson
Instructional Design (2012). Retrieved from https://www.netskills.ac.uk/share/file/1012
This article found on the Netskills website the Addie model of instructional design. They define instructional design as a systematic approach to course development that involves an iterative process which requires ongoing evaluation and feedback. They describe five phases that feeds into the next step of the process. The steps are the following: analysis of the environment and learner, designing a plan for developing instruction, development of the instructional activities, implementation of the design in the target environment and evaluation of learner performance and effectiveness of the design.
For consistency, it’s usually best to do things in an orderly fashion so that everyone keeps on track with the expectations. After reading many articles on Addie, I also believe that sometimes we can try to make all classes the same. Even in the classroom, all classes are not the same and cannot be taught the same, so I think that there should be some room for creativeness in allowing the instructor to make changes based on the objectives of the course and student needs.
submitted: 9-30-12 tdelker
Joeckel, G. (2012, August 19). How to create a “design blueprint” with a flexible learning sequence for your online course. TOOLS. Retrieved from http://elearningindustry.com/flexible-learning-sequence-for-your-online-course
An instructional designer identifies three functions of an online syllabus which include a contract, a communication tool, and learning aids. He discusses how revisions to the course schedule included in the syllabus during the semester lessen the effectiveness of the syllabus. He suggests keeping the course schedule separate from the syllabus to allow for flexibility and pacing of the cohort. He goes on to describe a tool that is used at Utah State to assist teachers in building an online course schedule. He describes The PDF Course Schedule Builder which helps and allows instructors map the order of modules, provide more details for assignments and designate due dates. Changes can be easily made to the course schedule throughout the semester.
The tool the author describes in the article sounds very helpful to instructors. I agree that there is most likely a need to keep schedule separate from the syllabus. I have seen many schedules in syllabi conflicting with what is published online for assignment due dates. This tool would be very helpful for instructors to update the schedule while keeping the syllabus the same each semester. He included a link in the online article to watch a “how to” video, which was very helpful in seeing this tool in action. It would have been nice if his article was more specific and gave examples of times when this could be used. I felt his discussion of this potential problem for instructors and students was very generic and could have been much more detailed. The video was helpful though, as was the general idea of the fact that there is help if you are running into confusion with an ever changing schedule in a syllabus. The fact that he provided a solution to a problem was at least better than just identifying a problem and leaving it at that.
Submitted: 2/17/2013 Jlivigni
Jonassen, D. (1997) Educational technology research and development. Springer link, Volume 45, number 1. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/f45r2470835n0918/
In the area of educational research and development, educators consider problem solving to be among the most important learning outcomes. The article discusses the difference between well constructed problems and ill-structured problems. It also provides models for learners on how to solve them and designing instruction on developing problem solving skills. I find the article to be very beneficial to individuals interested in developing problem solving skills. As a future educator I definitely agree that one must be able to adequately recognize, address and find solutions to problems that may arise. Having knowledge of various problem solving techniques is a great way to enhance your teaching skills and vital to the learning process.
Kim, K. J. & Frick, T. (2011). Changes in student motivation during online learning. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 44(1), 1-23.
This article identifies factors that predict the motivation and success of on line learners particularly in a self-directed learning environment. The author addresses previous research on motivational influences i Web-based instruction grouping them into internal, external and personal factors. Conducting research with 368 students, the author concludes that perceived relevance is the primary motivator in beginning a course, but the primary factor for continuing a course was determined to be perceived quality of instruction.
This article is from a peer reviewed journal. It provides good research into student’s motivation and would be interesting to instructors who are concerned with attrition or a student that may want to recognize their own motivations through this theory. There are several tables included in the article which make the study results easy to interpret.
Submitted: 10/2/11 dgryglak
McKeachie, W. (1995) Learning styles can become learning strategies. The national teaching & learning forum. Vol 4, number 6. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ntlf.com/html/pi/9511/article1.htm
Because teaching involves more than just communicating content within one’s discipline, McKeachie suggest a good teacher needs to motivate students to learn as well as teach them strategies and skills needed to continue learning. In doing so, the article suggest teachers help students develop skills and strategies for learning effectively from teachers that do not match their preferred learning style. I agree that learning and teaching styles vary from one individual to the next and it is important to possess skills to adapt. This will make the learning and teaching experience for both more enriching.
Mohammadi, H., El-Houbi, A., Yaseen, N. and Duncan, B. (April 22, 2012). E-learning vs. traditional education: A meta analysis of distance learning technologies. DIAS Technology Review, Vol. 7, No. 2. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2043702
The article analyzes the use of physical lab spaces in three distance education approaches: conventional labs, software simulation and remote labs. Their analysis is based off surveys distributed through a research study. Their survey research study indicates that the conventional labs are more effective at teaching experiment theory vs. the e-learning modalities of software simulation and remote labs. However, remote labs do have advantages such as “any place” access for students who desire this, and a barrier from unsafe chemicals and other harmful materials. Of the e-learning approaches, students preferred remote labs to software simulation.
The article is useful for instructional designers or educators who are developing and/or teaching lab based courses in distance education as it offers insight into how to best use the technology. It’s also useful for anyone who needs hard research to support the use of using online labs.
Submitted 9/29/12 bcovelli
(You will find this resource on the website posted under Instructional Design/Planning)
Muirhead, B. D. (2002). Relevant assessment strategies for online colleges & universities, USDLA Journal, 16(2), 1. Retrieved from http://www.usdla.org/html/journal/FEB02_Issue/article04.html
Dr. Muirhead focuses not only on distance learning but face-to-face learning as he reveals that an assessment is an important strategy for both forms of teaching. In distance education and for adult learners, learning needs to be more individualized because of the varying degrees of life experience and academic knowledge. The instructor’s challenge is to create a virtual environment that is conducive to collaborative learning. Muirhead believes that assessment is an important element in that process because the evaluation technique helps create the appropriate coursework for the class. This in turn promotes a better learning environment for each individual during the educational process.
Muirhead’s experience with hands on distance education and his academic credentials make him a very credible expert and author on this subject. His referenced material covers the gamut of strategies, but the articles main focus was on assessment and grading rubrics as the strategy. I agree with Muirhead that the feedback between the teacher and the learner is key in creating an educational environment that would be most productive for the student.
Pape, L. & Wicks, M. (June, 2010). National standards for quality online programs. International Association for K-12 Online Learning. Retrieved fromhttp://www.eric.ed.gov/contentdelivery/servlet/ERICServlet?accno=ED509638
The article addressed what is needed to qualify as a quality online program including course design and online teaching. The format was in a checklist format offering a rating system to address all areas. The purpose of the National Standards for Quality Online Program is to provide a set of quality guidelines including leadership, instruction, content, support services, and evaluations.
The information in this article was very user friendly and provided an easy to use checklist to assess the quality of the online course being offered. The checklist would be ideal for anyone wanting to develop an online program. Although, the article was developed for education purpose, this checklist could be used in other settings, such as health care or employee programming. The article also considers the development of both the teacher and the student to ensure the success of the program.
Submitted: 02/04/2012 kwalderbach
Pena, S. (2010). 10 Instructional Design Tips for e-Learning Development. Syber Works. Retrieved from http://www.syberworks.com/articles/10-instructional-design-tips.htm
This article lays out ten steps of instructional design that serve as tips for anyone who is looking to develop their e-learning skills. While the author provides you with these basic steps, he also points out that you must understand your learner’s needs if you are going to establish a successful program. Once you understand your learner’s needs then you need to use common sense to meet those needs and improve your program. All of this comes down to the educator knowing their audience. When you know your audience, you then know what direction to take them and the course.
I thought the article was concise and accurate. The author demonstrates that instructional design and e-learning doesn’t have to be overwhelming. He points out that it is everything you already knew as an educator, with a dash of common sense added to the equation. Although the article is simple, it addresses all levels of instructional design. It is within each step that the author reaches all levels, such as listing each learning objective and elaborating on it. It is in these steps that the author gains strength in his article. It is also helpful that the author is an instructional designer.
Submitted by: rthomas 2/19/12
Penn State University (2008). Introduction to crafting questions for on-line discussions. Retrieved from http://ets.tlt.psu.edu/learningdesign/crafting_question
Penn State created an excellent reference for forming online discussions in a way that is beneficial to the student and also to the course objectives. The article discusses how a discussion question can be formulated in a way to address any level of Bloom’s taxonomy and provides examples for each level. They assist you in thinking about goals that you want to achieve with the online discussion.
I like this weblink / article because it is user friendly and applicable. Even if the person is not knowledgeable in “Bloom’s Taxonomy” the article provides the key question options that could be asked for each level of Blooms Taxonomy. They also discuss key considerations that must be taken prior to creating certain discussions and how to encourage deeper thoughts into the discussion.
Submitted: 10/2/2011 mcorbett
Proserpio, L., & Gioia D. (2007). Teaching the virtual generation. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 6(1), 69-80.
Proserpio and Gioia discuss the issues of what principles should be considered when designing instruction. The authors propose the concept that changes happening in the environment can have major repercussions on learning and teaching. How instructors deliver instruction needs to mesh with how the students receive information/learning styles. Instructors have to meet the students’ expectations. The traditional ways are not so far off that it would be a major undertaking to adapt. Instructors must ask how to facilitate the learning process in a way to use modern technology to engage and enhance student learning.
Learning does not happen in a bubble. Everything happening around a learner affects the learning process. This must be taken into consideration when designing instruction. If we cannot engage/build upon what the student knows, how will the student learn? A student does not learn if the student does not see how the material applies to the student’s environment. Anyone who helps others learn must understand this issue and be able to apply it to materials being taught.
submitted 9/26/2010 kautrey
Shee, D. Y., & Wang, Y. (2008) Multi-criteria evaluation of the web-based e-learning system: A methodology
based on learner satisfaction and its applications. Computers & Education, 50 (3), p894-905. Retrieved from: http://www.cblt.soton.ac.uk/multimedia/PDFs/multi-criteria%20eval%20of%20web-based%20e-learning%20system%20learner%20satisfaction.pdf
This article evaluates the learner satisfaction for web-based e-learning (WELS). Theoretical background information is presented as a frame of reference for evaluation standards within the study results presented. The survey was completed by college-aged students regarding multi-criteria learner satisfaction addressing e-learning training for industry and education. The evaluation criterion includes ease of use; user-friendliness; ease of understanding; learner interface; ease of discussion with others including teachers and ability to share data; et al. The conclusion shows the most important aspect is learner interface.
The paper gives a good theoretical background on published evaluation criterion as it explores the decision on the criterion that was used in this survey. Learner satisfaction is clearly defined within the study results. The importance of the results lies in the planning stage of development of the technology used and the interface implemented as related to learner satisfaction. The evaluation criterion and results allow planners to better understand end goals to increase training completion and best possible outcomes for retention and expansion of knowledge due to heighten satisfaction.
submitted 2/7/2013 bmitcheff
Shepherd, C. (2010, March 26). The five secrets of instructional design. Towards Maturity. Retrieved February 17, 2011 from http://www.towardsmaturity.org/article/2010/03/26/five-secrets-instructional-design/
Five fundamental, yet very realistic, instructional design formulas are listed in this article that it purports can lead to successful training. They are: (1) effective learning is neither obvious nor intuitive – a knowledge dump followed by a quiz is not effective learning; (2) match the needs of the learning (population and shelf life) to the necessary interventions (demands); (3) ensure that rapid development processes and tools are used by employees who know their responsibilities and use them effectively for transfer of knowledge; (4) self-study does not equal distant learning and does not address all learning requirements; and (5) the definition of instructional design is very different today than it was 10-15 years ago.
This article does a great job of incorporating the platitude of ‘practice what you preach’. While it discusses the formulas and concepts of instructional design and how they are quickly changing because of the enhancement by technology, it connects the dots by introducing connectivism, which is becoming a completely new approach to learning. Many of the topics broached are not expounded upon in their entirety, but are referenced. It is this exact concept that the article relays that the transfer of knowledge happens more effectively by limiting instruction yet providing reference materials that can be accessed when needed and/or necessary.
submitted: 2/20/2011 dcalandro
Stape, C. (September 28, 2009). Brain research, instructional strategies, and e-learning: Making the connection. Learning Solutions Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.learningsolutionsmag.com
Chris Stape provides research completed using brain-scan technologies which have shown that how a person learns can physically change the brain. He discusses the most effective strategies, includes a plan that helps instructors to decide when to use a strategy, and then finishes the article with ways of implementing proven brain-compatible strategies when teaching in an e-learning environment. The researched proved that if the learner is presented with a way to bridge new information with information that they already know, there is higher success of the learner placing the new information into their long-term storage and then recalling that information.
I found this article especially interesting because of my medical imaging background. It provides scientific proof that how we teach, not just what we teach, effects how well students retain the information. Chris gives great examples of ways to take the proven knowledge about how the brain works and utilizing that information to improve the learning abilities of our students. The author has been involved in computer based training for 20 years and has written two articles about e-learning. The article, Good Beginnings: Leveraging the Strengths and Avoiding the Weaknesses of the E-Learning Medium, also gives some great information.
Submitted: 2/20/2011 mmillard
Troha F. (2002, May). Bulletproof instructional design: A model for blended learning. United States Distance Learning Association Journal. Vol. 16: No. 5. Retrieved February 15, 2011 from http://www.usdla.org/html/journal/MAY02_Issue/article03.html
This article outlines a basic model for a successful blended learning instructional design. A large part of the success relies upon planning, design documentation, and checks and balances. There are 12 design steps that can be broken into 3 distinct groupings: discovery, build and deploy. Before proceeding to anyone of these groupings, it is required to get either confirmation or at least a buy-in from decision makers, SME’s, influencers and any other parties involved. By doing so, this ensures projects sponsors to have the ability to ask questions, provide feedback and gain approval as the process continues to the next developmental stage.
Even though this article presents itself as a springboard for the book, Bulletproof Model for the Design of blended Learning, it comprehensively lists the 12 steps necessary for (what it states as) essentially assuring a successful outcome for a blended learning project. The author has over 24 years of instructional design experience in the adult learning venue and is an adjunct associate professor in a NY university where he teaches instructional design to corporate human resource development professionals.
submitted: 2/20/2011 dcalandro
Van Duzer, J. (2005). Instructional design tips for online learning. Retrieved from http://www.csuchico.edu/tlp/resources/rubric/instructionalDesignTips.pdf
This is a checklist that covers six different components needed for a quality online course: Learner Support and Resources, Online Organization and Design, Instructional Design and Delivery, Assessment and Evaluation of Student Learning, Appropriate and Effective Use of Technology, and Faculty Use of Student Feedback.
This is an extremely beneficial list of components that should be included in an online management platform for a quality driven online course. I love the fact that it is in a checklist format. Anyone would be able to start at the beginning and go through the list of needed components for an online course. This could be used for the creation of a course but also to revise / revamp an existing online course.
Submitted: 10/2/2011 mcorbett
Wiid, J., Cant, M. C., & Nell, C., (2013) Open distance learning students’ perception of the use of social media networking systems as an educational tool. International Business & Economics Research Journal, 12(8), 867-881. Retrieved from http://journals.cluteonline.com/index.php/IBER/article/view/7985/8039
Technology is being used at an increased frequency in educational settings, and students are expected by employers to have experience in these technologies, especially social media, when they enter the workforce. The article explores literature that has been published which points to both the benefits and risks involved in using social media for educational purposes. It also goes on to describe several different social media systems. After a description of the research methodology, the article concludes with the study findings which include the importance of easy use and accessibility within all age groups but that it is the younger age groups find social media networking to be important. This leads to a recommendation to educational institutions to implement strategies to engage older student who do not share in the belief of this importance.
This quantitative research utilizing questionnaires provides insight to the perceptions of students within differing age categories. This is useful information for individuals or institutions who are implementing social media into their educational programs. By reviewing this article, the reader can gain better insight into those beliefs which can aid in the choice of social media utilized. The reader will also better understand why they must be aware of the demographics of the students they are hoping to attract. Implementing social media into a program aimed at an older population will require motivating strategies to assure successful use of this technology.
Submitted 9/24/13 twolfe