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Assessment Strategies

Chaudhary, S. & Dey. N. (2013).  Assessment in Open and Distance Learning System (ODL):  A Challenge.  Open Praxis, 5 (3), 207–216.  Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/307834486_Assessment_in_Open_and_Distance_Learning_System_ODL_A_Challenge

This article acknowledges that the traditional means of assessment are in flux as the world of education changes and develops.  While assessment used to solely rest on content-based testing, it has shifted to focus more and on learning and skill development.  In a practical sense this means assessment cannot simply be a single paper and pencil test but also include a variety of techniques and methods in order to truly gain a sense of students are benefiting from open and distance learning systems.  This article explores the changing landscape of assessment and describes some of the challenges that educators find in student assessment. 

As distance education becomes more and more mainstream and includes various methods and learning techniques, assessment tools will need to account for these changes.  The article emphasizes the need for assessment to be transparent and fair and develop the confidence of distance learners, but it also makes me wonder if the growing emphasis of learning as an educational contract will be more concerned with how a learners feels about their experience rather than whether or not the learner has actually grown in understanding and wisdom. 


Submitted 10/1/17 apolaniecki


 Prineas, M. & Cini, M. (2011).  Assessing learning in online education: the role of technology in improving student outcome. National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment, October (Paper #12).  Retrieved from http://www.learningoutcomeassessment.org/documents/onlineed.pdf

In considering that a strong emphasis on learning assessment and the trend of distance learning emerged at the same time, this paper considers how new and emerging techniques how these new trends can evolve to enhance and complement each other.  The authors conclude that technology will enable educators to design courses and programs in a way that can complement the way that students learn and also provide suggestions as to how this can be practically enacted.  A secondary conclusion of the paper is how faculty will need to learn about developing technology and adjust their role in order to improve learning outcomes. 

Technology is certainly changing the entire realm of education and so it follows that developing technology will have to be accounted for in terms of deciding how best to asses distance learning.  As the role of technology increases some fear the role of faculty may decrease.   However, this article emphasizes a changing role which should not be understood to necessarily be the same thing as a decreasing role.


Submitted 10/1/17 apolaniecki 

Cohen, D., Sasson, I. (2017).  “Online Quizzes in a Virtual Learning Environment as a Tool for Formative Assessment.”  Journal of Technology and Science Education.  v6 n3 p188-208.

Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1134863.pdf

Submitted by: empost 10/1/2017 

The authors used the assessment tool in Moodle to determine the design outcomes for mathematical courses.  They used the tool and its data to gauge the students attitudes towards online quizzes versus written.  Using the tool, they measured the length of the exam, the length of time they took on certain questions, and how many attempts were needed in an effort to pass.  They measured the students attitude via anonymous   questionnaire throughout the learning modules.  This study is a great resource for any instructional design team, or educator, looking to improve the assessment function of their courses.   The article provides a resource for how to build an effective assessment for curriculum through an LMS.

Smith, M., Robinson, L., & Segal, J. (2016, June ). Smartphone Addiction: Tips for Breaking Free of Compulsive Smartphone Use. Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/articles/addiction/smartphone-and-internet-addiction.htm

We all use are smartphones and some individuals use it for more than just personal use. However, smartphone addiction has many negative consequences. We are all guilty of using our smartphones and this article wants to point out the facts of how badly it is ruining our generation. Smartphone addiction is formally known as “nomophobia.” This is defined as fear of being without a mobile phone. Smartphone addiction can also lead to impulse-control problems: virtual relationships, online compulsions, and information overload.

The negative impact of smartphone addiction can lead to increasing loneliness and depression, increasing stress, exacerbating attention deficit disorders, diminishing your ability to concentrate and think deeply or creatively, disturbing your sleep and encouraging self-absorption. Social media, watching videos, and accessing apps or the internet is the number one reasons Americans use their mobile devices. On average, they use their mobile devices almost 3 ½ hours a day.

Submitted: mpetcu 10/1/16


[You will find this resource posted on the course website under Assessment > Assessment Strategies]

Steiner-Adair, C. (2015, July 17). Are you addicted to the Internet? CNN. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2015/07/17/opinions/steiner-adair-internet-addiction/

This article corresponds to a documentary on PBS called “Web Junkie”. The main audience of focus is individuals in China and South Korea who are addicted to the internet and gaming. CNN pointed out the obvious problem in today’s world: addiction to social media, however, CNN did a good job at describing China and South Korea’s addiction rather than Americas. A study from 2014 found that 16% of the generation aged from 18 to 25 has compulsive internet use. Over use of the internet (excessive), other technology, and social media can create far too much dependence and addiction for children.

There are signs when a person is addicted to the internet. The individual is usually games or has some type of social media/internet activity. These people are typically obsessive/compulsive, increased restlessness, irritability, anger, anxiety and/or withdrawal. In China they even have a boot camp to beat internet addiction. The writer of the article is really wanting her point to come across that the internet may be a useful tool for adults who have self-control, but we must think about children who are exposed to the internet and how uncontrollable there addiction to gaming, social media, and anything online can be.

Submitted: mpetcu 10/1/16


[You will find this resource posted on the course website under Assessment > Assessment Strategies]

Aitken, R. (2015, April 14). Rubrics - More than just an assessment.  [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://onlinelearningconsortium.org/rubrics-just-assessment/

Dr. Renee Aitken provides her insights into the benefits of using rubrics, especially for online assessment.  Dr. Aitken stresses the importance of using Bloom's taxonomy when developing assessments.  She then outlines how using rubrics provides students clear goals, creates a contract between the faculty and student, and helps faculty during grading.  She contends, "These benefits make taking the time to build a rubric more than worthwhile" (para. 7).  

The Online Learning Consortium (formerly the Sloan Consortium) is well recognized as a leading professional organization devoted to advancing quality online learning.  With 24 years of experience in technical training, numerous full-time academic roles in instructional design, assessment, and distance learning, and 15 years as an adjunct professor, Dr. Renee Aitkin is well qualified to inform on the subject of rubric usage for online assessment.  This article is useful for those who have not used rubrics in this manner and question the usefulness of such an assessment method.


Submitted:  9/23/15 kmcgregor

 Arend, B.D. (2006, February). Course assessment practices and student learning strategies in online courses. Online Assessment Summary Report. Retrieved from onlinelearningconsortium.org/sites/default/files/v11n4_arend_0.pdf

In this dissertation, Dr. Arend discusses the importance of the course assessment and especially how the assessment of an online course can be very different from the assessment of a traditional course. Unfortunately, there is currently very little empirical data that can be used to accurately evaluate the impact of assessments relative to student learning. Dr. Arend contends that in some ways assessment practices can lead to varied types of learning. This study involved the formative and summative assessment of 60 online courses by which it appeared the instructors had utilized effective assessment implementation methods.

The data and examples that Dr. Arend presented were all very relevant and were detailed. I could tell a great deal of emphasis went in to this dissertation. Dr. Arend provides credible sources for completing this dissertation and also has a high degree of credibility herself as she is a Research and Assessment Analyst for the Center of Teaching and Learning and Adjunct Faculty at the University of Denver. She is also a consultant in the areas of assessment, learning and online education and has 15 years of experience in instructional design, research and evaluation, as well as many other accomplishments.

Submitted 9/24/15 rbee

Arend, B. (2009). Encouraging Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions. Journal of Educators Online, 6(1), 1-23.  Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ904064

Arend (2009) researched best practices to support critical thinking in higher education online threaded discussions.  The author found that when online discussions are a bigger percentage of the learning assessment, students reported higher levels of critical thinking.  Arend noted that asynchronous online environments support critical thinking because students have time to reflect prior to responding to other students.  Instructors can support critical thinking by opening the discussion with a question and then following- up with neutral/probing questions that encourage additional critical thinking and reflection (Arend, 2009).  A key to success is that instructor involvement is limited and unbiased (Arend, 2009). 

This article is valuable because critical thinking is a major goal for instructors and students in higher education.  The study includes the perceptions of students and instructors, whereas previous research focused solely on students (Arend, 2009). The research sample groups include a variety of different courses, which provides a good representation of the real world.  However, the sample groups were small.  This study encourages students to use critical thinking in order to achieve deeper understanding.  The study also provides practical strategies for instructors to consider when outlining discussion requirements, learning assessments, and methods to support students in developing critical thinking.

URL: http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ904064

Submitted: 9/25/15 jbudris

Aspden, L. J., Bannister, P. W., Helm, P. A., & Purvis, A. J. (2011) Assessment strategies to support higher level learning in blended delivery. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 48 (1), 91-100.  Retrieved from  http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ917693&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ917693

This article explores the results of utilizing computer assisted assessment strategies to enhance student learning at the higher education level.   The article contends that assessments can go beyond the boundaries of assessing students’ learning and reach further in their usefulness as an actual tool to enhance learning during the learning process.  The central theme is incorporating assessments to increase motivation and support, as well as opportunities to improve work before final grading.  Two groups form the evaluation conclusions and the results from each group are summarized.

The article concludes that confidence is a key component for students to effectively communicate and participate in an on-line forum.  The assessments and feedback students received during the course served to build confidence, offer support and create guidance to increase overall performance.  This article is interesting in that a major factor in considering the end goal of a lesson is not simply to measure students’ knowledge at the point that an assignment is graded, but to allow assessments to build knowledge prior to the grading process.  Those developing courses may find this article interesting due to the potential capabilities that continuous assessments offer in student centered eLearning.

Submitted 3/4/2013 bmitcheff

Assessing Student Learning. Northern Arizona University e-Learning Center. Retrieved from: http://www2.nau.edu/~d-elearn/support/tutorials/pedagogy/02assessinglearning.php

This page discusses the assessment phase of the three step “backward design” process of instructional development.  It is in fact a tutorial of the assessment process and describes the steps and expected outcomes of the assessment process. There are references and links to sources used and information available on the subject.

I found this very informative and have ordered a copy of the textbook referenced in the tutorial. The fact that this material is used by a university leads me to believe that the information is credible and has merit. The process steps seem very straight-forward.

Submitted: 10/12/2012 kbrinson

Assessment in online learning environments. (October 2011).  Retrieved from: http://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/publ/research/publ/learningplatformsdlp3.pdf

This article focuses on assessment in online learning in regards to the Ultranet, which makes it possible to give and receive feedback in many ways for the students, parents and instructors.  There are four categories for developing 21st century skills, ways of thinking, ways of working, tools for working, and skills for living in the world.  The dilemma comes in how to access these skills.  Personalized assessment allows the instructor to adapt to different students’ learning requirements.  A test bank of questions can be assessed and indexed so that learners are given tests that match their abilities.

I agree that our students are changing in their needs and that we need to adapt teaching, learning and assessment to better evaluate what they are learning, but having a test bank of questions indexed so that the harder questions go to the more advanced students and the easier questions being used to evaluate those that may not be “up to par” concerns me, especially in healthcare.  We have national registry exams that our students must pass to consider them entry level and competent. 

Submitted: 10-8-12 tdelker

Association of Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. (1999, July). Quality issues in distance learning. AACSB International. Retrieved from http://www.aacsb.edu/~/media/AACSB/Publications/white-papers/wp-quality-issues-in-distance-edu.ashx

The shift from teaching-centered education to learning-centered education is made with distance education, and quality is more the focus than ever, as the students must understand the expectations that are being put onto them upon entering the prospective programs. The same standards must be met in the eLearning forums that are being assigned to the learners in the classroom setting. The university must also show a great level of organizational commitment to find success in this relatively new type of education, and not all universities offer the same quality of programs; which is why students should go through the listed questions to assess whether the prospective schools are a good match for the student completing the assessment.

This is a credible source, as the Association of Advance Collegiate Schools of Business is responsible for all of the research. The article recommends specific expectations and benchmarking to ensure success for students looking to enroll in distance education, which makes this great for students trying to make a decision on which business program to enroll in online. This could also be beneficial to institutions, because each institution could review the questions to ensure they are offering a quality program in the eyes of their prospective students. This would be a great opportunity for all to read to ensure a quality assessment on their choice for eLearning.

http://www.aacsb.edu/~/media/AACSB/Publications/white-papers/wp-quality-issues-in-distance-edu.ashx submitted by kherring on 9/26/15

Bailey, S., Hendricks, S., & Applewhite, S. (2015). Student perspectives of assessment strategies in online courses. Journal of Interactive Online Learning 13(3). Retrieved from http://www.ncolr.org/issues/jiol/v13/n3/student-perspectives-of-assessment-strategies

This paper presents a research study that investigated student survey responses to an online course concerning the use of twelve different assessment strategies, including techniques such as Twitter, traditional paper surveys, YouTube videos, open discussion, interviews and traditional quizzes. The course used was designed in such a way as to allow the researchers the flexibility to use inventive and traditional strategies in an online environment in order to get the varied student opinions as to which assessment strategy was best. The results were analyzed and indicate that students prefer a more innovative approach that takes advantage of new technology.

This is a very interesting, academic paper about the changing instructor roles and responsibilities when transitioning from traditional face-to-face instruction to online learning and the necessity to use assessment strategies that better suit that environment. The study relied upon student responses to an online survey and are described in great detail. Each of the twelve assessment strategies is also described in some detail, including examples from the survey. I appreciated the numerous citations throughout the study and the list of references. I think this was a valid study and the results support the author’s implications for practice.


Submitted: 9/30/2015 rcanale

Bart, M. (August 8, 2011).To Make Assessment Manageable Keep it Simple and Be Flexible. Faculty Focus Retrieved from http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/educational-assessment/to-make-assessment-manageable-keep-it-simple-and-be-flexible/

This article reminds us how sometimes less can be more; this concept should be used when implementing assessments. The assessment should be a manageable tool that is easy to implement for the designer, and simple enough that students can provide feedback if learning outcomes are not being met. For the instructional designer it is important to keep a watchful eye, and examine the assessment process very carefully. Avoid the rigorous assessments, and to reach this goal, instructional designers should be experts regarding the content they create. Instructional designers should only create assessments for items that are paramount to the learner. By simplifying assessments it will allow the assessment to be much more flexible and adaptable to peers needs as well. Instructional designers should be reminded that every assessment is not the same, and as such the better prepared and simplified the assessment is will be more valuable to the institution and the student.

The article in Faculty Focus written by Mary Bart provides at short focus on the need for manageable and simplified assessments. The article provides analogies and examples of avoiding traps of trying to fit all assessments into a standard rubric as means to say the assessment is properly implemented. The writer further examines how simplified less rigorous assessments are a value to a person that is a member of a faculty or an institution. The importance to constantly examine and evaluate course content is stated but the concept was not clarified to provide value to in creating an assessment. The article fails to give very detailed examples of assessments that may fail versus assessments that will be successful in managing. The author Mary Bart has written several articles for Faculty Focus, and this article is intended for audience that is in higher education. The article would be an excellent resource for an instructional designer at a traditional college or a proprietary school.

Submitted: 03/04/13 wowens

Bassoppo-Moyo, T. C. (2008). Applying needs assessment and strategic planning techniques in developing e-learning. International Journal of Instructional Media, 35(4), 373+. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA273359027&v=2.1&u=lirn22974&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w

 This article encourages needs assessment and strategic planning when implementing e-learning. Bassoppo-Moyo (2008) states that technology should not drive instructional design or assessment, rather the planning, and best practices of the learning environment should be done before a course is implemented into the technology. The article also describes recommendations for performing a needs assessment, strategic planning and vision statement exercise for an online course.

This article’s approach to strategic planning is well informed. It would be beneficial for anyone who is looking to implement an e-learning strategy into their organization.  I found it interesting that the author focuses on first creating the ideal learning environment for the student, based on goals and outcomes desired, and then implementing it into the technology. I do believe it probably happens the other way around in many situations.Link below available through USF subscription database.

Submitted 10/12/12 bcovelli

 Batson, Trent. (2010) Assessing student work in the open educational resources era. Campus Technology. Retrieved from http://campustechnology.com/articles/2010/04/21/assessing-student-work-in-the-open-educational-resources-era.aspx

This article takes a non-statistical look at the evolution of the role media and other educational opportunities have played in transitioning standard classroom time into a multimedia culture that allows for a greater opportunity of diverse learning.   The evolution of student assessments based on testing from text book learning has turned to a student-centered approach that allows the instructor to seek continual feedback from students.   The feedback received from the continual student assessment of the material allows the educator to tailor his/her experience in the exploration of the current topic to relate to the students questions and understanding of material at the level they are at, and the knowledge they seek for the topic.

The author was an English professor and has 25 years in educational technology.   He explores the changing environment from test oriented student assessments to what he defines as student commentary.  He claims the student commentary, or continuous assessment from students allows for a more flexible learning approach that promotes metacognition.  The article supports the evolution of student-centered learning in the assessment process.  While the article is interesting it does have a presumption that “no multimedia resource can trump this human interaction,” referring to “seat time,” in a traditional classroom.   While the sociability of humans is undeniable, it is the quality of instruction no matter the type of class, online or classroom. 

Submitted 3/4/2013 bmitcheff

Boettcher, J. V. (02/23/11). Evidence of learning online: Assessment beyond the paper. Campus Technology. Retrieved from http://campustechnology.com/articles/2011/02/23/assessment-beyond-the-paper.aspx

While on-line education has made strides in advancing traditional learning, the one aspect that lingers is the dreaded writing of the research paper.  The author contends that less time-consuming methods can demonstrate that learning has occurred.  She discusses the “cognitive-surplus” theory wherein motivated humans have a desire to create and to share within their respective fields of study.

Examples of alternative projects that can demonstrate competency beyond the typical research paper include producing “real-life” work such as interviews, case studies, and audio-visual projects. The author maintains that having a variety of end-of-year projects to choose from stimulates the student, taps into their creativity, and puts accountability into the learning experience.

I think the digital publication “Campus Technology” is a credible resource as it is not affiliated with any one particular technology or university.  The author presents a well-balanced and interesting perspective of how we can expand upon the traditional expectations of an end-of-year term paper and use technology to maximize learning.  While it has been my experience that professors of graduate programs assign projects other than traditional term papers, I believe they are still assigned on a regular basis, particularly in an undergraduate curriculum.  Maybe it’s time a blended approach for assessment be considered as a way to evolve for the next generation.

Submitted 10-14-12 mgreek

Bushman, C., Crofts, C., Conley, K., Cobb, J., & Roemmich, R. (2008). Best practices for distance learning: A manual for educators, administrators, and curriculum designers. Retrieved from: http://www.mrsroemmich.com/manual/topics/assessment/

This is a website involving best practices for those who administer distance learning education.  The section on assessment provides information on transitioning face to face assessment practices into the virtual world.  There are several forms of evaluations and methods communicating expectations to online learners.

The website was designed by a team of students, Team Blue, at Grand Canyon University as a collaborative project for thei
r Distance Learning course.  The design of the webpage and website, is beneficial to anyone working with online learning.  The section on assessment is a good starting point for one to evaluate the effectiveness of the online learning environment.   

Submitted: 10/01/2017 mwilkins

Bunson, Stan. (2012, April 9). How to Evaluate Instruction, Including eLearning. Retrieved from


Stan Bunson, an author of Learning Solutions Magazine, begin the article by stating "The purpose of instructional/training evaluation is to provide continuous feedback to improve training; improvement should lead to learners achieving higher results in tests, quizzes, on-the-job training and other methods of evaluation.”  The article provides a 6-step methodology for conducting a training evaluation. 

6 – Step Process:

*      Plan the evaluation

*      Determine evaluation design

*      Develop & validate the instruments

*      Collect data

*      Analyze the data

*      Report the findings


In the “report under the findings” step, the article suggests including an Executive Summary detailing its purpose and content of information that should be included in an Executive Summary.


The article provides detailed information.  It is helpful information for instruction designers who are interested in determining the application of information and skills of its participants.  It’s a process for evaluating your evaluation/assessment of learning that has taken place.  The author invites readers to comment on the article.  One reader commented that it is heavily theory based and recommended a simpler process.  The article is an easy read.  It certainly made me think about evaluating my planning process more in-depth.



Submitted:  9/24/17 ccwilliams

Buzzetto-More, N. A., & Alade, A. J. (2006). Best Practices in e-Assessment . Journal of Information Technology Education5, 251-269. Retrieved from http://jite.org/documents/Vol5/v5p251-269Buzzetto152.pdf

The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the origins, evolution, and key concepts of assessment as well as illustrate some of the ways in which technology and e-Learning serve as the most promising mechanisms for satisfying assessment goals and objective.  This work is based on an exhaustive review of literature, the analysis of acclaimed assessment programs, as well as the authors' own work in the development and use of e-learning in the design, and implementation of an assessment program at an institution of higher education located in Maryland (Buzzetto-More & Alade, 2006, p. 251-252.

This article addressed the history and evolution of the assessment movement and discussed the purpose of assessment.  The article covered a diverse group of programs (computerized longitudinal testing, online diagnostic testing, competitive networked simulations, rubrics, student discussion transcripts, taped presentations, and electronic portfolios) as well as case analysis rubic, professional presentation assessment rubic and writing assessment rubic.  The article is from a reliable source and will be good for anyone doing student assessment.

Retrieved from http://jite.org/documents/Vol5/v5p251-269Buzzetto152.pdf 

Submitted 10/4/2015 mfajardo

California State University, Chico. Strategies for Assessing Learning Outcomes. Retrieved from http://www.csuchico.edu/vpaa/assessment/toolbox/assessmentStrategies.shtml

California State University, Chico provides a tool box for learners on the assessment of student learning. In order to ensure that distance learning is as effective as traditional learning, assessment is a vital piece. Exit exams are helpful to ensure learning at the end of the program. Surveys are a third-party alternative that allows learners to self-evaluate; which is the most popular method of evaluation. Course-embedded or performance-based are the assignments and tests that are assigned throughout the course already. This is a great measure for assessment, and computer software is especially important for this. Lastly, course mentoring should also be a regular part of monitoring assessment throughout the course.

This is a credible source, but it lacks a substantial amount of detail on this link as the tool box links are separated individually, preventing readers to view the entire tool box with one click. After reading the assessment for this link, I believe it is factual, but it leaves readers wanting more information; to which, I would encourage them looking into the remaining tool box links that include: developing program mission and goals, developing student learning outcomes, aligning curriculum with learning outcomes, developing a plan, and closing the loop. This would be a great page for educators and students alike.

http://www.csuchico.edu/vpaa/assessment/toolbox/assessmentStrategies.shtml submitted by kherring on 9/26/15

Challis, D.  (2005).  Committing to quality learning through adaptive online assessment.  Assessment And Evaluation In Higher Education, 30(5), 519-527.

In the Assessment and Evaluation Journal, Di Challis discusses how adaptive assessment can be of more use than other standard forms of assessment in the online environment.  The author brings up some flaws associated with standard summative evaluations where students are asked to recall and regurgitate information that they may or may not have learned.  The remainder of the article sets out to differentiate adaptive assessment for learning from adaptive assessment for achievement.  This article appears to be suited for someone who is familiar with education assessments in the online environment but is looking to improve performance.  With many references and being published in a scholarly journal, this article is recommended as a credible source. 


Submitted on 9/28/14 Hollingsworth

Filed under: https://sites.google.com/a/stfrancis.edu/e-learning/home/assessment (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Colvin, M., Frith, K., Sewell, J. (2010). Online assessment strategies: A primer. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, (6)1. Retrieved from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol6no1/sewell_0310.pdf                                                                                                 

In this journal, it advises us on the opportunity the instructors must develop assessments to monitor the students’ progress and gives various online assessment strategies that promote the of the learning objectives.  This articles states there must be clearly defined learning objectives in the on-line course before assessment strategies can be evaluated. This allows students to know exact expectations and prepare them to meet their goals. The different assessment techniques discussed in this article are formative assessment, summative assessment, online testing and online quizzes. 

This journal article, provides in-depth information on the different assessment techniques needed to ensure the successful completion of an online course.  This article or white paper discuss the essential elements for design and use of formative and summative on-line assessment it gives an overview about design and use of assessment strategies for instructors who are novices to online learning.



Crisp, G. (2010, January 10). Interactive e-assessment--practical approaches to constructing more sophisticated online tasks. Journal of Learning Design, 3(3). Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ903926.pdf

This article highlights Assessment 2.0 and some of the practical options that are available to teachers in the field of mathematics and sciences. Assessment 2.0 describes an environment in which the teacher sets tasks that allow students to use more dynamic, immersive and interactive environments for exploring and creating responses to sophisticated assessment tasks. Assessments will become more like sophisticated games incorporating role-playing and scenarios; they will replicate many of the complexities of the real world, allowing students to explore and describe the consequences associated with their responses. This article looks at how teachers can begin this journey through the use of simple interactive tools incorporated into familiar question types available in common learning management systems.

The author proposes an e-assessment design model based on the incorporation of URL link to a digital tool within questions developed using quiz tools in common learning management systems. The emphasis is on students being able to access digital tools and develop self-analytical skills in determining and selecting the appropriate response. The author provided a table with descriptors for e-assessment tasks using digital tools in assessing: understanding, application, analysis, evaluation and creativity. Screen images of Java applet examples of digital tools embedded in e-assessment questions were also provided throughout the article as well.

Submitted 3/12/11 cbmack

DeSouza- Hart, J.A. (2010). Biology blogs: An online journal club & assessment tool. The American Biology Teacher, 72(3).

This article was written in the award-winning journal, The American Biology Teacher; a peer-refereed journal for K-16 biology teachers.  Author, Janet De Souza-Hart, discussed how she used a blog to develop critical science communication skills.    An open-ended question and reading assignment related to a recent discovery or controversial topic within the genetics field were posted on the blog.   Students were assessed on both the quantity and quality of their posts; quality includes evidence of content mastery, critical thinking and analysis.  De Souza-Hart also created blog assessment questions, in MCAT/GRE format, for inclusion on the final and midterm exams.

This article detailed how the use of a blog could effectively be used as an assessment tool in a science course.  This blog provided an opportunity for authentic assessment as students had to synthesize lectures, reading material and other course content to support their opinions as posted on the blog.  Students had to demonstrate the same analytical, critical thinking and writing skills they would be expected to use in communicating with their peers in the scientific community.    Blog content was also included on the midterm and final exams, in MCAT/GRE format, to provide another opportunity to assess student’s understanding of the content.

Submitted 03/13/2011 cbanks

Eatchel, N. (May , 2007).Online testing making it count. Elearn Magazine 
Retrieved from

This article explores the increase need of computer-based testing (CBT) or on-line assessment tools. Assessments have grown exponentially as instruction is delivered in distant learning formats for companies, educational institutions, and other agencies.  As technology grows there is a real concern of bad-actors or “cheaters” with the large amounts of content and various methods to assess learners, organizations must select the best practices for implementing these solutions.  Assessments must be legal, grammatically correct; therefore adaptive web-based options are favored as they decrease the risk of cheating. Organizations should way pros and cons versus CBT’s and web-based learning options for assessment.
The article in Elearn Magazine clearly defines the importance of assessment and the value of web-based assessments versus computer based training options. The author gives clear examples with the needs of psychometrics, content banks, and legality development as reasons to support the argument of a move from CBT’s to web-based solutions and content for assessment. Although, well covered from development needs, the article lacked discussing other elements like flexibility or database management advantages with web-based assessments versus CBT’s. The article would be a useful tool for consideration for any instructional designer, training department or learning officer trying to implement quality learning.
Submitted:  02/04/13 wowens

Fluckiger, J., Vigil, Y., Pasco, R., & Danielson, K. (2010). Formative feedback: Involving students as partners in assessment to enhance learning. College Teaching, 58(4), 136-140.


The article discusses the effectiveness of giving timely feedback to students.  The authors believe the frequency of the feedback and the involvement of students giving feedback to each other play an effective and positive role in the teaching and learning process.  The authors discuss four formative feedback methods they have used and then analyze each method.  The main concept of the article is that using formative feedback which incorporates the students as partners is a key element in the teaching and learning environment.  This will create a productive classroom where the focus is on learning and not on grading.

By involving a student, that student is empowered to take control of his or her education.  The education and success become the property of the student, not the teacher or the institution.  The student becomes involved and learns how to apply the knowledge to other situations.  The authors stress student involvement equals student and teacher growth.  Taking the time to include student participation in assessment will result in benefits for both the students and the teacher.  This will create a classroom focused on learning and the student and not on grading. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=a927403136

Submitted 10/17/2010 kautrey       

Gawliu Jr., H. (2014). Tips on creating effective assessments. Litmos. Retrieved from http://www.litmos.com/blog/elearning/create-effective-assessments

This article points out that having effective and efficient assessments are vital in determining the success of the learning experience.  The author then goes on to let us know the differences between an effective assessment and an ineffective assessment.  His tips are to test on the content that is taught, ensure the assessment provides useful feedback, make sure the assessment fits into the course without disrupting it, and to use rewards.  He also stresses that assessments should be part of the learning process.

I think this is a great article on assessments.  The author not only gives us tips on how to create a useful assessment, but also justifies the reasons for including assessments in learning situations.  I especially like that he stresses assessments shouldn’t confuse the learner or disrupt the flow of the training session.  His suggestion of using shorter quizzes throughout the training rather than a long one at the end is great advice that I plan on taking in the future.  I’m glad I found this article and will definitely reference it again.


submitted: 9/21/2015 jeffle

Gaytan, J., & McEwen, B. C. (2007). Effective online instructional and assessment strategies. The American Journal of Distance Education, 21(3), 117-132.

Retrieved from: 


In this article, authors Jorge Gaytan and Beryl McEwen discuss a study that was conducted using online students and faculty from two southern state universities. The goal of the study was to identify and understand the most effective instructional and assessment strategies used in online learning. The study revealed various amounts of data but of particular note was the importance of the appropriate amount and quality of feedback received by students. Other effective techniques were also discussed (including peer evaluations, portfolios, etc.) as well as further recommendations made based on the study’s findings.  

I had no trouble understanding the goal of the study within the article, however I felt that there was some information that was interesting but not directly related to the topic at hand. The study was trying to cover too many topics, potentially bogging down the reader and distracting them. The conclusion section of the article helps to reign the reader back in and simplify all of the data presented earlier. Lastly, I realized that constructive feedback is an assessment technique that should not be ignored. It is clear that timely and quality feedback is paramount in an e-learning environment.

Submitted: 10/4/15  kdelgado

Gilman, T. (March 2010). Designing effective online assignment. The Chronicle of Higher Education.74, 206. p.55413 (2).Retrieved October 1, 2010, http://chronicle.com/article/Designing-Effective-Online/64772/.

 Every teacher (online or in the traditional classroom) wants to create valuable learning experience for their students. Part of the experience includes effective methods of assessment. Distance education poses several challenges for assessment. Common concerns are cheating, student and faculty disengagement and single method assessment.

Online faculty must consider the topic they are teaching and effective ways to evaluate the student to ensure maximum successful for the class. The author suggests being as specific as possible when providing directions, offer examples of work, and steer clear of group work as a few “best practices”. To avoid cheating, research assignments, journal reviews, discussion threads are effective method of assessment.

Guardia, L. (2016, September 17) How to overcome the challenges of e-learning assessments in 5 simple steps. eLearning Industry. Retrieved from https://elearningindustry.com/challenges-of-e-assessments-5-steps

The article states that there are five steps to consider when creating an e-assessment. The steps are Instructional Design, Variety of Methods, Technologies Enhance Assessments, Technologies Enhance Assessments, and Evidence Based Learning. The main point that is made by the author was to indicate that the use of traditional assessments, such as testing, as there needs to be more involved to determine skills, competences, and abilities (Guardia, 2016). The author goes on to state that the use of feedback is important between the instructor and the student to provide the guidance needed to direct students in the direction needed to reach that goal.

The source is a reliable sources as it is one that is tied in the e-learning industry, and the author has written several articles and papers regarding assessments in the e-learning format. This could be useful in the e-learning environment for those who have never taught in an e-learning format before, and was moving classroom material into the e-learning environment. While the core material can be transferred between the two environments, assessments have to be considered to match the audience. This article can be used as a blueprint for the instructors to use, and then be able to be pointed in the direction needed to look into e-learning assessments.

(You will find this resource in E-Learning under Assessment>Assessment Strategies.)

Submitted: 10/2/16 sbfisher

Harden, R.M. (2002). Developments in outcome-based education. Medical Teacher. Taylor and Francis Health Sciences. Volume. 24. No. 2.  pp.117-120. Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com/na101/home/literatum/publisher/tandf/journals/content/imte20/2002/imte20.v024.i02/01421590220120669/20150522/01421590220120669.fp.png_v03

R.M Harden discusses the developments in outcome-based education in the medical field. The information in the article dates back to the early 2000’s and addresses a change in emphasis for continuing education. The importance of explicit instruction and expectation of learner objectives and outcomes are explored so to better understand the assessment methods used in demonstration of learner achievement. The characterization and development of outcome-based education in introduced in detail with research and data to provide clarity and potential growth. This article also explores the differences between the instructional objectives of the 60’s and 70’s debate and the change in emphasis to today’s learning outcomes.

This article is a quick read for those interested in the changes of instructional design of assessment for learner outcomes and objectives relating to the medical field. Additional information would have been beneficial and additional exploration of the topic and research relating to the actual assessment component would have enhanced this article. Although this article is discussing medical students and how to better train doctors, the information is somewhat relevant and provides a preliminary basis to some of the changes in continuing education and the way students are learning coupled with the way their achievements are being assessed.


Submitted 10/2/15 dreedgypins 

Holder, L. (2012). How To Design Assessments That Promote The Learning Process. Retrieved from https://elearningindustry.com/design-assessments-promote-learning-process


This article by LuAnne Holder from the elearning Industry blog addresses six characteristics of assessments that promote the learning process. Those six assessments are creating an original deliverable such as a project instead of an exam, allow learners to create their own assessments, experiential assessments such as a leadership course that would allow the learner to analyze their style, advancing critical thinking skills to address solutions to new problems and case studies, having direct evidence of skill acquisition such as providing assessments that are part of the learning activity itself and reflective assessment allowing students to show a transfer of learning. By using assessments in your courses, the learner will benefit in skill acquisition, be engaged in learning and be empowered to set the direction of their learning increasing motivation and retention.   



Submitted: 8/25/2017 kmparker

Jamornmann, U. (2004, May-August). Techniques for assessing students’ eLearning achievement. International Journal of the Computer, the Internet and Management. 12 (2). Retrieved from http://www.ijcim.th.org/past_editions/2004V12N2(SP)/pdf/p26-31-Utumporn-Techniques_for_assessing-newver.pdf

This article suggests setting a foundation during the e-learning assessment process based on the qualities of the individual student.  These qualities include background, knowledge, skills, attitudes, values and relationships with instructors and students.  The author also highlights Assessment of Computer-Assisted Instruction (ACAI) as the most appropriate e-learning assessment technique.  This assessment strategy is designed for students to learn at his/her own pace and convenience and combines assessment from the beginning of the learning process. 

 The author suggests some very specific ways in which the ACAI can be conducted. These suggestions can be very helpful when designing an e-learning program or course.  In addition, the author discusses various ways that instructors are often stuck simply assessing cognitive ability throughout the e-learning process.  He suggests that assessment should also include the assessment of non-cognitive ability as well and offers some tips in support of that approach.


submitted: 9/22/16 rdaurio

Jonson, Jessica. (2006). Guidebook for Programmatic Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes. University of Nebraska. Retrieved from: http://svcaa.unl.edu/assessment/learningoutcomes_guidebook.pdf 

Guidebook for Programmatic Assessment of Student Learning Outcomes produced by The University of Nebraska explores six critical components of the outcomes assessment process. The premise of the guidelines discussed are based on how and what students have learned in a given program. The main objective is to produce the answer to the question-“What should the student be able to demonstrate, represent and produce?”  The components discussed include: outcome Statement, opportunities to learn, question of interest, assessment method, sharing and interpreting results and use of results. Each section provides either guidelines for the information delivered, charts/graphs for clarity, worksheets or “hands-on” material. Included are also examples of work should one wish to follow these guideline for implementation.

This resource is phenomenal for any individual interested in understanding the outcomes assessment process. The information provided is clear, well laid-out and informative. The additional sections of examples promote understanding of this topic and generate an opportunity for individuals interested in exploring this process and provide useful tools for appropriate execution of the assessment process. The presentation of the information is very well organized and easy to follow. Another great feature of the article is the presentation of advantages and disadvantages of each guideline and its process. This resource is highly recommended. http://svcaa.unl.edu/assessment/learningoutcomes_guidebook.pdf    

Submitted 10/2/15 dreedgypins

Jung, I. (2011). The Dimensions of e-learning quality: From the learner's perspective. Educational Technology Research And Development, 59(4), 445-464. Retrieved from: http://ezproxy.stfrancis.edu:2073/10.1007/s11423-010-9171-4

The study was designed to identify the quality measurements as perceived by adult learners who had taken one or more e-learning courses. The results of the analysis of 299 learners revealed that from their perspective, there were seven dimensions in evaluating the e-learning quality: "Interaction," "Staff Support," "Institutional Quality Assurance Mechanism," "Institutional Credibility," "Learner Support," "Information and Publicity" and "Learning Tasks." Most of these seven dimensions are supported by previous studies, some dimensions, such as technology support, content and evaluation/assessment that e-learning providers had highlighted did not appear to be important for Korean adult learners.


I find this article to be credible as it is peer reviewed and it is published in an educational research journal with informational images. The article presents a useful chart with definitions and items in relation to the seven dimensions. Possible explanations for the findings are discussed in relation to learner characteristics, e-learning design, and culture, and further research topics are suggested. This data would be helpful to instructors when they are preparing their coursework and also to anyone that’s interested in comparing educational cultures as the study analyzed South Korean higher education institutions.


Submitted 10/4/2015 chamlin

Kaya, T. (November 7, 2010). A 'stealth assessment' turns to video games to measure thinking skills. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.com/article/A-Stealth-Assessment-Turns/125276/ 

This article by Travis Kaya details the work of Valerie Shute in the area of “stealth assessment.”  The goal of stealth assessment is to administer tests without the student knowing that they are being assessed and rather than just measuring what they know, it takes a closer look at how the student thinks.  Ms. Shute’s work focuses on using games to look at core competencies of critical thinking, empathy, and persistence.  She also looks for ways that teaching can be changed on the fly to address deficiencies revealed through game play.

As we continue to complete globally, it important to keep in mind that a skill set that contains more than just wrote knowledge is essential for success.  In our assessment we have to look for ways to identify creative thinking, the ability to problem solve and see complex relationships between ideas.  Games are often overlooked as mere leisure experiences or scoffed at as distracting (my mother would argue that they rot your brain).  However by mixing play with learning and assessing we are able to remove some of the stress factors that traditional testing can impose upon the learner and identify deeper learning that is taking place.

Keramati, A., Ashfari-Mofrad, M., & Kamrani, A. (2002). The role of readiness factors in e-learning outcomes: An empirical study. Computers & Education, 57, 1919-1929. Retrieved from http://www.phd-in-progress.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/06.pdf

This article discusses the role of readiness factors and its relationship between e-learning factors and e-learning outcomes. Readiness factors are divided into three main groups - technical, organizational, and social – and according to the article, organizational readiness factors have the most influence on e-learning outcomes. In addition, a teacher’s motivation and training also has significant impact on e-learning.

While the article provides insights to the importance of readiness and preparation in e-learning outcomes, the article can be confusing in terms of methodology. The study itself is not so much a discussion of experimental results, but rather a discussion of students’ perception on readiness factors and e-learning outcomes. The questionnaire listed in the Appendix, however, can be useful for research purposes on readiness, since not many studies on readiness factors and e-learning exist.


submitted: 9/28/2014 pclemente

Kintu, M. & Zhu, C. (2016) Student characteristics and learning outcomes in a blended learning environment intervention in a Ugandan university. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1107126.pdf

This paper was written to explore if students moved from a face to face classroom to a blended classroom, would they be able to utilize the tools presented to them and how it would impact their assessment. The areas the paper focused on in regards to learner outcomes were intrinsic motivation, satisfaction, knowledge construction, and learning performance. The study showed that while students were able to use the tools as presented to them, the majority preferred the face to face interactions with the instructors. The conclusion of the paper was that while the students were given the opportunity to use the tools, the students need to feel that they are empowered to use them.

The journal the paper was presented in is a double blind peer reviewed journal, so the information can be viewed as reliable. This paper could be useful if determining what will motivate the students from moving to a blended classroom as opposed to the face to face format will entail, and to think about what the learner outcomes need to be focused on to determine what assessments need to be utilized in a blended format. Was this conclusive in assessing if the students did well in the blended format? The results were not really clear, but what I could determine is that there is still work to do in this area.

(You will find this resource in E-Learning under Assessment>Assessment Strategies.)

Submitted: 10/2/16 sbfisher

Lam, T. C. M. (1995) Fairness in performance assessment. Eric digest. Retrieved from http://www.ericdigests.org/1996-4/fairness.htm

Tony Lam confronts dilemmas and bias that exist in dealing with issues of fairness in performance assessments. Although standardized assessments advocates assessing all students in a standardized manner, the question remains does it really provide equality and equity among students of a different gender, ethnicity, race, linguistic background, socioeconomic status or handicapping conditions. Lam addresses an array of issues that may contribute to biases including metacognitive skills, culturally influenced processes, social skills and inadequate or undue assistance form authority figures. After reading the article it definitely made me reevaluate my thoughts about performance assessments. Mr. Lam not only brings awareness to the issue of biases that may exist among groups, but encourages the continued research for a sound and practical performance assessment equal for all students. While I do believe there have been improvements in the assessment process over the years, I think the article would be beneficial to any teacher or practitioner that works with a diverse group of individuals.

Levy, Y., & Ramim, M. M. (2015). The effect of competence-based simulations on management skills enhancements in e-learning courses. Retrieved from http://www.openu.ac.il/innovation/chais2015/c1_2.pdf

Levy and Ramim (2015) studied the impact of online computer simulations and competency-based projects on the skill levels of e-learning business management students. The students were measured on twelve management skills that pertain to business as culled from the authors’ resources. The study showed that the inclusion of these online artifacts increased the competency-based skill levels of the e-learning students in direct comparison to the e-learning students without these learning modules.

The authors used a control group to juxtapose against the experimental group results. The study included a pre-test in addition to the post-test to quantify the results. The authors acknowledge the limitations of their study but the results are of value to instructors and instructional designers who wish to broaden the learning opportunities and success of their e-learning programs. The results of this study could be used to promote and possibly justify the inclusion of online simulations and competency-based projects in an e-learning curriculum.


Submitted: 9/27/15 ddonelson

Martin, Holly (2007). Constructing Learning Objectives for Academic Advising. Retrieved from: http://www.nacada.ksu.edu/Resources/Clearinghouse/View-Articles/Constructing-student-learning-outcomes.aspx

Holly Martin, Assistant Dean and Academic Advisor University of Notre Dame, presented concrete strategies for achieving successful student learning outcomes based on three major areas which are information, skills, and cognitive development.  The article listed the following points to consider regarding learning objectives:

  • Create an order
  • Decide how objectives will be taught
  • Decide how objectives will used in various kinds of advising situations
  • Decide how progress towards the objectives will be evaluated
  • List objectives sequentially in students' normal developmental pattern
  • Provide concrete strategies for each objective

The article stresses the importance of periodically revisiting objectives throughout the course to assist students with judging their progress towards meetings objectives; review objectives in group meetings and communications, one-on-one meetings, or in the classroom.

This article is beneficial to anyone responsible for teaching and/or advising others.  Its reliable with references and provides additional articles as opportunities for research on content.

Additional Articles:

Academic advising in the new global century: Supporting student engagement and learning outcomes achievement, via AAC&U's Peer Review, 2006

The Blended advising model: Transforming advising through e-portfolios,by G.A & L.W. Ambrose, (2013). International Journal of ePortfolio, 3,1, 75-89.


Submitted: 9/24/17 ccwilliams

Mateo, J.  (2007).  Designing online learning assessment through alternative approaches:  facing the concerns.  European Journal of Distance and E-learning (vol. two).  Retrieved from:  http://www.eurodl.org/?p=archives&year=2007&halfyear=2

In the European Journal of Open, Distance and E-learning, Dr. Joan Mateo gives a brief synapses of the problems that educators are facing with the assessment of distance learning.  After the introduction of problems, she continues by discussing why the classical model of course assessment has limitation in the online environment.  She completes her article by discussing new methods of assessment design and offers some alternative models that may be employed which are better suited for distance programs.  This article seems best suited for someone who is looking to build a case to use a new form of program evaluation.  The article presents itself as credible but there seems to be a bit of bias in the article despite an extensive reference list.  


Submitted on 09/28/14 chollingsworth

McConnell, D. (2002). The experience of collaborative assessment in e-learning. Studies in Continuing Education, 24(1), 73-92. Retrieved from http://www.pro-blearning.net/pluginfile.php/29/mod_data/content/730/Collaborative%20assessment.pdf

This article reviews the process of using collaborative assessment in e-learning environments in order to involve the students, their peers, and tutors in the “thoughtful and critical examination of each student’s course work” (2002, abstract). The article explains the appropriateness of using such strategies for assessment, discusses how collaborative assessment can become a learning experience, and the focus for assessment. McConnell claims that collaborative assessment is a “learning event” allowing students to build a sense of responsibility to others, develop collaborative assessment skills, understand others’ learning techniques, and be more motivated to learn.

For those looking for more engaging and active ways for students and teachers to be involved in the learning and assessment process, this article is a valuable resource. The article clearly explains the needs and benefits of collaborative assessment. The examples of the responses McConnell received during interviews and surveys were some of the most interesting parts of the article. Also interesting is the article’s discussion on whether participation should be assessed. Perhaps a follow-up article on whether or not there were significant effects in scores or other objective measures as a result of collaborative assessment would be helpful.


submitted: 9/28/2014 pclemente

McCracken, J., Cho, S., Sharif, A., Wilson, B., & Miller, J. (2012). Principled assessment strategy design for online courses and programs. Electronic Journal Of E-Learning, 10(1), 107-119. Retrieved from EBSCOhost: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ969449.pdf.

This article discusses four case studies of online and virtual courses that made it a point to use clearly defined assessment strategies. In all four cases course designers worked closely with instructors to create assessment strategies that aligned with the course objectives. The types of assessment each case used were peer, self, and instructor. Each case had a discussion of the assessment strategies specific to the course, and the lessons learned from using those strategies. In the end each course was successful in their assessment strategies because of how closely aligned they were to measuring the learning outcomes and course objectives for each student.

The meat of the usable information lies in the Lessons Learned sections of each of the case studies. That was the part where the authors gave the pros and cons of each assessment strategy for that specific case. This information is very useful to course objective writers creating similar formats of courses. The authors make it a point to share with the reader the importance of clear and focused assessment strategies in online and virtual learning. It reiterates the need for different strategies to be used for online learner assessment to measure the learning taking place.

Moore, E (2013, December 2). 7 Assessment Challenges for Moving your Course Online (and a Dozen Solutions). Retrieved October 2, 2016. From http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/online-education/7-assessment-challenges-of-moving-your-course-online-solutions/

7 Assessment Challenges for Moving your Course Online (and a Dozen Solutions), written by Emily A. Moore is an article written as a guide from switching brick and mortar class room instruction to an online format. The article gives the reader ideas as to why face to face classroom assessment differs from online and gives several examples as to why.

This article gives the instructor (and student) that are making the switch to online learning sound reasons of comparison and contrast. The author gives good reasoning for the 7 online assessments which include timed tests, shuffled/randomized questions and performance assessment.  Moore an Instructional Design Consultant also gives solutions that the reader will find well thought out and interesting.

From http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/online-education/7-assessment-challenges-of-moving-your-course-online-solutions/

Submitted 10/2/16 mcarter

Morrison, D. (2015, May 26). How 'Good' is Your Online Course? Five Steps to Assess Course Quality. Retrieved October 02, 2016, from https://lgaretio.wordpress.com/2015/05/27/how-good-is-your-online-course-five-steps-to-assess-course-quality/

In her article “How good is your online course? Five steps to assess course quality,” author Debbie Morrison gives an insight of five steps that will help in evaluating the content of online instruction. Morrison’s five steps; learning, faculty, students, scale and access and gives the reader a clear explanation for each.

“How good is your online course? Five steps to assess course quality,” is great source for those looking for an article that explains the basics. The author gives detailed information that will give the reader a brief explanation of quality assessment. This article also gives a small history lesson of online course and its early categorization as an inferior learning. Something that the author exposes to be untrue. This article is a good source for those doing research and needs a condensed yet informative source.


Submitted 10/2/16 mcarter

Morrison, D. (2015, May 26). How ‘good’ is your online course? Five steps to assess course quality. Online Learning Insights. Retrieved from https://onlinelearninginsights.wordpress.com/tag/assessing-e-learning-course-quality/

In this blog post, Morrison encourages online educators to approach assessing their online courses and programs holistically. The holistic approach would include such elements as “students’ perspectives, results over a period of time, artifacts created during learning, and the instructor’s course experience” (2015). Additionally, Morrison explains why using rubrics and existing frameworks are a great place for institutions to start an assessment process. Lastly, as the name implies, Morrison outlines 5 steps that can be used to determine if a course meets the needs of the student.

I found this blog post to be rather informative as it provides a number of takeaways that can be used for future use. The five steps for assessing online course quality Morrison proposes are good example to use. Morrison provides sufficient resources to establish credibility and she herself is an independent consultant who works with such entities as The World Bank, California State University – Fullerton, and a private K-12 school, Carol Morgan School.

Submitted 9/24/15 rbee

 Nakayama, M., Yamamoto, H., & Santiago, R. (2010). The role of essay tests assessment in e-learning: A japanese case study. Electronic Journal Of E-Learning, 8(2), 173-178. Retrieved from EBSCOhost: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ895705.pdf.

The goal of the research in this article was to show if essay tests are a quality way to assess learning outcomes in hybrid and fully online university courses. Students in two different courses, one bachelor’s level and one master’s level, both offered in hybrid and fully online formats, were assessed at the end of their courses with an essay exam and a multiple choice exam.  The results of these exams show that there is no significant difference in learner outcomes in the different formats when measured by essay exams, but students in the hybrid courses scored significantly higher than those in the fully online course when assessed with the multiple choice test.

This research is interesting because it shows that essay exams are a good assessment of learner outcomes regardless of course format. Since students can express what they have learned in a directed, yet open-ended, essay, learning outcomes can be better measured than with multiple choice exams where there is one correct answer. Also, multiple choice exams leave no room for the expression of prior experience, and it limits ones knowledge to what was taught in the class, not taking into account understanding of that knowledge. In studying this article I agree with the results of essays being a quality way to assess learning outcomes in online course formats.

Submitted 9/19/13: sweldy

O'Donnell, E., Sharp, M., Wade, V., & O'Donnell, L. (2014). Personalised e-learning: The assessment of students prior knowledge in higher education. In V. Wang (Ed.), Handbook of research on education and technology in a changing society. Hershey, New York: IGI Global. Retrieved from http://arrow.dit.ie/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1014&context=buschmanbk

The authors focus on using information about student’s prior knowledge to facilitate personalized e-learning experiences. They explain APL (Assessment for Prior Learning) and list different ways a student’s prior knowledge can be tested. They also take a look at the issues and problems that may arise in assessing student’s prior knowledge, for example, learning environment and testing methods.

This is a reliable source that provides good information about gathering and using student’s prior knowledge in an e-learning setting. The authors use credible references and the chapter is up to date and relevant. It helps explain the issues that may arise in personalizing e-learning, such as cost, technical expertise and time. It also provides charts to give visual sample courses, etc. I think the article could have included more real life examples instead of simply explanations.

Submitted: 10/2/2015 alblank

On-Line Assessment: Assessing Learning in Australian Universities. Retrieved from: http://www.cshe.unimelb.edu.au/assessinglearning/03/online.html

This article covers reason s for the use of on-line assessment of students and possible pitfalls of doing so. Some of the advantages of this type of assessment are the use of a broader range and diversity of tasks, the ability to provide more timely feedback and flexibility for student and instructor alike. However, there are those who feel that this practice may have a negative influence on teaching and learning. If such assessment relies too heavily on multiple choice or true/false type responses, students are not challenged and therefore a lower level of effort is required in order to satisfactorily pass assessment.

The article makes good points for the use of on-line assessment and warnings to help avoid potential issues. It also includes suggestions for alternatives to multiple choice type questions. I believe the utilization of on-line assessment will continue to increase even for more traditional in-person courses. The flexibility offered helps both parties.

Pappas, C. (2016, January 1). How to create effective eLearning assessments to measure online training. eLearning Industry: Corporate Elearning. Retrieved from.

ELearning Industry is one of the largest online communities of professionals. This site allows professionals and researchers to share their articles, concepts, software and resources.  This type of education is focused on the business world. It is the courses and / or modules an employer feels their employees need.   This article focuses on the 7 “tips” on creating an effective assessment tool in order to measure the course or training modules success.  Companies tend to forget that even though they are not an institute for education, assessing their own courses and / or modules are just as important.

Safety regulations, diversity training, and updated technical training are just of few subjects a business or industry needs to keep up with.  To keep up with changes, classes and on-line modules for education are important. Just having your employees work through these does not make the purpose of educating everyone complete.  There needs to be a tool to measure what employees gained from these courses, what they felt they needed but was not provided, and what they feel personally would make these educational courses and modules more beneficial to them.  If an employer is going to invest in these tools for their employees, that employer needs to see its value.

submitted: 9/23/2016 mmeadors

Pappas, C. (2016, January 1). How to create effective eLearning assessments to measure online training. eLearning Industry. Retrieved from https://elearningindustry.com/7-tips-create-effective-elearning-assessments-measure-online-training

Assessments in eLearning are imperative to understand whether the skills and abilities of learners have been aligned with a program's needs and goals. This article shares 7 tips on how to create effective eLearning assessments to ensure that online training courses are truly successful in boosting performance levels and increasing productivity. The seven tips shared include; creating different eLearning assessments for different people, being concise, using variety, focusing on performance assessments, creating assessments that measure users' reaction to the online training program, using previous feedback as assessment material, and analyzing assessment results to evaluate the whole process. Using assessments often will help an educator pinpoint the deficiencies of current methods and generate improved and more successful online training solutions.

Although this article does offer some focus towards eLearning within the workforce, it is a quick and simple read that would benefit all online educators. One piece that particularly resonated with me was the first tip that suggests creating different assessments for different people. Since online training strides to cater to a wide range of different learners, it is important to remember that users have different professional backgrounds and educational history, as well as different expectations and needs of the online course. Therefore, it is essential to create separate series of assessments for different target groups, capturing their specific feedback within their given area/role, as well as from a larger organizational standpoint. This will help create a more holistic viewpoint for educators to analyze and tailor towards each learner's needs.


Submitted: 9/23/2016 nraney

Pappas, C. (2016, January 1). How to create effective e-learning assessments to measure online training. E-learning Industry

Retrieved from


This article reviews different ways to create e-learning assessments that are effective. The author explains seven types of assessments. They are as follows: create different e-learning assessments for different people, be concise, use variety, focus on performance assessments, measure employees’ reaction to the online training program, use previous feedback, and analyze e-learning assessment results. Pappas also discusses the importance of each example. In addition, he briefly reviews the tips as it relates to assessing e-learning. Lastly, Pappas, emphasizes how assessment of online training plays a key role in determining whether the online training was successful or needs improvement.

This article would benefit those seeking to learn how to create online learning assessments. The author provides enough detail to allow the reader to make informed decisions regarding which assessment type is most suitable for their perspective online programs. His descriptions are clear and concise, while allowing for furthering probing if necessary with the embedded hyperlinks.


submitted:10/1/2016 tpettis


Pappas, C. ( 2015, July 7). Formative assessment in eLearning: What eLearning professionals should know. eLearning Industry. Retrieved from https://elearningindustry.com/formative-assessment-in-elearning-what-elearning-professionals-should-know

It is important for both educators and learners to understand learner progress during an online course. This article presents 6 different types of formative assessment and four tips on how to use this type of assessment in eLearning. Formative assessment offers learners feedback during a course, identifying areas they may need improvement in, as well as pinpointing their strengths within the course. This insight can be used to create an action plan for learners, so that they are able to modify learning behaviors and achieve their learning goals. Types of formative learning assessment shared include; goal checks, one-on-one discussions, instructor observations, personal online learning logs, group presentations, and self-assessments. Tips shared for using formative assessment in eLearning include; providing immediate feedback, understanding student progress to dictate the directions of the course, identifying measurable strengths and weaknesses, and remembering that formative assessments are not about grades, but about progress.

This article helps bring to light an assessment that I don't believe most educators remember to practice all that often. Online learners, although not in the classroom, still need consistent and constructive feedback regarding their work, in order to verify that knowledge is being transferred successfully. Often times, educators are interested in diagnostic assessment which determines what a learner needs to know before the eLearning course, or summative assessment which gauges knowledge mastery after the eLearning course, but understanding what learners are capturing during the course is twice as important. The types of formative assessment explained in this piece and tips on how to incorporate them within eLearning is very impactful for educators to understand and transcend into the "classroom".


Submitted: 9/23/2016 nraney

Pappas, C (2015, September 5).  E-Learning course evaluation strategies:  How to receive valuable feedback in e-learning.  Retrieved from:https://elearningindustry.com/4-elearning-course-evaluation-strategies-to-receive-valuable-feedback.

The article discusses methods in which one can receive vital assessment data in an e-learning environment.  The first suggestion is quite pioneering.  Why wait to ask for feedback at the end of a course?  An instructor might get a better assessment if he/she does it after a particularly hard activity or module.  After considering this, it makes sense to gauge the courses content or my instructional methods after a difficult concept.  The other suggestions given by the author are not as revolutionary but are still sound advice.

This article has given me the idea that it is important to continually assess my learners and not wait for the end of the course when students just want to be done and less likely to give me the tools I need to improve.   


submitted: 9/28/2016 sdelwich

Pappas, C. (2015).  Summative assessment in e-learning: what eLearning professionals should know.  eLearning Industry.  Retrieved from https://elearningindustry.com/summative-assessment-in-elearning-what-elearning-professionals-should-know

In the article, Christoforos Pappas briefly explains five different types of summative assessments that can be used in an e-learning environment.  Those types are: online multiple-choice exams, online presentations, the creation of websites or blogs, online learner portfolios, and online group projects.  In addition to that, Passas also provides four tips for using summative assessments in an e-learning environment.  For instance, he stresses the importance of providing learners with detailed grading rubrics in advance.  That way, the learners will have a clear understanding of what elements the assessment will involve, as well as how it will be graded.

I believe that Pappas provides a great introduction to the different ways that summative assessments can be used in an e-learning environment.  Too often, I think, people immediately think of multiple choice exams when they hear the word “assessment.”  However, as Pappas points out, learners can complete effective summative assessments through other means.  For instance, a learner can create and deliver an online presentation, where they will have the chance to demonstrate their mastery of the course content to the instructor, as well as other learners.  I also believe that Pappas’ tips are useful reminders for all that are involved in e-learning.


Submitted on 10/1/2017 by jsumma

Prineas, M. & Cini M. (2011, October). Assessing learning in online education: The role of thechnology in improving student outcomes.  National Institute for Learning Outcomes Assessment. 12. Retrieved from http://www.learningoutcomeassessment.org/documents/onlineed.pdf

This paper considers the use of assessment techniques such as data mining and learning analytics to evaluate student performance and behavior.  The authors also discuss tried and true instructional methodologies that have found a new place on online platforms.  For example, they describe the concept of Online Mastery Learning.  This technique describes learning in stages and requires student demonstration of proficiency before moving on to the next stage of the learning process.

 Online Mastery Learning seems like an ideal strategy for assessment but does require a larger amount of time and faculty involvement than other types of online adaptive testing.  However, the authors stress an opportunity to steer away from a “one-size-fits-all” approach to learning and embrace the students, particularly those in higher education, prior knowledge of a topic.  This strategy will help guide teachers as facilitators in assisting students down a path from where they are and what they know currently, to a where they want to go and to learning outcomes they seek on a more individual basis.


submitted: 9/22/16 rdaurio

Rastgoo, A., & Namvar, Y. (2010). Assessment approaches in virtual learning. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 11(1), 42-48. http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/EJ886451.pdf

Rastgoo and Namvar discuss the need for more than just traditional methods and tools of assessment to measure student ability.  The authors look at some methods and tools in online education; discuss the importance of these methods and tools; describe the advantages and disadvantages of new methods and tools of assessment; and review the effects of some new methods and tools of assessment on student learning.

The authors make a valid point on the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of traditional assessment methods in online learning.  Rastgoo and Namvar state that "assessment is part of the learning process" (par 3).  Consequently, including students in the assessment process should be incorporated into the design of the online class.  This incorporation would be a positive aspect of the student's learning, empowering students to take control of their learning and improving knowledge retention.

Submitted 10/16/2010 kautrey

Rohr, L., & Costello, J. (2015). Student Perceptions of Twitters' Effectiveness for Assessment in a Large Enrollment Online Course. Online Learning, 19(4). Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1082186

The article is informative in relation to using social media as a tool in an online course, especially one of a significant enrollment size. Students were asked to complete certain activities via Twitter and subsequently assess the use of Twitter as a learning tool. The results are intriguing and enlightening when considering the course was about health and physical activity.

Online Learning is a publication of the Online Consortium. It is peer-reviewed appears to be valid. Its website states that they promote the development and dissemination of new knowledge at the intersection of pedagogy, emerging technology, policy, and practice in online and blended environments. This resource could be used by those looking for information and support for the use of social media as an effective assessment tool.


Submitted 10/13/16 by Kristen Mather

Shank, P. (December 19, 2005).Avoiding Assessment Mistakes That Compromise Competence and Quality. Learning Solutions Magazine

Retrieved from http://www.learningsolutionsmag.com/articles/241/avoiding-assessment-mistakes-that-compromise-competence-and-quality

The article argues the importance and the need of adequate and accurate assessments for better learning outcomes. Many assessments have previously lacked consideration in the design process, and that oversight could cause several legal problems for organizations. Designers should remember that a proper assessment delivered validates the outcome of the course, and content. To reach the goal of adequate assessments, we must have constant evaluation as designers. Evaluation is considered to a part of the process in assessment. The properly implemented assessment ensures that instruction is not missing components, as well as meeting the learner’s objectives. It is important to integrate evaluation and assessment in the design process. Assessments performed with care will allow instructional designers to avoid the common mistakes of wrong learning styles, poorly written content, and ambiguous learning. Avoiding these mistakes and taking careful planning to integrate assessments in your design will help learners achieve learning outcomes as a result.

The article written by Patti Shank, PHD in Learning Solutions Magazine serves as a warning to pitfalls of not taking assessments seriously in the instructional design process. The author provides several examples of proper actions in designing assessments. The article provides a well define description of evaluation, assessment, and instruction. Clearly, explaining how each component in the instructional design process is integrated and can impact the learning outcomes when pitfalls are not avoided. The article is an excellent resource for anyone that is designing a course for a company, school, or project. The author Patti Shank, PHD is internationally-recognized as an instructional designer; she has authored several books and presently is the Director of Research at the eLearning Guild. Dr. Shank’s expertise and explaining the different roles in instruction, evaluation, and assessment were outstanding. The importance of quality assessments was well written explained and detailed in the article.

Sharma, Akanksha. (2016). Assessing online collaborative learning.  Association for Talent Development.  Retrieved from https://www.td.org/Publications/Blogs/L-and-D-Blog/2016/04/Assessing-Online-Collaborative-Learning

In this article, Akanksha Sharma provides insight on how instructors can effectively and fairly assess group collaborative projects that occur in an e-learning environment.  Sharma suggests that learners should receive an individual grade for their role in a group project, in addition to a group grade, and that learners should have their progress assessed at multiple intervals throughout the duration of their learning experience.  Sharma then explains how the focus, type, and format of assessments will vary, and provides useful examples of all three.  For instance, learners could participate different types of assessments, such as a self-assessment or peer-assessment.   


I believe that Sharma’s article provides a refreshing look at assessments.  I particularly liked the insight that Sharma provided on how to assess collaborative group projects effectively and fairly, such as assigning individual grades for individual contributions and even allowing learners to assign grades to their fellow learners.  This will hold learners responsible for their contributions, which is necessary in group work.  Though initially some students may feel uncomfortable with assigning grades to their fellow learners, I believe that they will gain valuable practice in evaluating the work of others and communicating their concerns tactfully, which is an essential skill in the working world.


Submitted on 10/1/2017 by jsumma

Shephard, K. (2009). E is for exploration: Assessing hard-to-measure learning outcomes. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 40(2), 386-398. Retrieved from: http://ezproxy.stfrancis.edu:2076/ehost/detail/detail?vid=14&sid=50adb2f3-cbcc-4c13-af8f-b69bf33169dc%40sessionmgr4003&hid=4109&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=36506741&db=tfh

 The focus of this paper is on the use of e-technologies to enable higher education to better assess aspects of learning that have proved difficult to assess using more conventional means. Higher education describes the knowledge and abilities it intends its graduates to have acquired before graduation, and it has a wide range of approaches to assess these. Higher education also seeks affective outcomes in the form of values, attitudes, behaviors and related attributes or dispositions. This paper reviews some of the e-based approaches and explorations that have supported or could support assessment of affective attributes.

 I find this article to be credible as it is peer reviewed, found in an academic journal. The paper seeks to establish the common elements of assessment in the different systems and how e-assessment contributes, or may contribute in the future in relation to the workforce. I feel like the paper was on point in stating that assessment may focus on teamwork and networking skills, productivity, creativity and values after one has graduated and gone into a chosen profession. It is important to have these skills properly assessed before employment is sought. This paper will assist students and instructors in assessing the desired outcomes.  



Submitted 10/4/2015 chamlin

Sivula, M. (2012, December). The best assessment tools for the online classroom:Instructor feedback and e-documents. eLearn Magazine. Retrieved from http://elearnmag.acm.org/featured.cfm?aid=2407139

Author Sivula reviews hardware and software and Web 2.0 tools that are available to instructors to grade and assess e-documents. Many assignments are submitted by students in the form of e-documents. Issues can arise when trying to give timely and constructive feedback to students when grading, evaluating or providing direction. Dragon Naturally Speaking is one method that can be used by instructors to decrease the time needed to type a response to each student. The program translates voice clips to text. The author claims his computer time has been cut in half when using this product. Another new concept is inking or digital inking. These programs allow you to write in cursive on a word processed e-document. The program allows you to add in arrows and circles so that the instructions are visual and do not need to be typed into each document. The section on screen capturing reviews a product called Jing. Jing allows up to 5 minutes of screen capture. The author has used this product to teach short procedures such as accessing part on the CMS or explaining procedures.

This article would be a great help to an instructor who is assessing e-documents. I had not thought of it before reading this article, but the instructor may need to learn new procedures as well as the student in the e-learning arena. These products could allow more timely communication and feedback from the instructor when they are assessing documents. It would also take less time for the instructor to complete these tasks. It was helpful that the author tried these products and explained what other systems he was using them with. At the end he closes with some tips for learning new assessment methods that would help the instructor apply these methods to real world examples.

Standdahl, F. (2008, November). Student outcomes assessment plan: Course assessments and program reviews.  Retrieved from http://www.pdc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Student-Outcomes-Assessment-Plan_1-15-09.pdf

In his paper, Dr. Jerry Standahl, explains that in order for an e-learning course to be successful, there must be goals and objectives established. These goals are especially important for e-learning students, because they need these guidelines in order to create an effective learning environment. Instructors must take assessments of the student’s work by giving them proper feedback. There are several different types of assessment plans available, and instructors need to find one that works best for them. They will then be able to enhance their own teaching methods from the assessment of the student’s learning progress, and create a proper learning atmosphere for students.

This paper is a credible resource that many instructors can use. This paper is not limited to e-learning instructors only. Every instructor could incorporate these assessment steps into their courses, and it could greatly benefit them and their students.


Submitted: 9/14/2014 rweber

Stanford Teaching Commons. (n.d.). Papers, Projects, and Presentations. Retrieved from https://teachingcommons.stanford.edu/resources/teaching/evaluating-students/creating-assignments/papers-projects-and-presentations

The Teaching Commons, part of the Office of the Vice Provost for Teaching and Learning at Stanford University, is dedicated to supporting teaching and learning. Its blog answers questions, offers ideas, and shares what teachers are doing to promote learning. There are many ways to assess student learning and, in this article, the author offers ideas to do it via papers, projects and presentations.  The idea is to create assignments with clear guidelines that provide an opportunity for students to not only demonstrate their learning in a course, but enhance their learning as well.

This is a terrific article, particularly for people new to creating and grading higher education assignments. The article provides practical ideas for structuring assignments that require students to prepare papers, projects or presentations in order for the instructor to assess learning.  It also gives tips for grading assignments in a way that is more objective and useful to the learner. You will also find reference to other useful material on teaching and assessment techniques.

submitted:  9/21/15 ttrout

Stiggin, R. (2007) Assessment through the student’s eyes. Educational Leadership, volume 64, number 8. Retrieved from  http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/may07/vol64/num08/Assessment-Through-the-Student's-Eyes.aspx

The article discusses the emotional aspect of the assessment experience for a student from both a winning and losing perspective. While both have vastly different thoughts, feelings and reactions to the assessment experience, Mr. Stiggin discuss ways teachers can help enhance learning for all students. Stiggin’s gives great detail examples of the emotional dynamics that students may be going through and how to effectively change an attitude of hopelessness into optimism. He also discuss how the potential of assessment for learning has gone largely untapped because the proper tools have failed to be put into the hands of teachers and school leaders. Mr. Stiggin states only by redefining the vision of excellence in the assessment process can the balance of the assessment for learning can take place. I like the fact that he gives two scenarios for readers to grasp the concept of using assessments to motivate students and build confidence. Two suggestions I found to be important is for teachers to move from exclusive reliance on assessments that verify learning to the assessment that support and enhance student learning, and the need for teachers and students to become partners in the learning process. I found the article to be quite interesting and very informative in regards to the assessment process and an excellent way for teachers to produce positive results in students.

Submitted: 03/13/11 sbowman

Strother, J. (2002). An Assessment of the effectiveness of e-learning in corporate training programs. The International Review Of Research In Open And Distributed Learning, 3(1). Retrieved from: http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/viewArticle/83/160Ubell


 This article uses Kirkpatrick’s four levels of learning as an assessment tool.  The first level ensures that the learner takes away a positive reaction about the learning that took place. Second level learning measurements will try to gauge whether or not the learner “learned” what he/she was supposed to.  The use of a pre and post-test is a common assessment tool.  The third level of measurement is more of a challenge in so far as how does one quantify behavioral changes?  To meet this level of measurement, assessment needs to occur after a period of time to determine if sustained change exists. Fourth level of assessment stresses the return of investment (ROI) and the impact of training on the company’s financial performance.

This article captured my interest as it expanded on Kirkpatrick’s levels of learning which was discussed at length in a prior MSTD course.  The author discusses the difficulty of using traditional assessment measures to an online platform. The article calls for further research but offers a multitude of current studies already in progress.


submitted: 9/28/2016 sdelwiche

The Sheridan Center for Teaching and Learning. (2015). Assessment for learning: Top ten tips. Retrieved from http://www.brown.edu/about/administration/sheridan-center/teaching-learning/assessing-student-learning/top-ten-tips

The Sheridan Center for Teaching and Learning at Brown University offers faculty, graduate students and post-doctorates resources and services focused on teaching and learning. According to the article, the process of learning is influenced by how assessments are designed and implemented.  The article provides ten assessment ideas along with tips for how to use them. It also offers references for further reading. 

The first thing that caught my eye about The Sheridan Center is its theme for 2015-2016, which is “Re-envisioning Teaching and Learning at Brown” (The Sheridan Center, 2015). I like the idea of thinking about the future, and being innovative as it relates to teaching and learning. This site has many resources related to teaching and learning, and I recommend taking a look.  I also appreciate that Brown pulls resources from other respected universities such as Carnegie Mellon, DePaul, and University of Texas-Austin. This top-ten list is a quick read and can be easily applied.

submitted: 9/21/15 ttrout

Thompson, N.(2008) Adaptive and interactive assessments with e-learning. Retrieved from:http://www.astd.org/LC/2008/1108_thompson.htm

The assessment process is quite underserved in e-learning when compared to instructional design or delivery, but is just as important. Consider the content retention and effectiveness ratings of a course if there is a long, boring, stressful multiple-choice test at the end, especially if the learner knows that it is coming. The course can be as informative and engaging as possible, but if learners are dreading a two-hour test at the end, retention is not going to be where at the level you desire. Nor will be the satisfaction of your learners.

Two important assessment technologies are available that can be applied to this issue: adaptive testing and interactive testing. While not designed specifically with the intent of making tests more interesting or even (gasp!) fun, both technologies advance the development of tests with a scientific, empirical approach to making the tests better. This was an incredible read from The American Society of Training and Development. I discovered more in depth, the types of assessment technologies common to the profession. This is useful to all who would like to discover more effective ways of measuring assessment within the industry vs. the standard run of the mill multiple choice methods.

Submitted by mdavispeters 3/1/12

 Tucker, S. (2001).  Distance education: Better, worse, or as good as traditional education?

Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, Volume IV, Number IV. Retrieved

January 30, 2011 from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/winter44/tucker44.html

The article discusses how distance education has become vital in today’s learning and raises the question if it is better, worse, or as good as traditional education. Tucker (2001) states the dispute is not whether distance education is ideal, but whether it is good enough to merit a university degree, and whether it is better than receiving no education at all. The case study shows research to address the validity and reliability that determines if distance education is as effective as traditional education.  It also addresses the role of technology and its use in course development and problems with acceptance.

Tucker (2001) discusses that as distance education becomes more vital in higher education it reaches a broader student audience.  Tucker (2001) states advocates of distance learning view traditional classes as being unchangeable, inflexible, teacher-centered, and static and others state that many would not obtain a degree without distance education. Tucker (2001) also evaluates that the case study in the article concludes that while distance education may not be superior to or better than traditional face-to-face education, it is not worse than traditional education. It can be an acceptable alternative because it is just as good as traditional education (Tucker, 2001).

Submitted:  01/30/2011 

Allen, M. Naughton, J. (2011).  Social Learning.  T+D, v 65 Issue 8, p50-55.


Retrieved from: http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.stfrancis.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=11&sid=afd65896-c577-40d7-ab22-fb8c967e3905%40sessionmgr4006&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=63886565&db=a9h


The authors focus on how in 2011 ASTD added Social Learning to the ASTD Competency Model, and the effects this will have in their learning structure.  They stress that social learning is not to be ignored, nor is it a fad, and that it has a profound impact on how employees engage in their own learning and development.  The article gives further detail on the factors that caused ASTD to implement the change in this model; who was part of the study, how they were polled, and what importance level employees felt social media had on their current jobs.


This article was harvested from T+D which is a publication for trainers, learning and development teams, and human resources professionals.  The article would be great for anyone who is not familiar with the impact that social media can have on your learning and development organization.




Tozman, Reuben. (2012).  New Learning Analytics for a New Workplace.  T+D, v66 Issue 2, p44-47.

Retrieved from: http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.stfrancis.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=8&sid=afd65896-c577-40d7-ab22-fb8c967e3905%40sessionmgr4006&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=70639330&db=a9h

 The author focuses on the analytics of learning as they pertain to the corporate world.  His argument is that the current analytics focus on act of learning versus what the end user actually takes away from the curriculum itself.  He challenges the modern-day learning and development teams to use internal social media for key phrases being used after the curriculum is delivered.  Harvesting the data from those searches can uncover additional underlying issues that were not originally known.  Further, having those searches conducted before an instructional designer develops the content, to analyze that all the needs are being met.  He discusses that corporations focus largely on the completion data harvested from LMS systems.  The courses being pass/fail, complete/incomplete, and so on, these analytics are more for an audit of whether or not it has been taken, not if the material has actually been learned.

 The article was found in a magazine targeted for members of the ATD organization, who are largely made up of training and development or human resources personnel.  He brings to the light the concept of how corporations are mirroring their learning and development programs after education programs, which are to the detriment of their own employees.  This article would be great for any departments looking to update their content, and ensure the data they are harvesting is indeed accurate and appropriately measuring what is learned.

Submitted: 9/9/17 epost

Vonderwell, S., & Boboc, M. (2013). Promoting formative assessment in online teaching and learning. Techtrends: Linking Research & Practice To Improve Learning, 57(4), 22-27. 

Formative assessment is an important technique used by teachers to provide information on the learner’s abilities and understanding on the concepts being taught.  Learners can benefit from this by using the feedback to help them stay on the correct path and receive assistance when needed.  Assessing learner’s needs in an online class takes on a whole new outlook.  This article discusses how two educators on the graduate level used formative assessment in their online classes. The authors present ideas for designing assessment activities to improve online teaching and learning by making use of student data (Vonderwell & Boboc, M, 2013).

The publication of this article in TechTrends serves as a great tool for online educators.  The authors share many great ideas on using assessments online that have been implemented in their classes.  They also give the reader an understanding of some of the pitfalls that can occur and how to counteract them.  This article should always be kept in all educator’s repertoires when they are looking for some inspiration in creating assessments.

Submitted: 09/12/2015 mmazer

Wang, T. H. (2007,). What strategies are effective for formative assessment in an e-learning environment?  Department of Education, National Hsinchu University of Education.(23), 171-186. Retrieved Mar 3, 2012, from Journal of Computer Assisted Learning . http://www.qou.edu/arabic/researchProgram/eLearningResearchs/whatStrategies.pdf

This article tackles the specific strategies used as assessment tools within E-Learning.  The author starts off by exploring the Web Based Assessment and Test Analysis (WATA), Formative Assessment Model (FAM) and cognitive styles in which are strategically used to measure and assess how the students are receiving the material as well as how productive the instructors are.  The articles stresses the importance of using feedback strategies as  tools to assist students weakness as well as a way in which to assist instructors in properly providing feedback to the large amount of students in which they are academically responsible. 

This article was both informative and a bit confusing.  I was overwhelmed at how much goes into configuring assessment tools and analyzing the data in which can both improve and promote an eLearning curriculum.  I never could imagine that all of these strategies were necessary and beneficial to both students and instructors in ensuring the students are getting as much as they are capable of from a course.  I also appreciate the articles compiling all of the web based e-learning sites that can assist an instructor in providing cognitive feedback based on the subject matter being administered.

Submitted: 3/4/2012 nbeck

Wang, T.H., (2010). Web-based dynamic assessment:  Taking assessment as teaching and learning strategy for improving students' e-Learning effectivness. Computers & Education. 54(4), 1157-1166. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.11.00. http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/science/article/pii/S0360131509003133 1

The author of this research seeks to answer two questions: 1) can GPAM-WATA promote a more effective e-learning experience, and 2) comparing two learning environments, N-WBT and GPAM-WATA, how do learner prior knowledge differences compare in effectiveness?  Dr. Wang concludes through this research that learners, who experienced the GPAM-WATA, witnessed a higher e-Learning effectiveness than those in other controlled groups.

Using a convenience sampling of elementary school teachers with 116 sixth grade student participants in Taiwan, the researcher randomly assigned students to two control groups: GPAM-WATA and N-WBT. Using a quasi-experimental design, Dr. Wang concludes GPAM-WATA promotes self-assessment and a more timely feedback for learners, in addition to providing a platform whereby learners have more opportunities to learn.  This study provides valuable information in that it aids the developer to infuse a more progressive feedback program for the "human-machine" interaction.  

http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/science/article/pii/S0360131509003133 1

submitted:  10/02/2014  ssmart

Wang, Y. (2003). Assessment of learner satisfaction with asynchronous electronic learning systems. Information and Management, 41(2003), 75-86. Retrieved from http://www.desastres.hn/docum/crid/Enero2005/CD2/pdf/eng/doc15453/doc15453-contenido.pdf

In this paper, the author acknowledged the limitations of current learning assessments that apply to classroom settings and set out to create an assessment instrument that can be used for e-learning. Wang (2003) developed a comprehensive assessment tool to determine learner satisfaction in asynchronous e-learning systems. The tool consists of a list of twenty-six questions that can be administered to e-learners to determine their satisfaction with the e-learning program. The questions address the content, e-learning technology, the value of the class to the learner, the testing processes, the interaction with the instructor, and the value of the learning community. The list is presented in the appendix.

The author provided a theoretical framework based on research in the educational psychology and marketing fields. Also provided is the foundation for the development of the procedures used in the study. The study addressed the reliability and validity of the proposed assessment model. The assessment questions are comprehensive and e-learning instructors may find this tool to be of value for assessing learner satisfaction in e-learning programs.


Submitted: 9/27/15 ddonelson

Watwood, B., Nugent, J. & Deihl, W. (2009). Online Teaching and Learning Resource Guide. Retrieved from http://augmenting.me/cte/resources/OTLRG/


This guide from Virginia Commonwealth University provides a lot of information regarding online teaching and the section on Online Assessment has several sections concerning formative and summative assessments.  In the formative assessment section, the guide talks about concept mapping, determining prior knowledge, blogging and learning journals, using surveys and practice quizzes, and several other software programs with a section on rubrics.  The summative assessment section includes quizzes, tests, and exams, and using peer review and feedback.  Overall this guide has many resources that are good for use in teaching online classes.


Guide Link http://augmenting.me/cte/resources/OTLRG/OnlineTeachingAndLearningResourceGuide.pdf

Submitted: 8/25/2017 kmparker


Willis, G.B., Bailey, C.P., Davis, H.C., Gilbert, L., Howard, Y., Jeyes, S., & Young, R. (2009). An e-Learning framework for assessment (FREMA). Retrieved from Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 34(3), 273-292. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02602930802068839#.VC0vaGddWuI

This article specifically delineates the development of FREMA (e-Framework Reference Model for Assessment), a reference domain model.  This domain is explored to help strategists and developers better understand e-learning assessment such as resources which include:  standards, projects, people, organizations, software, service and cases that exist within the domain.  By providing this assessment rationale, the goal of the authors was to place an emphasis on building linkable community systems.

This article is useful as developers attempt to devise programs that focus on real problems that learners encounter in the real world.  The development of this framework can be useful to all service frameworks that similarly are characterized by consistent evolution, and independent developers and learners.


submitted: 10/02/2014 ssmart

Zhan, Q., & Zhang, L. (2011). Principles and a framework of performance evaluation for learners in distance vocational education. Procedia Engineering, 15(2011), 4183-4187. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877705811022867

The authors point out that distance vocational education is a relatively new field and the existing e-learning assessment models cannot fully assess a student’s performance as is required for vocational studies. The authors outline the principles of performance evaluation as they relate to learners in distance vocational education. The authors delineate the areas of evaluation into five main categories: learner attitude, learner behavior, skills acquisition, learning outcomes and learner development. The authors provide a variety of practical activities that can be employed in each of these categories to assess learners in distance vocational education.

This study provides a variety of assessment techniques that can be used for assessing learners’ performance in a distance education setting. The authors provided four reference sources for their research results. Instructional designers and instructors will find this study helpful as they plan distance education courses for vocational institutions, as well as other training that requires learner performance evaluations, rather than strictly knowledge assessment.


Submitted: 9/27/15 ddonelson