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What is referencing?

When writing an academic piece of work you need to acknowledge any ideas, information or quotations which are the work of other people. This is known as referencing or citing.

Why should I include references in my work?

You should include references in order to:
  • acknowledge the work of others
  • provide evidence of your own research
  • illustrate a particular point
  • support an argument or theory
  • allow others to locate the resources you have used
  • avoid accusations of plagiarism

What do I need to include in a reference?

References consist of certain details about the source you are using. It is a good idea to make a note of all the relevant details whilst conducting your research. This will save you time later.

The details you should note during your research are:
  • Authors/editors
  • Year of publication
  • Edition where one is given
  • Title of book
  • Page numbers (for direct quotes)
  • Chapter title, author and page numbers (if chapters have different authors)
  • Name of publisher
  • Place of publication
  • URL (for electronic books only) and name of e-book provider
  • Date accessed (for electronic books only)
Example: Thibodeau. G. A., Patton. K. T., (2006) Anatomy and Physiology, 6th edition, Mosby
For journal and newspaper articles:
  • Authors
  • Year of publication
  • Title of article
  • Name of journal 
  • Volume, issue or part number, page numbers
  • URL (for electronic journals only)
  • Date accessed (for electronic journals only)

Example: Britton, A., (2006). How much and how often should we drink? British Medical Journal. 332 (7552), 1224-1225.

     For online sources, eg websites:
    • Authors
    • Year of publication
    • Title of document
    • URL
    • Date accessed
    Example: Everitt. T. (2005) Full oral glucose tolerance test. [online], The Southend NHS. Avaliable from: Full _ Oral_Glucose_Tolerance.htm