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First Grade Math


Alaska Math Standards
1st Grade Math Textbook/Resources
(Scroll to the bottom of this page for downloadable version of 1st grade math standards)









K.CC  Counting and Cardinality

The student will know ordinal names and counting flexibility.





1.CC.1. Skip counting by 2s and 5s.





1.CC.2. Using ordinal numbers correctly when identifying object position (e.g., first, second, third, etc.).





1.CC.3. Ordering numbers from 1-100. Demonstrate ability in counting forward and backward.

The student will be able to count to tell the number of objects.





1.CC.4. Counting a large quantity of objects by grouping into 10s and counting by 10s and 1s to find the quantity.

The student will be able to compare numbers by:





1.CC.5. Using the symbols for greater than, less than or equal to when comparing two numbers or groups of objects.





1.CC.6. Estimating how many and how much in a given set to 20 and then verify estimate by counting.





K.OA  Operations and Algebraic Thinking

The student will represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.





1.OA.1. Using addition and subtraction strategies to solve word problems (using numbers up to 20), involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, using a number line (e.g., by using objects, drawings and equations). Record and explain using equation symbols and a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.





1.OA.2. Solving word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20 (e.g., by using objects, drawings and equations). Record and explain using equation symbols and a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

The student will understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.





1.OA.3. Applying properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract.  (Students need not know the name of the property.)

For example: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then

3 + 8 = 11 is also known (Commutative property of addition). To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12 (Associative property of addition). Demonstrate that when adding zero to any number, the quantity does not change (Identity property of addition).





1.OA.4. Understanding subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 - 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8.

The student will add and subtract using numbers up to 20.





1.OA.5. Relating counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).





1.OA.6. Adding and subtracting using numbers up to 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction up to 10. Use strategies such as

           counting on

           making ten

(8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14)

           decomposing a number leading to a ten (13 - 4 = 13 - 3 - 1 = 10 - 1 = 9)

           using the relationship between addition and subtraction, such as fact families, (8 + 4 = 12 and 12 - 8 = 4)

           creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent

6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).

The student will work with addition and subtraction equations.





1.OA.7. Understanding the meaning of the equal sign (e.g., read equal sign as “same as”) and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false?6 = 6, 7 = 8 - 1,

5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2).





1.OA.8. Determining the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 + ? = 11, 6 + 6 = ?, 5 = ? - 3.

The student will Identify and continue patterns.





1.OA.9. Identifying, continuing and labeling patterns (e.g., aabb, abab). Create patterns using number, shape, size, rhythm or color.





1.NBT  Numbers and Operations in Base Ten

The student will extend the counting sequence.





1.NBT.1. Count to 120. In this range, read, write and order numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral.

The student will understand place value.





1.NBT.2. Modeling and identifying place value positions of two digit numbers.  Include:

a. 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones, called a "ten".

b. The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight or nine ones.

c. The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight or nine tens (and 0 ones).





1.NBT.3. Comparing two two-digit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, <.

The student will use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.





1.NBT.4. Adding using numbers up to 100 including adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number and adding a two-digit number and a multiple of 10.


           concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value

           properties of operations

           and/or relationship between addition and subtraction.

Relating the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

Demonstrating in adding two-digit numbers, tens and tens are added, ones and ones are added and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten from ten ones.





1.NBT.5. Given a two-digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used.





1.NBT.6. Subtracting multiples of 10 up to 100. Use:

           concrete models or drawings

           strategies based on place value

           properties of operations

           and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.

Relating the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.





K.MD  Measurement and Data

The student will measure lengths indirectly and by iterating length units by:





1.MD.1. Measuring and comparing three objects using standard or non-standard units.





1.MD.2. Expressing the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understanding that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps.

The student will classify objects and count the number of objects in each category by:





K.MD.3. Classifying objects into given categories (attributes). Counting the number of objects in each category (limit category counts to be less than or equal to 10)

The student will work with time and money by:





1.MD.3. Telling and writing time in half hours using both analog and digital clocks.





1.MD.4. Reading a calendar distinguishing yesterday, today and tomorrow. Reading and writing a date.





1.MD.5. Recognizing and reading money symbols including $ and ¢. 





1.MD.6. Identifing values of coins (e.g., nickel = 5 cents, quarter = 25 cents). Identify equivalent values of coins up to $1 (e.g., 5 pennies = 1 nickel, 5 nickels = 1 quarter).

The student will represent and interpret data by:





1.MD.7. Organizing, representing and interpreting data with up to three categories.  Asking and answering comparison and quantity questions about the data.





K.G  Geometry (Shapes including squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres)

The student will reason with shapes and their attributes by:





1.G.1. Distinguishing between defining attributes (e.g., triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes. Identify shapes that have non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size). Building and drawing shapes given specified attributes.





1.G.2. Composing (put together) two-dimensional or three-dimensional shapes to create a larger, composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.





1.G.3. Partitioning circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares.  Describing the shares using the words, halves, fourths, and quarters and phrases half of, fourth of and quarter of. Describing the whole as two of or four of the shares. Understanding for these examples that decomposing (break apart) into more equal shares creates smaller shares.

Instructional Focus:

In Grade 1, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) developing understanding of addition, subtraction, and strategies for addition and subtraction within 20; (2) developing understanding of whole number relationships and place value, including grouping in tens and ones; (3) developing understanding of linear measurement and measuring lengths as iterating length units; and (4) reasoning about attributes of, and composing and decomposing geometric shapes.

(1) Students develop strategies for adding and subtracting whole numbers based on their prior work with small numbers. They use a variety of models, including discrete objects and length-based models (e.g., cubes connected to form lengths), to model add-to, take-from, put-together, take-apart, and compare situations to develop meaning for the operations of addition and subtraction, and to develop strategies to solve arithmetic problems with these operations. Students understand connections between counting and addition and subtraction (e.g., adding two is the same as counting on two). They use properties of addition to add whole numbers and to create and use increasingly sophisticated strategies based on these properties (e.g., “making tens”) to solve addition and subtraction problems within 20. By comparing a variety of solution strategies, children build their understanding of the relationship between addition and subtraction.

(2) Students develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to add within 100 and subtract multiples of 10. They compare whole numbers (at least to 100) to develop understanding of and solve problems involving their relative sizes. They think of whole numbers between 10 and 100 in terms of tens and ones (especially recognizing the numbers 11 to 19 as composed of a ten and some ones). Through activities that build number sense, they understand the order of the counting numbers and their relative magnitudes.

(3) Students develop an understanding of the meaning and processes of measurement, including underlying concepts such as iterating (the mental activity of building up the length of an object with equal-sized units) and the transitivity principle for indirect measurement.1

(4) Students compose and decompose plane or solid figures (e.g., put two triangles together to make a quadrilateral) and build understanding of part-whole relationships as well as the properties of the original and composite shapes. As they combine shapes, they recognize them from different perspectives and orientations, describe their geometric attributes, and determine how they are alike and different, to develop the background for measurement and for initial understandings of properties such as congruence and symmetry

1Students should apply the principle of transitivity of measurement to make indirect comparisons, but they need not use this technical term.

Nick Higson,
Jan 22, 2014, 2:59 PM