State-of-the-Art Report on the use of Composites in Construction

This State-of-the-Art report included 76 contributions on key areas of development, from material development to testing, design and application.
I would like to thank COST for enabling the development of an inclusive, strong community highly committed to enhancing the current state-of-the-art on the use of advanced composites in construction, thus enabling a faster uptake of new and emerging technologies in the construction industry. 
A special thanks to all of the members who have actively contributed to the preparation of this report, your continuous support and dedication was much appreciated.

Maurizio Guadagnini
Chair of Action TU1207

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Contents
WG1 Material Development and Characterisation
Creep behavior of cold-curing epoxy adhesives: analysis and predictive approach
K. Benzarti, N. Houhou, S. Chataigner and M. Quiertant

Mechanical properties of resins: tensile strength and E-modulus since early ages
A. Benedetti, José Sena-Cruz, José Granja, Pedro Fernandes, Miguel Azenha

Physical and mechanical properties during aging of a cold‐curing structural epoxy adhesive for bridge construction
Maria Savvilotidou, Anastasios P. Vassilopoulos, Mariaenrica Frigione, Thomas Keller

CFRP ground anchors with strap ends
Haifeng Fan, Anastasios P. Vassilopoulos, Thomas Keller

Numerical examples for calculation of laminated composite plates with delamination
Marina Rakočević, Svetislav Popović

WG2 New Reinforced Concrete (RC) Structures
2.1 Serviceability Limit States
Serviceability limit states
Antonio Bilotta, Emidio Nigro

Cracking behaviour of GFRP RC flexural elements: an experimental study
C. Barris, L. Torres

Deflections in FRP RC elements
C. Barris, L. Torres

2.2 Ultimate Limit States
Shear strength and size effect in RC beams with internal FRP reinforcement
Szymon Cholostiakow, Matteo Di Benedetti, Emanuele Zappa, Maurizio Guadagnini

Experimental and numerical investigation of concrete columns reinforced with FRP bars
Zijadin Guri, Gjorgi Kokalanov, Danilo Ristic

2.3 Long Term Behaviour and Durability
Long‐term deflections 
C.Miàs, Ll. Torres, M.Guadagnini

Durability of GRFP reinforcing bars and their bond in concrete
A. Rolland, S. Chataigner, M. Quiertant, K. Benzarti, P. Argoul

2.4 Bond and Tension Stiffening
Bond of GFRP bar and concrete under static and cyclic loading
Ana Veljkovic, Marcin Michal Haffke, Valter Carvelli, Matthias Pahn

Tension stiffening effect in FRP RC tensile members
M. Baena, L. Torres, A. Turon

Removing the shrinkage effect from short‐term moment‐curvature and tension stiffening relations
V. Gribniak, G. Kaklauskas

Experimental investigation and modeling of the bond between Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer bars and concrete
A. Rolland, S. Chataigner, K. Benzarti, M. Quiertant, P. Argoul, J-M. Paul 

2.5 Fire and Elevated Temperatures
Thermo-mechanical behaviour of GFRP reinforced thin concrete panels
Andreas Schmitt, Valter Carvelli, Matthias Pahn

Experimental results on FRP RC members exposed to fire
Antonio Bilotta& Emidio Nigro

Theoretical models for FRP RC members exposed to fire
Antonio Bilotta, Emidio Nigro

Thermo-mechanical response of GFRP reinforced concrete sandwich panels
A. Schmitt, M. Haffke, V. Carvelli, M. Pahn

2.6 Novel Structural Systems
Prefabricated thin‐walled HPC structural elements prestressed with pultruded carbon tendons (collaboration with company SACAC from Switzerland)
G. P. Terrasi

New fiber‐reinforced polymer thermal break for energy‐efficient constructions –structural system performance
Kyriaki Goulouti, Julia de Castro, Thomas Keller

WG3 Strengthening Applications
3.1 Bond
Experimental characterisation of bond between flexural EB FRP and concrete
A. Serbescu, M. Guadagnini and K. Pilakoutas

Bond problems in NSM systems
Antonio Bilotta , Francesca Ceroni, Emidio Nigro

Discontinous bond in RC beam elements externally strengthened with CFRP
Trombeva-Gavriloska Ana, Lazarevska Marijana

Modeling of discontinous bond in RC beam elements externally strengthened with CFRP
A. T. Gavriloska, M. Lazarevska

3.2 Flexural strengthening
Near surface mounted reinforcement for flexural strengthening of RC columns
Dionysios A. Bournas

CFRP Laminate Strengthening of Concrete Beams with Corroded Steel
Garyfalia G. Triantafyllou, Theodoros C. Rousakis, Athanasios I. Karabinis

Fatigue Behavior and Design of Reinforced Concrete Beams Strengthened in Flexure with FRP
Barbara Charalambidi , Theodoros Rousakis, Athanasios Karabinis

3.3 Shear and Torsional Strengthening
The Use of FRP Jackets as Shear Reinforcement
C. Chalioris, and C. Karagiannis

FRP-EBR Repairs of RC Members in Torsion
C. Chalioris, and C. Karagiannis

Cyclic response of shear critical RC columns strengthened with CFRP strips
M. Del Zoppo, M. Di Ludovico, A. Balsamo, A. Prota, G. Manfredi

3.4 Confinement
Use of Composites in Strengthening Reinforced Concrete Structures
I. Balafas, S.P. Tastani, S.J. Pantazopoulou

Deterioration of FRP jacket effectiveness due to the compaction of low and medium strength concrete
S.P. Tastani, I.Balafas, S. J. Pantazopoulou

Deterioration of FRP jacket effectiveness due to reinforcement buckling
S.P. Tastani, I.Balafas, S. J. Pantazopoulou

Recovery of strength mechanisms in corrosion-damaged reinforced concrete through FRP jacketing
S.P. Tastani, I.Balafas, S. J. Pantazopoulou

Implications of anchorage bar yield penetration on the FRP jacketing effectiveness before and after repair
S. Tastani, G. Thermou, S. J. Pantazopoulou

Lower Adequate FRP Confinement Limits for RC Columns
T.C. Rousakis, A.I. Karabinis

Effective Lateral Strain of FRP Confined Concrete – Load Originated Failure Criterion
T.C. Rousakis, A.I. Karabinis

Use of composite ropes in confinement of reinforced concrete members
T.C. Rousakis

The effectiveness of FRP‐jacketing when applied to pre‐damaged RC columns
G.E. Thermou, S.P. Tastani, S.J. Pantazopoulou

Confinement of RC columns with TRM jackets
Dionysios Bournas Thanasis Triantafillou

Bars buckling prevention by means of FRP confinement
G.P. Lignola, A. Prota

Effects of pointwise variability of confinement in noncircular cross sections
G.P. Lignola, A. Prota

Some remarks on confinement effects and potential guidelines implications
G.P. Lignola, A. Prota

3.5 Strengthening of Beam-Column Joints
Experimental tests on FRP strengthened joints and design procedure
C. Del Vecchio, M. Di Ludovico, A. Prota, G. Manfredi

3.6 Prestressing Solutions
Experimental evaluation of concrete beams prestressed by composites
Miroslav Cerny

Structural performance of post‐tensioned punching shear strengthening systems of flat slabs
Robert Koppitz, Thomas Keller

3.7 Behaviour at Elevated Temperatures
Behaviour of FRP rehabilitation systems at elevated temperatures
Antonio Bilotta, Emidio Nigro

Behavior of FRP laminates at elevated temperatures and freeze–thaw cycling
M. Di Ludovico, F. Piscitelli, A. Prota, M. Lavorgna, G. Mensitieri, M. Manfredi

3.8 Composite Reinforcement and Design Guidelines
Fibre Reinforced Polymer Reinforcement Enters MC2010
Thanasis Triantafillou, Stijn Matthys

Flowcharts for EBR design according to fib bulletin
A. Serbescu, M. Guadagnini and K. Pilakoutas

Italian design code provisions - CNR DT00/R: end/intermediate debonding of EBR
Antonio Bilotta, Francesca Ceroni & Emidio Nigro

Comparison of the existing guidelines to evaluate the intermediate crack debonding in externally bonded FRP reinforcement
E. Oller, A. Marí

Comparison of the existing guidelines to evaluate the FRP contribution in shear strengthened beams
E. Oller, A. Marí, I. Rodríguez

3.9 Databases and Modelling
Calibration of design formulas based on experimental tests
Antonio Bilotta, Francesca Ceroni & Emidio Nigro

Published Tests on Concrete Confined with FRP Jackets
I. Balafas, S.P. Tastani, S.J. Pantazopoulou

Upgraded Experimental Database for FRP Confined Concrete
T.C. Rousakis, N. Nistico, A.I. Karabinis

Numerical Model of FRP Strengthened Reinforced Concrete in Plane Stress State
V. Vitanov

3.10 Strengthening of Masonry Structures
Seismic Retrofitting of Cultural Heritage with Textile Reinforced Mortar
G. de Felice, S. De Santis, F. Roscini

FRP/SRP and FRPU/SRPU systems as composites-to-masonry strengthening
A. Kwiecień, B. Zając, F. Ceroni, G. de Felice, S. De Santis, D.V. Oliveira, M.R. Valluzzi

Differences in strain distribution of stiff mineral and flexible polyurethane adhesives in DIC observation
A. Kwiecień, Ł. Hojdys, P. Krajewski, M. Tekieli

An Innovative Structural and Energy Retrofitting System for Masonry Walls using Textile Reinforced Mortars Combined with Thermal Insulation: Mechanical and Fire Behaviour
T. Triantafillou, K. Karlos, K. Kefalou, E. Argyropoulou

3.11 Strengthening of Timber Structures
FRP reinforcement and production of duo laminated timber beams
Basterra, L.A.; Acuña, L.; Casado, M.; López, G.; Morillas, L.; Balmori, J.A.

3.12 Case studies
Shear and Flexural Upgrading of RC Beams Using CFRP Sheets and Laminates
Erkan Akpinar, Onur Ertas, Ozlem Imren, Sevket Ozden

Column Strengthening at Commercial Ground Floor
Erkan Akpinar, Ozlem Imren, Onur Ertas, Sevket Ozden

WG4 Whole-life-costing and life cycle assessments
Economic Study on the Usage of FRPs with Concrete in Bridges
I. Balafas, C.J. Burgoyne

Life-Cycle Environmental Assessment of Strengthening Options for RC Columns
C. Menna, D. Asprone, A. Prota

Advanced Composites in the COST Countries: Research and Development
HEIA‐FR/HES‐SO, activities at iTEC
Daia Zwicky

Strengthening of Concrete Structures using CFRP Composites ‐ State of Research at Empa, Switzerland Contribution
Christoph Czaderski, Julien Michels, Juan Manuel Gallego

Strengthening of Steel Structures using CFRP Composites: State of Research at Empa, Switzerland
Elyas Ghafoori

COST Action TU 1207: Strengthening of civil structures with FRP ‐ State‐the‐art of research in Switzerland
Christoph Czaderski, Julien Michels, Juan Manuel Gallego

Externally bonded FRP for the strengthening of RC structures (EBFRP). State of the art in FRANCE
Emmanuel FERRIER, Marc Quiertant, S.Chatainier, K.Benzarti

Research on FRP at Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
C. Chalioris and C. Karagiannis