11/13-11/20/18: 7/8 Introduction To Culinary Quarter 2
This week we begin with some notes, leading to basic knife skills.  We will be making chips and salsa (Masa Harina and individual recipes).  The following are notes which will be quizzed after Thanksgiving:

Basic Baking Terms: Dough

Two Types of Dough: yeast and baking powder.

Yeast: water must be at 110 degrees, give or take a few degrees.  Use a thermometer.  Too hot: yeast killed.  Too cold: yeast does not grow.  Yeast and dough must have a little sugar in order to grow.  Usually requires two risings in order to be of appropriate consistency.

Baking powder:  also known as “quick bread”.  Baking powder is mixed in with dry ingredients.

Baking Ingredients:

Pure vanilla: grown in Madagascar, very expensive the past few years, grows in “bean” form.

Imitation vanilla: extracted from wood pulp, more harsh and bitter.

Vanilla flavoring: combines the two, also not very good.

Flour: King Arthur protein content is 11.7%, which makes it better for yeast breads.  Gold Medal is closer to 9.5%, which is not as good.

Butter as opposed to Margarine:  Butter melts closest to body temperature, so it seems less greasy when eaten.  Most people would agree that the flavor is also better.


            Table: most common

            Kosher: flakier and coarser grained than table salt.  No iodine, dissolves quicker, better burst of flavor than table salt.

            Sea Salt: contains unrefined minerals, more coarse than table salt, more complex flavor profile, also a bigger burst of flavor than table salt.

11/13-11/20/18: 7th Grade (Ancient Civilizations). 
Content:  We have finished the China mapping project and are continuing with the unit. There will be a vocabulary quiz Tuesday 11-20-18 on the following information:

Terms: China (WH 1,2,3,4)

Xia Dynasty: Probably the first one, founded by Yu The Great.

Shang Dynasty: Strongest in the Huang He Valley, controlled most of northern China.

Zhou Dynasty: Nobles granted land to others in return for loyalty, military support etc. and used the Mandate of Heaven.  This dynasty brought order to China.

China’s Two Major Rivers: Huang He & Chang Jiang.  Huang He river valley is where Chinese civilization began.

Mandate of Heaven: The idea that heaven gave kings the power to rule.

Confucius:  Teacher and philosopher who wanted to restore family order and social harmony.  He also believed that moral values needed to be taught by families.

Daoism:  Means “the way”.  This teaching taught that the government should stay out of people’s lives and that things should just be allowed to happen.

Legalism:  The idea and belief that people are bad by nature and need to be controlled strictly.

Qin Dynasty: The country of China was united for the first time and then was expanded.

Shi Huangdi: Means “first emperor of China”.  He standardized written language, money, weights and measures, built uniform roads, created uniform system of laws.

Great Wall: At least 5,500 miles long, built to protect China from invaders from the north.

Han Dynasty: Major advances occurred under thus dynasty because the first emperor cut taxes and got rid of government policies that hurt the people.  Paper, sundials, seismographs, acupuncture, major works of art, poetry flourished during this period.

Han Achievements: sundial, seismograph, acupuncture, exam system.

Exam System: New idea developed during the Han Dynasty.  People who wanted government jobs went to school and had to pass a test in order to get the job. 

11/13-11/20/18: 8th Grade (Fall of the Western Roman Empire to The Present).
Pass/Fails:  We are working on 8th grade pass/fails with world geography #2.  Week to week information will be listed below:

Week 1: Victoria British Columbia, Edmonton Alberta, Regina Saskatchewan, Winnipeg Manitoba, Toronto Ontario, Quebec City Quebec, St. Johns Newfoundland and Labrador.  This quiz will be Friday, November 16th.

Content:  We are working on The Renaissance with the Age of Enlightenment.  There will be a quiz Tuesday (11-20-18) on the following information:

The Enlightenment: Art and Agriculture                                 

Chart:  Ancient Rome / Greece to Fall of Rome to Black Death to Renaissance / Reformation to Enlightenment / Scientific Revolution to Birth of Democracies

Post Reformation:  People in Europe began to question science, religion, artistic traditions, agriculture – EVERYTHING.

Art:  Began to change as attitudes and tastes changed.  No longer completely concentrated on religious themes.

(Review): Jan van Eyck: The Wedding

Enlightenment art:  New styles, perspectives and subject matter as the  Enlightenment unfolded.

What else changed?







Open Field System:  Used since the Middle Ages.  Used all available land in and around a village.  Farmers made changes to grow more and more crops.

Enclosure:  Owners of larger amounts of land forced small farmers to sell their land.  The land was then enclosed.

Kept unwanted grazing down.

Practice selective breeding.

Prevent the spread of crop diseases.

Use new techniques with entire fields

Jethro Tull:  Hated manual labor.  Invented the seed drill. 

Robert Bakewell:  Father of animal breeding.  Until this time animals were allowed to intermingle and breed as they wished.  He controlled breeding and bred in certain characteristics.

Conclusion:  More crops, more food and more work led to population explosion in Europe.  Also led to slavery because more workers were needed then were available.

Shift was gradual from religious to non-religious themes.

Beautiful works of art centered on God were still produced.

Architecture and art were interconnected in this way.

FCCLA:  We will have weekly lunch meetings on Wednesdays.  We will be meeting after school on Thursdays from 3-430.  Please sign up in order to attend.  Fall Rally is in Manchester on 10-30-18.  We are working on our Fall Rally work.