9/17-9/21/18: 7/8 Introduction To Culinary
We are making 16 inch pizzas this week in pairs of two.  Monday is sauce, Tuesday is toppings preparation, Wednesday is dough, Thursday is final product.  There will be a vocabulary quiz Friday on the first set of notes.

9/17-9/21/18: 7th Grade (Ancient Civilizations). 
Content:  We are finishing prehistory.  There will be a vocabulary quiz Friday on the following information:

Vocab Terms: The Stone Ages and Early Cultures           

Prehistory:  The time before written records.

Hominid:  An early ancestor of humans.

Ancestor:  A relative of your who lived in the past.

Tool: Any handheld object that has been modified to help a person accomplish a task.

Paleolithic Era: Old Stone Age,  Lasted until about 10,000 years ago.

Society:  A community of people who share a common culture.

Hunter-Gatherer:  People who hunt animals and gather wild plants / food to survive.

Migrate:  Move to new places.

Land Bridge:  Strip of land connecting two continents.

Mesolithic Era:  Middle Stone Age.  Began 10,000 years ago.  Ended 5000 years ago.

Neolithic Era:  New Stone Age.  Sometimes overlaps with the Mesolithic Era.

Domestication:  Process of changing plants or animals to make them more useful.

Agriculture:  Farming.

Megaliths:  Huge stones used as monuments.

9/17-9/21/18: 8th Grade (Fall of the Western Roman Empire to The Present).
Pass/Fails:  We are beginning 8th grade pass/fails with presidents for 1st quarter. 

Week 1: G Washington, J Adams, T Jefferson, J Madison, J Monroe, JQ Adams, A Jackson.  This quiz will be Friday, 9-7-18.
Week 2: M Van Buren, W H Harrison, J Tyler, J Polk, Z Taylor, M Fillmore, F Pierce.  This quiz will be Thursday, 9-13-18.
Week 3: J Buchanan, A Lincoln, A Johnson, U Grant, R Hayes, J Garfield, C Arthur.  This quiz will be Thursday, 9-20-18.

Content:  We are working on the Middle Ages.  There will be a vocabulary quiz Friday on the following information:

8th Grade Terms: The Middle Ages

476-1400s: Europe had no stable governments.  No one was in charge, there was nothing in place to maintain order.

Barbarians: had over run Europe.  Over the next few centuries the tribes and hordes eventually settled down and began to organize small governments in order to maintain order.  These tribes were German and Viking, primarily.

Clovis: 481 AD became king of the Franks, which had been one of the invading tribes against the Romans.

Pope Gregory The Great:  590-604.  Reforms Catholic Church, established Gregorian Chants, Seven Deadly Sins.

Gregorian Chant:  Plainchant, a form of monophonic liturgical chant in Western Christianity that accompanied the celebration of Mass and other ritual services.  The leader leads the chant, then the congregation repeats it.  No instruments or time signatures.

Seven Deadly Sins:  A classification of the most objectionable vices which has been used since early Christian times to educate and instruct followers concerning (immoral) fallen man's tendency to sin. It consists of "Lust", "Gluttony", "Greed", "Sloth", "Wrath", "Envy", and "Pride".

Mohammed:  Prophet of Islam.  Died 632.  (More on that later).

Catholic Missions:  Sent by the Church in the Eastern Empire to convert the area of England, 629-638.

Charlemagne: 800 A.D.  Barbarian leader who developed a stable government of the Franks (one of the major invading tribes).  This only happened in one section of Europe.  The rest was still in turmoil.

William The Conqueror: Viking descendent who was given the title Duke of Normandy by the king of France to keep the Vikings from further invading and destroying those parts of Europe.  He invaded England in 1066 and established feudalism.

Feudalism:  Barbarian leaders grabbed land and set up small settlements called kingdoms.  Barbarian leaders became “lords” and granted land to people of lower status called “vassals”.

Vassals: were then loyal to the lord, helped out with military service when needed and paid rent.

Monks:  If you didn’t want to be loyal to a lord in a kingdom and work a trade, you could work in a religious order of the Catholic Church.

Holy Roman Emperor: crowned by the Pope in Rome as king.  Charlemagne was the first of these and was crowned on Christmas Day, 800 A.D.

Lower Middle Ages (“Dark Ages”): 476 A.D. until about 1066 A.D.

High Middle Ages: About 1066 A.D. until the Renaissance.

The Black Death:  (“The Plague” or “The Bubonic Plague”):  1347 A.D. worst year – brought from China in rats, spread by their fleas.  Horrible deaths, people could die within hours of infection.  Killed about 1/3 of Europe within five years – 25-33 million.

FCCLA:  We will have weekly lunch meetings on Wednesdays.  We will be meeting after school on Thursdays from 3-430.  Please sign up in order to attend.  Fall Rally is in Portsmouth on 11-2-18.  We are beginning our Fall Rally work.