# Beam Design Beam Design Beam Design Stress Axial

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Beam Design

Beam Design • • Beam Design Stress Axial Stress Strain Factor of Safety Bending Stress Shear Stress Beam Selection • Deflection • Evaluation and Redesign

Beam Design • Beams are designed to safely support the design loads. • Beams are primarily designed for bending and shear. • Beam deflection must be checked. • Beams are sized to minimize material. Deflection

Steps in Beam Design 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Establish the design loads Analyze the beam Select the preliminary member Evaluate the preliminary design Redesign (if needed) – Repeat the above steps as necessary to achieve a safe and efficient design 6. Design and detail the structural component

Stress • A measure of the magnitude of the internal forces acting between particles of the member resulting from external forces • Expressed as the average force per unit area

Axial Stress • Tension and compression • Axial stress represented by Where F = applied force A = cross sectional area resisting load

Axial Stress Example: Find the tensile stress of a 2 in. x 3 in. tension member subjected to a 45 kip axial load.

Strain • The change in size or shape of a material caused by the application of external forces • Axial strain, Where = change in length L = original length

Strain Example: Calculate the strain if a 16 ft long structural member elongates 1. 5 in. when subjected to a tensile load of 67 kips.

Stress and Strain • In many materials, stress is directly related to strain up to a certain point.

Stress and Strain • Elastic behavior – material will return to its original shape when unloaded • Plastic behavior – material will retain some deformation when unloaded • Structural members are designed to act elastically during the service life of a building Yield Point

Factor of Safety • The ratio of the maximum safe load to the maximum allowable design load • Magnitude of the factor of safety varies depending on the loading conditions and type of forces induced

Allowable Strength Design (ASD) • Strength is related to stress – Strength indicates internal force – Stress indicates internal force per unit area • ASD limits the maximum internal force within a structural member • Maximum safe load = nominal strength – Internal force that causes yielding across the entire cross section • Maximum allowable load = allowable strength

Allowable Strength Design (ASD) OR Where = factor of safety = nominal strength = internal force due to design loads = allowable strength

Allowable Bending Strength OR Where = 1. 67 = factor of safety for bending = nominal bending moment strength = internal bending moment due to design loads = allowable bending strength

Nominal Bending Strength Where = yield stress of steel = plastic section modulus NOTE: We will assume that every beam and girder is laterally supported along its length so that it will not buckle under loading. If a beam is not laterally supported, buckling must be checked.

Plastic Section Modulus, Z • Section property • Indicates the moment carrying capacity of a member • Available in tabular form in design manuals http: //www. structural-drafting-net-expert. com/

Plastic Section Modulus, Z Flange • I-shaped members are excellent choices for beams • Structural steel wide flange • Designation W • Example: W 12 x 58 • Stronger when bending about the x – x axis, Zx Web Flange

Allowable Shear Strength OR Where = 1. 5 = factor of safety for shear = nominal shear strength = internal shear force due to design loads = allowable shear strength

Nominal Shear Strength Where = nominal shear strength = yield stress of steel Aw = area of the web

Beam Deflection • Deflection limit supporting plaster ceilings – L/240 for Dead + Live Loads – L/360 of Live Load • Deflection limit supporting non-plaster ceilings – L/180 for Dead + Live Loads – L/240 of Live Load • WHY? – – Ceiling cracks in plaster Roof ponding (flat roofs) Visual or psychological reasons Designer’s judgment

Beam Selection Process • • Select beam based on bending moment Check shear strength Check deflection Revise beam selection as necessary

Beam Design Example Choose the lightest wide flange steel section available to support a live load of 790 plf and a dead load of 300 plf over a simple span of 18 feet. Assume the beam will support a plaster ceiling. Use Fy = 50 ksi.

Beam Design Example Max Shear Max Bending Moment

Bending Strength Select beam based on bending. where = 1. 67

Bending Strength Since W 10 x 17 works Z x = 18. 7 in. 3 > 17. 7 in. 3 But a W 12 x 16 weighs less with Z x = 20. 1 in. 3 > 17. 7 in. 3

Shear Strength Check shear strength. where

Shear Strength Since and For a W 12 x 16 d = 11. 99 in. t w =0. 220 in. 79, 134 lb ≥ 14, 715 lb W 12 x 16 works

Check Deflection limit supporting plaster ceilings – L/240 for Dead + Live Loads – L/360 of Live Load

Check Deflection Maximum deflection due to design loads – Dead + Live Load Deflection W 12 x 16 will work

Check Deflection Maximum deflection due to design loads – Live Load Deflection W 12 x 16 will not work

Evaluation and Redesign Check Deflection Try W 12 x 19 Dead + Live Deflection W 12 x 19 OK

Evaluation and Redesign Check Shear and Bending Moment By inspection, the plastic section modulus and web area for the W 12 x 19 are larger than those for the W 12 x 16 and are therefore sufficient to safely support the bending moment and shear. Use a W 12 X 19

Beam Design • • Beam Design Stress Axial Stress Strain Factor of Safety Bending Stress Shear Stress Beam Selection • Deflection • Evaluation and Redesign