Other Animals


Medicine Chart for Chickens & other Poultry


This list of many medications for birds includes SOME
information on diseases treated, treatment notes & places to buy.
Revisions & new information are constantly added.
 - Medicine classes are noted to help identify more similar & very different drugs. -

Disclaimer: Information on this website is gathered from many sources by a lay individual. It may not be accurate or complete. It should not necessarily be considered expert advice. Some medicine uses below are off-label & not USDA-approved, & further advice from a veterinarian who has backyard chicken experience might be helpful.

VERY IMPORTANT NOTES:
Use this site as a starting place to learn about possible medicines so you can look up more specifics.
Use our More Resources section, or in a search engine type in "poultry" or "chickens" (which often brings more results that typing other species) and a medication or disease name to look up additional information. It is important to diagnose your bird's disease as accurately as you can, to learn about effectively treating, and to read specific instructions on using a specific medicine, & to learn other treatments.

Make sure the medicine matches:
Type and strain of disease --- Try for best diagnosis of disease using lists of symptoms or relevant tests by a vet or lab (Find a lab by typing "vet diagnostic lab" & your state's name in a search engine). In some cases, a specific medicine is only effective or more effective for a specific strain of a disease. If you have the opportunity to get relevant lab tests done, these can help narrow down which meds may be best to treat your bird's particular strain of a disease. Or if a med from one class of medicines doesn't work, you can switch and try one from another class of medicines.
Type, age and purpose of your bird --- Chick, Adolescent, Laying Hen, Rooster, Breeder, Meat Bird, or Pet
Species of your bird --- Chicken, Duck, Turkey, Goose, Pheasant, Pigeon, Quail, or Dove (or exotic bird). Some meds are safe for some species but damaging to others.
 
Make sure you find out correct administration:
Dose: Number of ounces, mg's, cc's (Note: 1 ml = 1 cc = 1/5 tsp), etc.
[Note: Doses listed below are generally for average 5 lb (2.27 kg) chicken]
Dosage Timing: Frequency and Duration    Medication Form: Powder, Pre-mixed Liquid, etc.
Administration Method
: Orally thru Diabetic Syringe with needle removed or Eyedropper, Intramuscular Injection, Subcutaneous Injection, Mixed into Feed or Water, Applied on Skin, etc.

DO NOT OVER-TREAT! Try to appropriately limit medications since some treatments can cause loss of disease-fighting "good bacteria" (You can reduce this risk by feeding buttermilk, unflavored yogurt, or other probiotics after treatment.), kidney damage, or other negative effects. However, do not under-treat, because that may allow germs or parasites to build resistance to meds.

Medication & Forms
Some brand names Some sources Average price Class of medicines
Med may treat some (but not necessarily all) strains of these health problems
Notes
Chlortetracycline

Soluble powder
Aureomycin, Lederle, Penn Field Pennchlor-64 Feed stores, chick hatcheries
$6-20 Tetracyclines
Chickens:
--Infectious Synovitis causing Mycoplasma Synovaie
--Mycoplasma Gallisepticum or E. coli causing Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD) or Air Sac Disease
--Fowl Cholera
--Some strains of Ornithobacterium Rhinotracheale (ORT)
--Coccidiosis
--Necrotic Enteritis
--Spirochaetosis (Brachyspira)

Possibly for Infectious Coryza in some Chickens

Turkeys:
--Bluecomb (transmissible enteritis, coronaviral enteritis)
--Infectious Synovitis causing Mycoplasma Synovaie
Less absorbed than other Tetracyclines.
*Minerals & dairy products reduce med absorption--
allow 2+ hrs before/after give med if possible. Citric or other organic acids may help increase absorption.
*Dosing help: Pennchlor-64 has 500 mg med per teaspoon.
*Label says don't use in laying chickens.
*Rare risk possible if combined with Vitamin A or fish oil.
Tetracycline Hydrochloride

Soluble powder
Duramycin-10 powder
Feed stores $6-8
Tetracyclines --Infectious Synovitis/Mycoplama Synovaie
--Mycoplasma Gallisepticum or E. coli causing Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD) or Air Sac Disease
--possibly Necrotic Enteritis?

Turkeys only: Bluecomb
For MG: 1/8 tsp per cup water.
Drinking water may turn yellow or brown.
Mix fresh twice daily (Loses potency quickly).
*Minerals & dairy products reduce med absorption--
allow 2+ hrs before/after give med if possible. Citric or other organic acids may help increase absorption.
*Rare risk possible if combined with Vitamin A or fish oil.
Oxytetracycline

Injectible, soluble powder
Bio-Mycin 200 injectible (*much less painful than other injectibles), Terramycin powder; Liquamycin LA-200 injectible (Can also be given orally); Oxytet; Tetroxy HCA-280 powder; Pennox powder; Oxymycin 100 or 200 injectible; Oxymycin 10 or 343 powder; Agrimycin, Tetroxy HCA powder; Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride; Duramycin 72-200 or Duramycin 100 injectible Feed stores
$7-18
Tetracyclines Chickens:
--Infectious Coryza in certain chickens
--Mycoplasma Gallisepticum** causing Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD) or Air Sac Disease
--Fowl Cholera
--Necrotic Enteritis
--Coccidiosis

Turkeys: Hexamitiasis, Infectious Synovitis

Young turkeys: Bacteria complicating Bluecomb
Soluble is poorly absorbed, but Injectible is better absorbed & longer lasting in bodies of birds than other Tetracyclines (except Doxycycline). **This seems one of the better Tetracycline meds for MG.
*For serious cases, can be helpful to use both injectible & oral Tetracyclines. You may be able to combine different Tetracyclines--Research to confirm.
Terramycin soluble: 1/8 tsp per cup water. Mix fresh daily for 7-14 days minimum. Tastes somewhat bitter.
CAUTION: Injectible may cause minor permanent muscle damage & temporary swollen knot at injection sites. Very painful when injected, except Bio-Mycin brand which has no-sting additive. Ways to help minimize problems: Spread out dose by injecting some under skin & some in muscle or just using 2 different injection spots each time, &/or give some of dose orally instead. (For oral dose, increase amount & frequency.)
LA-200: 1/4 to 3/4 cc. Can repeat once 2-4 days later. For chronic cases, repeat up to 2 weeks.
*Minerals & dairy products reduce med absorption--
allow 2+ hrs before/after give med if possible. Citric or other organic acids may help increase absorption.
*Conflicts with Penicillin.

--Don't eat eggs during treatment & for up to 10 days after.
*Rare risk possible if combined with Vitamin A or fish oil.
Sodium Sulfamethazine

Soluble powder
Sul-met (Sul-Met), Sulfa-Max, SulfaSure Feed stores

Sulfa Drugs / Sulfonamides / Sulphonamides In CERTAIN poultry: Infectious Coryza, Fowl Cholera, Coccidiosis, E. coli, Salmonella
*May temporarily increase Coccidiosis bleeding.
*Also may cause anemia &/or organ damage.
Toxic to kidneys & may worsen kidney stones.
Note: Don't use Sulfaquinoxaline.
***Be sure to NOT let bird get dehydrated while taking this med.
Also see http://www.merckmanuals.com/vet/pharmacology/antibacterial_agents/sulfonamides_and_sulfonamide_combinations.html.
Sulfadimethoxine

Soluble powder, soluble liquid
Albon, Durvet Sulfadimethoxine, Di-Methox Vets, animal health stores, vet suppliers, feed stores $8
Sulfa Drugs / Sulfonamides / Sulphonamides In CERTAIN poultry: Infectious Coryza, Fowl Cholera, Coccidiosis, E. coli
*Is safest Sulfa drug for poultry. (Note: Don't use Sulfaquinoxaline.)
Use max of 5 days.
Powder: 1/8 tsp per 1 1/4 gals drinking water.
Mix fresh daily.
***Be sure to NOT let bird get dehydrated while taking this med.
*May temporarily increase Coccidiosis bleeding.

*5 days withdrawal for meat.
*May cause anemia &/or organ damage. Toxic to kidneys & may worsen kidney stones.
Also see http://www.merckmanuals.com/vet/pharmacology/antibacterial_agents/sulfonamides_and_sulfonamide_combinations.html.
Erythromycin

Injectible
Gallimycin PFC, Erymycin WSP 500 Feed stores
$15 Macrolides --Mycoplasma leading to Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD)
--Fowl Cholera
--Infectious Coryza
--Necrotic Enteritis
--Bluecomb (Non-
specific Infectious Enteritis) in growing turkeys
Note: Tylosin is considered more effective for Mycoplasma.
--Inject 1/4 to 1/2 cc (*Need to verify dose) in alternating sides of breast muscle for 3-5 days. May be helpful to give concurrently with water-soluble Oxytetracycline.
--For Fowl Cholera: May require long-term or periodic treatments
Caution: Can cause minor damage to breast muscle so not recommended for meat birds.
Caution: Combining multiple Macrolides reduces effectiveness.
Tylosin

Injectible liquid, soluble powder

Tylan 200 injectible (More concentrated so better injection for chickens), Tylan 50 injectible (Very diluted so less optimal for chickens)

Tylan soluble powder

Vets, animal health stores, vet suppliers, feed stores $17-60
Macrolides Infectious Coryza, Respiratory Mycoplasma, Necrotic Enteritis, Ornithobacterium Rhinotracheale, Borreliosis (Spirochetosis)

Turkeys: Infectious Synovitis & Sinusitis
Administer 5-7 days.
Tylosin may be less harsh on kidneys than some other meds.
Anti-inflammatory.
--Soluble form less effective on adults than young birds.
--May cause gastro-intestinal disturbance, & pain at injection sites. Birds may be reluctant to eat or move  much.
For Soluble: Mix fresh water at least every 3 days. Don't mix with vinegar.
For Injectible: Active for 8 hours so best to split dose into 2-3 times/day. May cause soreness & minor muscle damage at injection sites. Ways to help minimize problems: split up dose so you give only part of it at 2 or 3 different times each day, use 2 different injection spots each time, inject some in breast muscle & some under skin, give some of dose orally instead (tho there has been speculation that this might cause throat damage?? You can try putting needle-less 1-cc size syringe well down throat almost to crop to try to minimize risk.)
*Tylan 50: Up to 1.6 cc. (This is a lot of fluid--Need to use methods above to help minimize problems.)
*Tylan 200: 1/2 cc. (Tylan 200 is easier on birds, because smaller amount of fluid)
--Can possibly give Tylan injectible orally instead or in addition to injection,
* Meat withdrawal 3 days. Injectible not recommended for meat birds.
Caution: Do not combine multiple Macrolides because reduces effectiveness.
Diatomaceous Earth (Food-Grade only!)

Powder
Food-grade diatomaceous earth
Garden stores, health food stores, some feed stores
1 lb size:
garden-$6, health food -$20+
50 lb size: feed-$45
Non-chemical, all-natural

Added to feed:
Preventative or mild cases of Internal Parasites (worms, etc.).
Note: Effectiveness not yet established with research.

Externally:
All types of Mites & Lice

Use baby nose aspirator or poultry baster for easier sprinkling.

Internal: Mix in ~2 lbs per 50 lbs feed. Is claimed by some sources to kill broad spectrum of parasites, though not as potent as chemical dewormers & need to use more regularly.

Environment: Sprinkle 1 lb for up to 60 chickens in nests, dustbatheing spots, bedding, coop corners &/or on perches. Can mix 1 c in 1/2 gal. water to whitewash perches or walls. 1-3 times per year.

On bird: Sprinkle generously on skin under wings, near vent, and on back & neck.

Caution: Will also kill beneficial insects (except earthworms). Do not overuse where risk of creating environmental imbalances. Do not use near flowers (where would kill bees).

Copper Sulfate

Water-soluble powder, crystals

Compounding pharmacies
Less than $10
Chemical Mycotoxicosis, Thrush, Aspergillosis & other internal fungal conditions
Mix fresh daily 1/8 tsp in 1/2 gal of water only in glass or plastic container for 3-5 days. Vinegar can be safely combined with Copper Sulfate.
Be careful with dosing--can be toxic. Giving every other day instead of every day may be best for weak chickens.
May cause mouth lesions.
Carbaryl

Powder
Sevin dust 5%
Feed stores, garden stores
$6-12
Carbamates
Mites & lice
Don't use Sevin 10% for birds.
Sprinkle in nests, dustbatheing spots, bedding, coop corners &/or on perches & birds, 1-3 times per year.
To apply to birds: Can pour dust some in med.-size bag, put chicken inside & shake.
Dust is somewhat hazardous--Face mask & gloves recommended.
Permethrin Maxide Garden & Pet Dust (Note: Use for poultry is off-label)



Mites & lice Dust: Sprinkle in nests, dustbatheing spots, bedding, coop corners &/or on perches & birds, 1-3 times per year.
Chemical combination of Camphor & Carbolic Acid

Liquid for external use
Campho-Phenique
General stores, grocery stores, pharmacies
General-$4, Grocery-$7
Antiseptic--penetrates & slightly hardens skin; germicide--cleans wounds; parasiticide--helps kill Scaley Leg Mites; local anaesthetic--mild local pain relief
Place medicine bottle inside small container to prevent tip-over & spilling. Minimize waste by using eyedropper for applying.

S.L. Mites: Most effective if soak & clean out deep pockets before applying medicine.
Moxidectin

Gel (internal use)
Quest horse dewormer, Quest Plus (combined with Praziquantel) horse dewormer
Feed stores
$10
Kills mites (possibly including Scaly Leg Mites), lice & many internal parasites (not including tapeworms)
Dose: Pea-size amount for large birds or BB-size for small birds. Give on small piece of bread.
(May be effective for scaley leg mites: Treat 1x/wk for 3 wks)
Caution: Problems might occur with overdose.
Pyrethrum

Liquid spray




Kills mites
Spray birds on skin (not just feathers) 1x / week for 3 weeks.







Ivermectin

Liquid, paste
Ivomec liquid, various brands of horse dewormer pastes
Feed stores


Kills scaley leg mites, and some internal worms
SLM: Drip or rub liquid under leg scales.
Give paste orally.
Does not dilute well in water.
Enrofloxacin

Injectible (& oral), dilutable liquid, dilutable powder, pill
Fish Enro capsules, Baytril
*See special notes on Baytril for Birds
Online retailers of pet bird or fish supplies
$25-$150
Fluoroquinolones In chickens: Mycoplasma Galliseptum, Mycoplasma Synovaie, E. CoIi, Colibacillosis, Fowl Cholera, Infectious Coryza, Salmonellosis / Salmonella, Avibacterium Paragallinarum, Paratyphoid, Ornithosis, Pasteurellosis, Pasteurella Multocida, Bumblefoot

In turkeys: Mycoplasma Galliseptum, Mycoplasma Synovaie, Pasteurella Multocida, E. CoIi
Injectible form can also be given orally.
Dose is generally 10mg Baytril per kg of bird's bodyweight. Dose for avg chicken of Baytril 10% liquid is .25 mL for 3-10 days.
*May make bird vulnerable to enteritis-related illness, so follow up with probiotics.
*Ineffective if combines with calcium or some other minerals. For at least 2 hrs before & after, avoid dairy, hard water, calcite, mineral supplements, formulated feeds, etc.
Meat withdrawal: 3 days.
Caution: Bacteria from eggs or meat eaten any time after bird is treated may diminish effectiveness of Ciprofloxacin (medicine used to treat some E. coli, Staph, Salmonella & other infections) in person.
Doxycycline

Soluble
Karidox 100, Doxin, Bird Biotic
Online retailers of poultry pet bird or fish supplies
Tetracyclines Mycoplasma--esp. in combination with bacterial infections (E.coli, etc.), CRD, Rickettsiae, Chlamydia

Some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria:
Staphylococci, Haemophilus influenza, E. coli, Corynebacteria, Bacillus anthracis, some Clostridia, Actinomyces spp., Brucella, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia.

Generally the best of the Tetracycine meds for treating birds.
Particularly good for lung infections.
Less harsh on kidneys than some other meds.

3-5 days in drinking water.

*Minerals & dairy products reduce med absorption--
allow 2-3 hrs before/after give med if possible. Citric or other organic acids may help increase absorption.

*Rare risk possible if combined with Vitamin A or fish oil.

Spiramycin


Macrolides Mycoplasma Galisepticum/CRD
Caution: Combining multiple Macrolides reduces effectiveness.
Lincomycin

Injectible (& oral)
Combined with Spectinomycin in soluble powder:
LS-50, SpecLinx-50, Lincomycin-Spectinomycin


Macrolides Mycoplasma, Necrotic Enteritis, Bumblefoot

Combined with Spectinomycin in soluble powder:
For young chickens--
Mycoplasma assoc. with Airsacculitis, CRD assoc. with Coliform infections
For Necrotic Enteritis: 64 mg/gal for 7 days.
Injectible form can also be given orally.
Combination powder: 4-7 days
Caution: Combining multiple Macrolides reduces effectiveness.
Kitasamycin


Macrolides Mycoplasma Caution: Combining multiple Macrolides reduces effectiveness.
Imequil


Quinolones Mycoplasma
Norfloxacin


Quinolones Mycoplasma







Danofloxacin


Quinolones Mycoplasma
Neomycin / Neomycin Sulfate
Durvet Neomycin 325, NeoMed 325, Neomix, Neo-Sol 50
Chick hatcheries, online retailers
$5-11
Aminoglycosides Necrotic Enteritis, Ulcerative Enteritis, Salmonellosis

In growing turkeys: Colibacillosis (Bacterial Enteritis from E. coli)
----------------------------------------------------
Combined with Oxytetracycline:

Chickens: Infectious Synovitis from Mycoplasma Synoviae, Fowl Cholera from some types Pasteurella Multocida, Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD) and Air Sac Infection from some types Mycoplasma Gallisepticum & E. Coli

Turkeys: Hexamitiasis, Infectious Synovitis from some types M. Synoviae, some bacteria tied to Bluecomb

1/8 tsp per 2 c water. Use til symptoms gone + 1 more day for max. of 5 days.
Risk of overdose is low as long as don't use more than 5 days.
Causes thirst. Toxic to kidneys. Might cause nerve, ear or balance damage (because has occurred sometimes in other species).
May combine with Tetracycline Hydrochloride.
For U.E.: May combine with Bacitracin.
For Salmonellosis: Best if combine with Oxytetracycline.
*Rare risk possible if combine Tetracycline meds with Vitamin A or fish oil.
Piperazine
Wazine
Feed stores


Roundworms Mix 1 Tb in 8 c drinking water for 1 entire day.
*Effectiveness is limited--worms may develop resistance.
Pyrethrins & Piperonyl Butoxide--Technical mix
8 in 1 UltraCare Mite & Lice Bird Spray
Pet stores
$5 for 8 oz.

Lice on birds, mites in cages
Use no more than 2 times in a week.
Herbal dewormer

Liquid, pellets
Verm-X
Online
Herbs
Internal parasites

Apple cider vinegar (ACV)

Liquid
Bragg's Organic Unfiltered Apple Cider "with the Mother"
Health food & grocery stores
$2-6 Vinegars Respiratory diseases, general health, prevention of Coccidiosis
Pour small amount in drinking water.
Acts as antiseptic.
Helps clear mucus.
Raw, unfiltered ACV "with the mother" is most effective.
Caution: Will corrode metal--Only use in glass, stoneware or plastic container.
Chlorine dioxide

Liquid
Oxine AH (non-activated only)
*See Fungal Infections in Birds page
Online
$15/qt
$25/gal

Fungal infections (Crop, Digestive Tract, Respiratory, & External), possibly Avian Influenza, possibly other bacterial & viral conditions.
For nebulization: 1 1/4 tsp per 1/2 cup water.
Drinking water: 2-4 drops per quart water.
*Note: Only effective if can make direct contact in respiratory or digestive tract or on skin. Will not travel through bloodstream, etc.
Amprolium
Amprol 128, Corid, Cocci-Rid
Feed stores
$18 pkg

Coccidiosis in growing chickens, turkeys, & layers
Doxycline Hyclate

Capsules
Bird Biotic


Chlamydia, Mycoplasma & other bacterial infections in non-meat birds
Metronidazole

Tablets, liquid
Flagyl, Fish-Zole, Fish-Zole Forte Online or pet store retailers of fish supplies, other online retailers, prescription from vet, prescription for humans
$25 for 12 500-mg packets powder,
$45 for 60 250-mg pills
Nitroimidazoles Canker / Trichomoniasis / Roup, Peritonitis (Internal Egg Laying), Salpingitis

Somewhat helpful with Blackhead / Histomoniasis

Coccidiosis, Giardiasis, Amebiasis
Use is banned in animals used for food.
Respiratory infections: 1/2 for bantams or 1 for large fowl of 250 mg pill daily for 5 days.
Other infections: 1/4 to 1/2 pill daily for 5 days.
Flagyl S liquid 40mg/ml: 25-50mg/kg orally or 100mg/L in drinking water for 5 days
Molasses

Grocery stores


Bluecomb
As a flush: 3.2 oz per gal water no more than 8 hrs
Triple Antibiotic Ointment
In US: Neosporin (Polymyxin B, Bacitracin & Neomycin)

In Canada: Polysporin (Polymyxin B, Bacitracin & Gramidicin)
Grocery stores, general stores


Wounds, eye treatments (not effective for Coryza)
*Caution: Make sure ointment that includes "pain relief" does not contain painkiller ending in "caine."
*Don't use if also giving Sulfa meds.

Polysporin



Eye treatments

Streptomycin

Soluble, injectible



Aminoglycosides Fowl Cholera, Bacterial Enteritis
For Fowl Cholera: May require long-term or periodic treatments.
May cause kidney damage.
Trimethoprim Combined with a Sulfa med: SMZ/TMP (Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole or Co-Trimoxazole)


Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors E. Coli,  Klebsiella Pneumonia Combined with Sulfonamides to enhance effectiveness.
Bacitracin (Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate)

Soluble
BMD, Solu-Tracin (Solo-Tracin), Zinc Bacitracin



Wounds, skin infections, eye treatment, Ulcerative Enteritis, prevention of Necrotic Enteriti, E. Coli in intestines, many gram-positive (inc. some Streptococci & Staphylococci) & some gram-negative organisms Note: Use is banned in many countries.
*Don't use if also giving Sulfa meds.
For Necrotic Enteritis: 200-400 mg/gal. for 5-7 days.
May combine with Neomycin for N.E.
No withdrawal time needed.
Cephalexin

Soluble Powder
Cephalin

Cephalosporins Infectious Coryza, Bronchitis, CRD, Staphylococcus Give in drinking water no more than 7 days.
Nystatin
Oral suspension
Mycostatin


Sour crop, help prevent spread of some fungal infections (Candidiasis/ Thrush, etc)
Dose: 1 ml twice daily.
Must contact fungus to work--usually used for oral or gastrointestinal candidiasis.
Some Candida are resistant, so may combine with Fluconazole.
Can help baby birds that are on antibiotics not get secondary Candidiasis.
Mycostatin




Candidiasis/ Thrush

Avilamycin




Prevention of Necrotic Enteritis
Tiamulin

Soluble Liquid, Soluble Powder, Premix for feed
Denagard 12.5% Liquid

Denagard 10% (2% type may be too dilute to easily treat chickens??) Premix powder for feed (Do NOT feed undiluted)

Denagard 45% Soluble powder for drinking water
Online
Only available in large packages--
$50+
Pleuromutilins
Various conditions including some CRD strains that are caused by below:

Brachyspira (Spirochaetosis):
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, B. pilosicoli.
Mycoplasmas: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis,
M. hyosynoviae, Ureaplasma spp, M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae,
M. meleagridis.

Gram-positive: Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes.
Gram-negative: Pasteurella spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Actinobacillus spp., Haemophilus spp., Fusobacterium necrophorum, Bacteroides spp., Campylobacter coli, Lawsonia intracellularis.
One of the more powerful meds for Mycoplasmas.
*Eggs are safe to eat.
Meat withdrawal: 2-5 days.
*Recommended to give a Tetracycline class med at same time because synergizes & increases effectives of both meds, & also helping prevent E. Coli (which is possible problem after broad antibiotics).
*Don't combine with high doses of the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, or salinomycin.
*Not approved for poultry in US.

*Tastes bad. If giving in drinking water, add sweetener (preferably Xylitol or 100% juice; sugar is another option). If in food, mix in tasty mash. Check to make sure each bird still eats & drinks enough. Can divide dose into food & water to help ensure consumption.*Daily dose must be given gradually over time--NOT all at once nor in a single meal. Do NOT give undiluted or bird's system may react with extreme gagging or other symptoms.

Dose for CRD prevention: 1/2 the "treatment" dose; recommendations about # of days vary.
Reassuring note: Bacteria strains susceptible to Denegard are not able to build resistance very easily, even with underdosing or overly frequent dosing, (though over-use may imbalance bird's body other ways).

Denegard 12.5% Liquid dose:
For CRD treatment: 250 mg per litre drinking water [1/10 tsp (.55 cc) per average chicken] doses all ages at 25 mg/kg. Treat chicken for 3-5 days, or turkey for 5 days. Birds should show improvement in 1-2 days. Possibly continue treatment once/ month for a year.
Penicillin G / Benzylpenicillin
(short-acting; most potent Penicillin)

Injectible liquid (Oral forms might not be as well absorbed so may not be recommended)
Various
Many feed stores (*Injectible is kept in store's refrigerator with vaccines), vets $9-$26 Penicillins, Benzylpenicillins
Bumblefoot, Wounds, Fowl Cholera, Necrotic Enteritis, Ulcerative Enteritis, some strains of Ornithobacterium Rhinotracheale (ORT) Comparison to other Penicillins: Most immediate & potent effect; shortest-acting (must give more frequently); needs to be given by injection--NOT BY MOUTH--if treating infection other than in digestive tract, because absorption to other parts of system is comparatively poor if given orally because med is inactivated by gastric juices.
*Avoid giving acidic foods or supplements if dosing orally.
For wounds & Bumblefoot
: 1/4 to 1/2 cc daily for 5-7 days subcutaneous or in breast muscle.
*See special notes on "Treating with Penicillin"

Procaine Penicillin G / Procaine Benzylpenicillin (intermediate-acting; includes numbing agent called Procaine that slows absorption)


Injectible liquid

Pro-Pen-G, Durvet Pen Aqueous, others

Dura-Pen (Procaine combined with Benzathine)
Many feed stores (*Injectible is kept in store's refrigerator with vaccines), vets $9-$26
Penicillins, Benzylpenicillins Bumblefoot, Wounds, Fowl Cholera, Necrotic Enteritis, Ulcerative Enteritis, some strains of Ornithobacterium Rhinotracheale (ORT), Erisipelas (used along with Benzathine Pen) Comparison to other Penicillins: Medium-low potency effect; active for medium amount of time in bird's sytem (Procaine slows absorption); Procaine is poorly soluble so best given by injection.
*Avoid giving acidic foods or supplements if dosing orally.
*In feed, general dose is 100-300 mg/day (This recommendation needs to be double-checked).
? For Cholera: (?3 ccs by mouth?) Chronic problems may require long- term or periodic treatments.
? For Necrotic Enteiritis: 1,500,000 u/gal water for 5 days
For wounds & Bumblefoot: 1/4 to 1/2 cc daily for 5-7 days subcutaneous or in breast muscle.
*See special notes on "Treating with Penicillin"
Benzathine Penicillin / Benzathine Benzylpenicillin
(long-acting / 48-hr. )

Injectible liquid
Various Many feed stores (*Injectible is kept in store's refrigerator with vaccines), vets $9-$26 Penicillins, Benzylpenicillins Mostly only recommended for Streptococci

Bumblefoot, Wounds, Fowl Cholera, Necrotic Enteritis, Erisipelas (used along with Procaine Pen)
Comparison to other Penicillins: Low potency effect; longest-acting (Do not give to meat birds, because of prolonged residues); can give orally or by injection.
*Only distributes low level of medicine within body, so not recommended unless other options not available.
*See special notes on "Treating with Penicillin"
Penicillin V Potassium / Phenoxymethylpenicillin

Soluble powder
Various

Penicillins
Clostridium Enteritis, Necrotic Enteritis
Comparison to other Penicillins: Can give orally.
Need withdrawal period for egg-laying & meat chickens
*See special notes on "Treating with Penicillin"
Tilmicosin




Mycoplasma Gallisepticum (CRD)








Sarafloxacin



Fluoroquinolones
*Ineffective if combines with calcium or some other minerals. For at least 2 hrs before & after, avoid dairy, hard water, calcite, mineral supplements, formulated feeds, etc.
Trimethobrim








Ampicillin




Necrotic Enteritis

Gentamycin




Aminoglycosides
Pseudomonas infection, E. coli in digestive system May cause kidney damage.

Trimethobrim






Chloramphenicol







Methicillin






Spectinomycin

Injectable, soluble powder
Spectam injectable

Combined with Lincomycin in soluble powder:
LS-50, SpecLinx-50, Lincomycin-Spectinomycin


Aminoglycosides For young chickens, adult chickens, turkeys, or ducklings (depending on specific illness)--
Mycoplasma assoc. with Airsacculitis, CRD assoc. with Coliform infections, Colibacillosis (E. coli), Paratyphoid, Synovitis/Mycoplasma Synovaie, Fowl Cholera
Dose for 4-7 days.
Meat withdrawal: 0-5 days.
May cause kidney damage.
BMD (Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate)



Necrotic Enteritis 1/8 tsp per gal. water
VetRX




Scaley Leg Mites
Coat legs every other day for ~2 weeks.
Decoquinate

Feed crumbles
Manna-Pro Deccox


Coccidiosis prevention
0.6 oz mixed with 1 lb feed.
Anti-peck ointment





Minimize pecking among birds



Liquid(s) for IV injection, nebulization or into trachea; & topical cream
Amphotericin B


Aspergillosis
Caution: Toxic to kidneys.


For administration into air sacs, trachea, by nebulization, or topically
Clotrimazole


Aspergillosis Use along with other treatments.
Fluconazole



Candidiasis
5mg/kg SID for 7 days.
Impedes fungus growth & spread.
Can combine with Nystatin.
Safer than some other meds.
Flucytosine




Prevent or help treat Aspergillosis in waterfowl & raptors. Cryptococcosis, Candidiasis 250mg/kg PO BID x 21 days.
Often combined with other treatments


Oral anti-fungal
Itraconazole



Aspergillosis

Ketoconazole




Systemic mycoses & fungal infections including Aspergillosis, Candidiasis 10-30 mg/kg BID x 21 days
May combine with Amphoteracin B.
Caution: May cause regurgitation and suppress adrenal gland, so not be good med for stressed bird.
Griseofulvin



Dermatophytosis Requires extended treatment.
Valnemulin





Mycoplasma Gallisepticum

Difloxacin



Fluoroquinolones Mycoplasma Gallisepticum *Ineffective if combines with calcium or some other minerals. For at least 2 hrs before & after, avoid dairy, hard water, calcite, mineral supplements, formulated feeds, etc.
Amoxicillin

Capsules of powdered medicine
Amoxi
Vet, people pharmacy


Necrotic Enteritis, Bumblefoot, some strains of Ornithobacterium Rhinotracheale (ORT), Ear Canker, , Peritonitis (Internal Egg Laying) 100-300 mg/day.
You may use human-prescribed med.
Salinomycin
Sacox



Coccidiosis prevention
*Use for meat chickens (Withdrawal: 0 days), but not laying, replacement or breeding chickens


Panacur



Internal worms
1.3 cc

Otomax



Ear Canker








Dimetridazole (0.05%) Emtryl


Canker / Trichomoniasis / Roup Meat withdrawal time: 5 days
Ipronidizole
Ipropan


Canker / Trichomoniasis / Roup
Nitrasone




Canker / Trichomoniasis / Roup
Flavomycin






Virginiamycin






Diflucan





Candidiasis
May be combined with Nystatin
Ketoconazole Nizoral


Candidiasis May treat Nystatin resistant fungi
Caution: Is very hard on bird's system--Don't use on weak bird
Meloxicam Metacam
Vet


Injury, Inflammation, Pain
NSAID that can reduce pain & swelling
Aspirin, Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA)

Oral tablet/pill, powder
Bayer, Bufferin

"Extra-strength" aspirin is difficult to dose individually, so not recommended.
General stores, grocery stores, people pharmacies


Injury, Inflammation, Pain, Arthritis, Fever

Combined with extra Vitamin E:  Helps fight some E. coli
Divide total amount between 2 or more dosing times, or dilute in 1 day's worth of drinking water (1/8 to 1/2 c water)..
Large birds: 150 mg/day (2 baby aspirin or 1/2 normal-strength adult aspirin).
Bantams: 40 mg/day (1/2 baby aspirin).
*Thins blood--don't use when likely to re-start external or internal bleeding.
*Caution: Aspirin that is old breaks down to Salicylic Acid, which has a greater risk of damaging digestive system.
Penazeryl

Vet


Coccidiosis
Can help in treating amprolium-resistant Cocc. strains
Silver Sulfadiazine (SSD)

Topical cream
Silvadene



Wounds

Activated Charcoal, Kaolin
Toxiban



Poisoning
Given orally, absorbs some toxins internally to reduce digestion.
Hemicellulose




Poisoning
Bulk laxative
Sodium Sulfate





Heavy metal poisoning
Transforms poison into non-absorbable complexes.
Caution: Can cause osmotic diarrhea so use care with lightweight birds.
Fenbenzadole

Oral paste, granules, pelleted feed, powder, oral liquid
Safeguard goat, cattle, dog or swine dewormer; Panacur dog or horse dewormer; Worm-A-Rest


Benzimidazoles

Nematodes of the GI & respiratory tracts;
Capillaria (Capillary Worms), Heterakis (Cecal Worms), Ascaridia (Roundworms), and Syngamus spp. (Gapeworms); most worms other than some tapeworms.

Giardiasis.

May help with Coccidiosis.

*Dose amount has wide margin of safety for most poultry. May be risky for pigeons & doves, especially in repeated or strong doses.

*Do NOT dose the same as non-bird species!

For best effect, give at same time as feeding.
May cause stunted feathers if used during molt.

Dose of Safeguard 10% liquid:
Nematodes--0.7 cc (mL) orally, or 1 1/2 TB per gal. drinking water. Repeat once after 10 days.
Giardiasis--1.2 cc (mL) orally, or 2 1/3 TB per gal. drinking water. Repeat 3 days.
*If mix in drinking water, tends to settle at bottom of bowl. Stir frequently.

Nitrofurantoin

Capsules of powdered medicine

People pharmacy


E.Coli in digestive system
Absorbs best if given with food.
Correct amount of  Selenium & Vitamin E in diet boosts effectiveness & reduces toxicity risk.
*Not legal in US for food-producing chickens.
Ceftiofur

Oral paste, granules, pelleted feed, powder



Cephalosporins E. Coli, Salmonella

Gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas , Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter, Citrobacter

Albendazole

Valbazen



Roundworms, Capillaria, Cecal Worms, Tapeworms. Pretty much all internal parasites in poultry & possibly some worm eggs.

May have effect  against Blackhead, Coccidios, & lower form of Canker?
Probably the most effective poultry dewormer.
Dose: 1/2 cc. Redose after 10 days.
Does not stay diluted very well in drinking water.
Egg withdrawal needed.
Magnesium Sulfate
Epsom salt



Orally: Constipation, poisoning

In bath soak: Infections such as Bumblefoot
Can help flush digestive sytem of toxins.
*Use only in small amounts--too much is toxic.

Colistin


Polymyxin
Some Gram-negative bacteria: E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella, Haemophilus, Pasteurella, Brucella,
Enterobacter aerogenes, Shigella, Campylobacter
Given orally, is effective in intestines, but not much absorbed.
Treats narrow spectrum of diseases.

Inmunair



E. Coli
lipopolysaccharide (LPS) &
Propionibacterium acnes cells
Boosts effectiveness of some vaccines & antibiotics.
Newborn to 6 wks old: 1 ml per gal. drinking water for 2-3 hours.
6+ weeks old:
5 ml per gal. drinking water for 2-3 hours.

GelOxychlorine compounds
Vetericyn
Pet stores, online
$30 wound gel

$23 eye gel (possibly can use for wounds?)

Wounds, eye infections, skin fungus, surgical incisions, burns.
Kills 99.9% of bacteria, fungi & viruses.
*'Wound' type can be used for eyes.
*Possibly could treat mucus around nostrils & eyes from Coryza, etc?
Fipronil & (S)-methoprene combinationn
Spot-on topical drops, topical liquid spray
Frontline or Frontline Plus tick & flea treatment for cats or dogs No longer prescription-only. General stores, pet stores, vets, online.
$34+ for 3 cat/small dog spot-on doses (Each dose treats 3-7 chickens).
[$10 on clearance at Smith's Marketplace]

Chicken Mites, Northern Fowl Mites, Lice

Expensive, but may be worth it in coops where it's hard to kill all mites. Stays in skin & oil glands up to 45 days, continually killing pests. Does not enter bloodstream. Not approved for birds (& may be harmful for quail orally) so effects on eggs & meat unverified, though people are commonly exposed to.Fipronil without apparent negative effects.

Dose roosters slightly more than hens.
Spot-on: Drip 1-2 drops on skin at base of neck & near vent.
Spray: Spray 1-2 squirts on skin under each wing, at base of neck & near vent.

Oxfendazole
Synanthic



Roundworms, Capillaria, Cecal Worms May mix in drinking water, but tends to settle at bottom of bowl.
Hydronium (H9 O4)
 Topical spray, topical gel
Banixx


Wounds, external Fungus Safe for use around eyes.

Nystatin, Neomycin Sulfate, Thiostrepton & Triamcinolone Acetonide combination


Ointment

Animax Ointment Is prescription-only. Buy from vet or order online with prescription.
$12
Open wounds, Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory & anti-fungal
Levamisole Hydrochloride Prohibit Solution


Roundworms, Capillaria, Cecal Worms

Mix in drinking water.
Dose: 8-16mg/lb body weight.

Guaifenesin
Mucusol
Online
$15

Respiratory Congestion (CRD, etc.)
1 oz per 1 gal drinking water.
*Caution: Check that all ingredients are safe for poultry before using any Guaifenesin product labeled for humans.
Dihydrostreptomycin



Necrotic Enteritis

 














































Reference Info for Diagnosing Diseases

  • Disease diagnosis aid & treatment info pages. http://www.poultryu.umn.edu/PublicationsandResources/HealthDiseases/index.htm
  • Diseases listed by categories: http://msucares.com/poultry/diseases/dissymp.htm
  • Handbook of diseases. Offers clear symptoms descriptions & photos. Caution: Many diseases that it says have no treatments actually do have possible treatments. http://www.canadianpoultry.ca/cms_pdfs/Important%20Poultry%20Diseases%20060058%20-%20CPC%20website.pdf
  • Diseases & photos. http://partnersah.vet.cornell.edu/avian-atlas/lists/disease
  • Symptom & treatment recommendations: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ps044
  • Symptoms in live birds & necropsy results: http://www.canadianpoultry.ca/chapter_v.htm
  • Symptom & treatment recommendations especially tailored to wild birds. http://wildbirdrehabhaven.org/Information/faq.html
  • Lookup for many diseases & treatments. In Advanced Search, search by "Species", "Poultry" and enter search term "poultry". Note: Some diseases & medicines that also apply to poultry do not mention this in description, so you may need to search more generally by "Keyword" and one or more specific search terms to get general information on those. *Search results may be listed on several pages--be sure to browse through all pages. http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=jsp/search/advsrch.jsp

More Info on Medications

  • Extensive, detailed info on medications & dosing rates. http://www.merckmanuals.com/vet/pharmacology.html.
    • Note: If a description does not mention treatment on birds but you wonder if it may be useful, pursue further research from different sources.
      • The med may be one that IS actually used for birds in many situations & you just need to find additional info elsewhere,
      • OR it may be a med that is NOT safe or effective for birds.