Reading Assignment #07

予習の仕方

  1. まずは記事を読み大意を把握する。
  2. 語彙トレーニング(単語カード)
    • quizletのカードを利用します。英語の音声をリピートし、次に意味を確認しましょう。自分で英単語を発音することが重要です。
    • 語彙リスト(フル)には4つのリーディングアサインメント全ての語彙が掲載されています。活用してください。
  3. 記事の内容を理解しながらしっかり読む。
  4. Quizに取り組む。(解答は公開されません。仲間と意見交換して適切な答えを探すのも良いでしょう)
  5. もう一度記事を読んで理解を確認する。
  6. Further studies
    • 記事のトピックについてリサーチする
    • 記事のサマリーをまとめる
    • 著者について調べる
    • 関連記事を読む
    • その他

1. nature NEWS

Article Title

Be open about drug failures to speed up research

Access to evidence from disappointing drug-development programmes advances the whole scientific process, explain Enrica Alteri and Lorenzo Guizzaro.
https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-07352-7

2. 語彙トレーニング

3. Quiz

Answer the following questions.


1. Which of the following can substitute for the word assess in "assessing" from section 4? 

a) calculate
b) process
c) evaluate

2. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a benefit of companies' learning from each other?   

a) Decision-making with regard to clinical trials would be faster. 
b) Evaluation of clinical trials would be more accurate. 
c) Budgets needed to conduct researches would significantly come down. 

3. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about results of the data-sharing initiative?

a) If it succeeds, it will probably lead to faster drug development. 
b) If it is successful, it will probably lead to lower drug prices. 
c) If it is successfully implemented, it will probably lead to development of totally new kinds of drugs. 

4. Which of the following is the word "encompass" in section 7 closest in meaning to? 

a) encircle 
b) cover
c) enclose

5. Which of the following is the problem with the present data sharing practices?

a) Very few drug companies are willing to share any data that they have accumulated with others. 
b) Companies are sharing too little of what they have known.  
c) The most important data is not being disclosed for sharing with other companies.  

6. Which of the following can replace the word "validate" in section 9?  

a) investigate
b) prove
c) approve 

7. Which of the following is the word "potential" in section 12 closest in meaning to? 

a) chances
b) probabilities
c) possibilities

8. Which of the following is the goal of the date-sharing initiatives outlined in this passage? 

a) There will be more data about past clinical trials available among companies, resulting in speedier research in the community.
b) There will be more data about past clinical trials available among drug developers, resulting in individual companies making profit more quickly.
c) There will be more data about past clinical trials publicly available so that regulators can better manage it. 

9. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a factor contributing to the success of Alzheimer's drug-development programs led by the European Medicines Agency?

a) Drug companies are under pressure to work with other drug companies although indirectly. 
b) Drug companies think collective efforts work better than individual efforts. 
c) Different companies' drug developing efforts are coordinated for more efficient drug development processes

10. Which of the following words is "nonetheless" in section 24 closest in meaning to? 

a) accordingly
b) therefore
c) even so