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a. trace

10 worst oil spills in history
: deepwater horizon _
180 m gallons
  1. . Arabian Gulf/Kuwait - January 19, 1991
    Location: Persian Gulf, Kuwait
    Amount of Oil Spilled: 380-520 million gallons

    Ironically, the worst oil spill in human history wasn't the result of an accident. During the Gulf War, Iraqi forces, attempting to thwart a potential landing of American soldiers, opened the valves at an offshore oil terminal and dumped oil from several tankers. The oil they released created a 4-inch thick oil slick that covered 4000 square miles. To put it in perspective, that's enough oil to cover the entire state of Rhode Island one foot deep in oil.
  2. Ixtoc 1 Oil Spill - June 3, 1979 - March 23, 1980
    Location: Bay of Campeche off Ciudad del Carmen, Mexico
    Amount of Oil Spilled: 140 million gallons
  3. Trinidad and Tobago - 1979 - 90 million
    During a tropical storm off the coast of Trinidad and Tobago, a Greek oil tanker collided with another ship, and lost nearly its entire cargo.
  4. Russia - 1994 - 84 million gallons
    A broken pipeline in Russia leaked for eight months before it was noticed and repaired.
  5. Persian Gulf - 1983 - 80 million gallons
    A tanker collided with a drilling platform which, eventually, collapsed into the sea. The well continued to spill oil into the ocean for seven months before it was repaired.
  6. South Africa - 1983 - 79 million gallons
    A tanker cought fire and was abandoned before sinking 25 miles off the coast of Saldanha Bay.
  7. France - 1978 - 69 million gallons
    A tanker's rudder was broken in a severe storm, despite several ships responding to its distress call, the ship ran aground and broke in two. It's entire payload was dumped into the English Channel.
  8. Angola - 1991 - more than 51 million gallons
    The tanker expolded, exact quantity of spill unknown
  9. Italy - 1991 - 45 million gallons
    The tanker exploded and sank off the coast of Italy and continued leaking it's oil into the ocean for 12 years.
  10. Odyssey Oil Spill - 1988 - 40 million gallons
    700 nautical miles off the cost of Nova Scotia.

This oil spill didn't involve a tanker, but rather an offshore oil well. Pemex, a state-owned Mexican petroleum company was drilling an oil well when a blowout occurred. The oil ignited causing the drilling rig to collapse. Oil began gushing out of the well into the Gulf of Mexico at a rate of 10,000 to 30,000 barrels a day for almost an entire year beforeworkers were finally able to cap the well and stop the leak.

The Exxon Valdez oil spill was a disaster, but so were the 33 oil spills that were, in fact, worse. Spills have slowed down in recent years, due to advances in logistics and tanker hulls. There are no longer any new single-hulled tankers being built...but there are still plenty that haven't yet been decommissioned.

Trace of Exxon Valdez oil spills, What is happening after 21years later

Damage beyond anyone's imagination

buried or subsurface contamination is more terrible than surface oil. 

date : March 24, 1989
total oil spills :1,100,000 gallons (42,000㎘)

oil contaminated : more than 1,200 miles

Trace : 724km from the site along

Most cleanup operation ended : 1992 (3yrs operation)

During the first few years of cleanup, beach surveys showed the oil dissipating at a pretty good clip of about 58 percent per year. At that rate, little oil was expected to remain past 1992. However, follow-up surveys in 2001 and 2005 revealed much lower rates of dissipation — four percent per year or less. At that rate, the Exxon Valdez oil will remain on Prince William Sound’s beaches for decades, perhaps a century.


if we assume that oil spill dissipates 4% every year as the survey said


int start = 1100000;
float dec=0.04;
float current=start;
float decamount;
int count;

void setup(){

void draw(){

  if (current <1 ){


still quantities of oils are found covering the state's shores and beneath gravel beaches

341 years for 100% dissipation

YouTube Video

Estimated oil spilled (in gallons): 11 million
Estimated oil remaining (in gallons): 21,000
Number of gallons of oil needed to heat your home for one year: 3,733
Number of gallons of oil consumed driving your car for one year: 1,260
Number of gallons needed to kill a small bird: 0.003
Number of gallons needed to kill a salmon egg: 0.000002

149 km of shoreline in Prince William Sound were heavily oiled and 459 km were at least lightly  oiled.
total : 608 km

research by : Michel Boufadel, Temple University's Civil and Environmental Engineering chair
oil dissipating rate : 4% each year

naturally disappears :

1) Biodegrading by the water : the water sloughs off bits of oil >disperse into the ocean as less harmful droplets.

2) Biodegrading by bacteria or other microorganisms

problem : too slow when oil is trapped among sand grains

animal death estimates : approx. 100,000 to as many as 250,000 seabirds, at least 2,800 sea otters, approximately 12 river otters, 300 harbor seals, 247 bald eagles, and 22 orcas, as well as the destruction of billions of salmon and herring eggs." However, I must assume that these numbers are shocking to people not because of the lives themselves that were lost, but because of environmental impact (since although this has a huge environmental impact, too, the numbers are far, far greater):

a: Acute-Phase Mortality (급성사망)
b: Persistence of Oil: Ecosystem Sequestration (기름의 잔류)

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20 Years After Exxon Valdez Oil Spill,
Alaskan Coastline Remains Contaminated,
Residents Still Struggle for Justice

Riki Ott
, author, community activist, marine toxicologist and former fisherma’am.

She is author of Not One Drop: Betrayal and Courage in the Wake of the Exxon Valdez Spill.

".......they said they had sat down on what they presumed was rock to cry, and it turned out to be like an oiled sea otter or something that was dying. There were just bodies everywhere. The oil in some of the bays was over three feet thick. You couldn’t even hear the sound of the waves crashing on the shoreline; everything was muted. Some of the oil, with the storm that came through—there was a huge storm that came through, and it just smeared oil up to forty feet high on some of our coastline—was in the trees..............."

economic impact :

the salmon and the herring both collapsed, because they were spawned on these beaches, these oiled beaches. Salmon—and this was ’92, ’93. This is delayed, delayed harm. Salmon gradually came back, but herring never did. And this is a huge problem, not only for the ecosystem, but also for the economy. Herring are the main forage fish of the ecosystem of the Prince William Sound, so whales, sea lions, seabirds, everything depends on herring. Without herring, realistically, we can’t expect the sound to recover. And what the scientists are saying now is they have no idea how long it will take for herring to recover.

Meanwhile, the herring fisheries are closed indefinitely. Indefinitely. So the permits that—we pay a limited price for a limited entry permit. It’s kind of like buying a home. It’s a big price, and you take out a debt, a loan, and then you pay it back every year based on your fishing income. And zero—it’s zero income for herring fishermen. So they have incurred a huge debt on this permit. And it’s really the debt that’s eating us alive now—$300,000. And these permits are worth now about $15,000. I mean—

psychological impact :
We had fish run collapses, bankruptcies, divorces, suicides, you know, domestic violence spikes, substance abuse spikes. The town was just unraveling.

spilled oils transform  :
The oil specifically is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs. This is actually coming out the tailpipes of our automobiles. It’s the fine soot. That’s kind of the codeword for it. And this is linked with genetic harm, not only in animals, but in people, as well, respiratory harm, reproductive impairment, cancers. Very low levels of this oil, these PAHs, cause incredible harm to people.

cooperation also :
was how did corporations get this big, where they can manipulate the legal system, the political system?
this is not just an environmental disaster, but a crisis in democracy.

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via sey min ,