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1.1. Human nutrition requirements

== WEEK 1 : THEORY, DESIGN ==

What are we trying to achieve?
We are trying to put together desirable conditions for life at sea. Here we start by food and drink.

We are trying to :
1. assess human nutrition needs
2. ocean capacities, limits and lacks
3. Existing technologies of agriculture at sea
4. choose a technology or propose an alternative designs (nomadic ecosystem) for prototyping and testing at sea, as a part of the International_Ocean_Station first prototype



1. human nutrition needs

Table 1 Estimated Average requirement (EARs) for Energy

age EARs MJ/d (kcal/d)

male female
0-3 months 2.28 (545) 2.16 (515)
4-6 months 2.89 (690) 2.69 (645)
7-9 months 3.44 (625) 3.20 (765)
10-12 months 3.85 (920) 3.61 (865)
1-3 years 5.15 (1230) 4.86 (1165)
4-6 years 7.16 (1715) 6.46 (1545)
7-10 years 8.24 (1970) 7.28 (1740)
11-14 years 9.27 (2220) 7.72 (1845)
15-18 years 11.51 (2755) 8.83 (2110)
19-50 years 10.60 (2550) 8.10 (1940)
51-59 years 10.60 (2550) 8.00 (1900)
60-64 years 9.93 (2330) 7.99 (1900)
65-74 years 9.71 (2330) 7.96 (1890)
75+ years 8.77 (2100) 7.61 (1810)
pregancy
+0.80 (200)
lactation 1 months
+1.90 (450)
lactation 2 months
+2.20 (530)
lactation 3 months
+2.40 (570)
Extracted from "Nutrition at a glance" Mary E. Barasi, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2007
 

Table 4 reference nutriment intakes for vitamins.

Thiamin
mg/d
Riboflavin
mg/d
niacin (nic
acid eq.)
mg/d
vit B6
mg/d
vit B12
mg/d
folate
ug/d
Vit C
mg/d
Vitamin A
ug/d 
Vitamin D
ug/d
0-3 months 0.2 0.4 3 0.2 0.3 50 25 350 8.5
4-6 m 0.2 0.4 3 0.2 0.3 5- 25 350 8.5
7-9 m 0.2 0.4 4 0.3 0.4 50 25 350 7
10-12 m 0.3 0.6 5 0.4 0.4 50 25 350 7
1-3 years 0.5 0.8 8 0.7 0.5 70 30 400 7
4-6 y 0.7 1.0 11 0.9 0.8 100 30 400 -
7-10 y 0.7
12 1.0 1.0 150 30 500 -
males








11-14 y 0.9 1.2 15 1.2 1.2 200 35 600 -
15-18 y 1.1 1.3 18 1.5 1.5 200 30 700 -
19-50 y 1.0 1.3 17 1.4 1.5 200 30 700 -
50+ y 0.9 1.3 16 1.4 1.5 200 30 700 -
females








11-14 y 0.7 1.1 12 1.0 1.2 200 35 600 -
15-18 y 0.8 1.1 14 1.2 1.5 200 40 600 -
19-50 y 0.8 1.1 13 1.2 1.5 200 40 600 -
50+ y 0.8 1.1 12 1.2 1.5 200 40 600 -
pregnancy +0.1*** +0.3* * * * +100 +10*** +100 10
lactation








0-4 months +0.2 +0.5 +2 * +0.5 +60 +30 +350 10
4+months +0.2 +0.5 +2 * +0.5 +60 +30 +350 10

* No increment
** After age 65 the RNI is 10ug/d for men and women
*** for last trimester only
Based on protein providing 14.7 per cent of EAR for energy
Extracted from "Nutrition at a glance" Mary E. Barasi, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2007



Table 5 Reference Nutrient intakes for minerals

age calcium mg/d phosphorusa mg/d magnesium mg/d sodium mg/db potassium mg/de chloride mg/d iron mg/d zinc mg/d copper mg/d selenium ug/d iodine
ug/d
0-3 months 525 400 55 210 800 320 1.7 4.0 0.2 10 50
4-6 months 525 400 60 280 850 400 4.3 4.0 0.3 13 60
7-9 months 525 400 75 320 700 500 7.8 5.0 0.3 10 60
10-12 months 525 400 80 350 700 500 7.8 5.0 0.3 10 60
1-3 years 350 270 85 500 800 800 6.9 5.0 0.4 15 70
4-6 years 450 350 120 700 1100 1100 6.1 6.5 0.6 20 100
7-10 years 550 450 200 1200 2000 1800 8.7 7.0 0.7 30 110
males










11-14 years 1000 775 280 1600 3100 2500 11.3 9.0 0.8 45 130
15-18 years 1000 775 300 1600 3500 2500 11.3 9.5 1.0 70 140
19-50 years 700 550 300 1600 3500 2500 8.7 9.5 1.2 75 140
50+ years 700 550 300 1600 3500 2500 8.7 9.5 1.2 75 140
females










11-14 years 800 625 280 1600 3100 2500 14.8e 9.0 0.8 45 130
15-18 years 800 625 300 1600 3500 2500 14.8e 7.0 1.0 60 140
19-50 years 700 550 270 1600 3500 2500 14.8e 7.0 1.2 60 140
50+ years 700 550 270 1600 3500 2500 8.7 7.0 1.2 60 140
pregnancy * * * * * * * * * * *
lactation










0-4 months +550 +440 +50 * * * * +6.0 +0.3 +15 *
4+ months +550 +440 +50 * * * * +2.5 +0.3 +15 *
* no increment
a Phosphorous RNI is set equal to calcium in molar terms.
b 1 mmol Sodium = 23mg.
c 1 mmol potassium = 39 mg.
d correspons to sodium 1 mmol.
e Insufficient for women with high menstrual losses where the most practical way of meeting iron requirements is to take iron supplements.
Extracted from "Nutrition at a glance" Mary E. Barasi, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2007


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutrition
The Nutritional Assessment of individual depends on individual profile, mostly with individual anthropometry, metabolism and activity.
What we are trying to prevent with our nomadic_ecosystem is undernutrition or malnutrition.
Nutriments can be broken down into :
macronutrients
    Carbohydrates
        Monosaccarides
            glucose
            fructose
            galactose
        Disaccharides
            sucrose
            lactose
            Maltose
            Oligosaccharides
            Polysaccharides
        Fats
            Saturated fatty acid SFAs
            Monounsaturated fatty acids MUFAs
            Polyunsaturated fatty acids PUFAs
            Trans fatty acid TFAs
        Protein
Micronutrient
        Minerals
            calcium
            phosphorous
            sodium
            potassium
            magnesium
            iron
            zinc
            copper
            selenium
            iodine
            fluoride
            chromium
        vitamins
             C
             B, B1, B2, Niacin, B6, Folate, B12, Pantothenic acid, Biotin, 
             A
             D
             K          
water
alcohol



Still we believe the best way to verify the quality of the diet on board, is a regular medical analysis of the member of the International_Ocean_Station_1 over a long period of time
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