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2.1. Edible Ocean

What we can eat.


List of seeds to buy by Harrisson Leaf (google spreadsheet)


What we should not eat.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endangered_species
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critically_endangered_species


Ocean capacities and limits.

 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fisheries_management
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overfishing#Fishing_quotas


Legal Limit & biological limits

Present state of aquaculture
Although traditionally fish farming was part of rural life in certain areas, the present day aquaculture has a much greater significance in socio-economic development and resource management despite some temporary increases in a few areas, the total world fishery production appears to have we plateaued at 70 to 75 million tons, with the production of preferred species remaining stationary or in some cases diminishing. the fraction for the total catch utilized for human consumption has increased from 58 to 70 percent, due to the increased demand and increased utilization through new or improved processing techniques and marketing of value-added products. the most optimistic estimates of total catch of conventional species from the wild are around 100 million tons, and in any significant increase due to harvesting of new unconventional species for food is considered unrealistic due to problems of consumer acceptance, harvesting technology and costs.

If the hoped 100 million tons catch is obtained, about 70 million tons can e expected to become available for human food at the current rate of utilization. Even if this can be increased, the maximum total catch used for human consumption cannot expect to surpass 80 million tons. On the other hand, it is estimated that about 100 to 140 million tons of edible fishery products will be required to meet the demand of the projected world population by the year 2000. There is thus a deficit of approximately 20 to 60 million tons to be made up, and the only major means presently known for this is an accelerated development of aquaculture.
Extracted from "Aquaculture: principles and practices" T.V.R Pillay, Blackwell publishing, Oxford, 1990

Technical regulation of fishing may include:

  • the prohibition of fishing with the use of mechanical devices such as bows and arrows, and spears, or firearms
  • the prohibition of fishing with nets, or the average potential catching power of a vessel in the fleet (taking into account the typical size, fishing gear, electronic gear and other physical "inputs", as well as the vessel's crew.
  • the prohibition of fishing with bait
  • snagging of fish
  • regulation of fish traps
  • restrictions on the number of poles or lines per fisherman
  • restriction on the number of simultaneous fishing vessels
  • the average intensity of operation of a vessel per unit time at sea, measuring the fraction of the potential catching power that is actually realised
  • the average time at sea for a vessel in the fleet.
  • the type and stage of maturation of the animal or plant
Extracted from Sustainable Fishery system, Charles, A. (ed) (2001). Oxford: Blackwell science. p. 95.

As potential inhabitants of the oceans the members of Open_Sailing must follow catch quota very carefully and tend toward underfishing.


The set strategic objectives for fishery development :
Fish for food : helping a hungry world
fish for income : economic wealth to meet national goals
fisheries for people : socioeconomic well-being for fishing communities
fisheries for the nation : ensuring coastal states benefit for their resources
fisheries for the future : developing sustainability of ecosystems and human systems
fisheries as catalysts : enhancing and diversifying the coastal economy
extracted from "Sustainable Fishery
Extracted from Sustainable Fishery system, Charles, A. (ed) (2001). Oxford: Blackwell science. p. 111.


Why we privilege small scale production units design :
  small-scale fisheries
 Large-scale fisheries
 alternative terminology
 Artisinal (developing areas); Inshors/small boats (developed areas)
 Industrial (developing areas); corporate (developed area)
 fishing location
 Coastal, including tidal, inshore and near-shore areas
 offshore, operating relatively far from the coast
 nature of objectives
 multiple goals (social, cultural, economic)
 tendency to focus on a single goal (profit maximisation)
 specific objectives in developing regions
 food production and livelihood security
 export production and foreign exchange
objectives relating to utilisation of labour
 focus on maximising employment opportunities
 focus on minimising labour cost (i.e. employment)
 mode of production
 subsitence fisheries as well as commercial ones, selling into appropriate markets  Market- driven commercial fisheries, oftne with a focus on export
 ownership  typically individual/family; often a small business in developed nation
 typically corporate, often based on foreign fleet in developing nations
 mix of inputs
 Labour intensive, relatively low technological level
 capital intensive, emphasis on applying new technology
 rural-urban mix
 predominantly rural; located typically outside mainstream social and economic centers
 Often urban or urban-tied; owners within mainstream social and economic centers
 community connections
 Closely tied to communities where fishers live; integral part of those communities
 Relatively separate and indepedent of coastal communities
 common perceptions
 "traditional", romantic, technologically simple
 Modern, impersonal, multinational, corporations
Extracted from "Sustainable Fishery system", Charles, A. (ed) (2001). Oxford: Blackwell science. p. 20.

Small-scale fisheries seem to be more capable of understand and avoid resource depletion, insure livelyhood via bio-diversification, supported by the community opinion tending toward sustainable local development.  In the case of Open_Sailing or a "nomadic_ecosystem" or nomadic village, the policy is very different from either a localised small-scale artisanal fishery and a transnational industrial fishery.

In the research period the the fishing activity will focus on a subsitence fishing. If the development of the technologies is successfull we will tend toward small-scale fishery with modern enhanced life quality for the fishermen and the community, trying to make the best of both worlds.

The birth of this new practice of aquaculture (drifting aqua-farming) will give birth to a new social group, hybrid of fishermen and fish-farmers. We envison this group to inform the debate between these 2 conflicting social group with a community-based co-managment. (see "Sustainable Fishery system", Charles, A. (ed) (2001). Oxford: Blackwell science. p. 267.).

Read also : 4.1. Our-approach-references



What we want to eat, or how to make an informed choice.



What the ocean does not provide that is necessary for us.




Bibliography


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