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4.1. Our approach, references



Permaculture is the extended and developed evolution of a total support base for man, beyond those developed by pre-industrial societies. The 

        fact that it is based on permanence serves to define it. 

Basic Characteristics

1. Small scale land-use patterns are possible

2. Intensive, rather than extensive land-use patterns

3. Diversity in plant species, varieties, yield, micro-climate and habitat

4. Long term; an evolutionary process spanning generations

5. Wild or little-selected species (plant and animal) are integral elements of the system

6. Integration with agriculture, animal husbandry, extant forest management and animal cropping become possible, and land-form engineering has 

            a place

7. Adjustable to steep, rocky, marshy or marginal lands not suited to other systems

Ecosystem Stability and Diversity

        permaculture unlike modern annual crop culture, has the potential for continuos evolution towards a desirable climax state. Annual crops are     

        destroyed when harvested and must be replanted, whereas  in permaculture the plants and animals, often long lived grow and change with the 

        system. Succession of species occurs as the ecosystem moves towards climax. The great variety of plant types from large, top-storey trees to

        herbs, creates habitat and food diversity allowing the complex array of fauna. Each element serves several functions in the ecosystem, and each 

        function is common to many elements. Thus a system of checks and balances develops, helping to prevent epidemic outbreaks of pests, and 

        population fluctuations should reduce in severity, number, and frequency (e.g. the carrying capacity for a particular domestic animal species 


Extracted from: "Permaculture One: A Perennial Agriculture for Human Settlements", Bill Mollison & David Holmgren, Tagari publications, Australia, 

                             2nd edition, 1990    


    Zoning, (distance from centre) is decided on two factors:

        -The number of times you need to visit the plant, animal or structure

        -The number of times the plant, animal or structure needs you to visit it

The whole key to efficient energy planning )which is, in fact, efficient economic planning) is the zonation and radial or sectoral placement of plants, animal ranges, and structures.

Extracted from: "Permaculture Two: Practical Design For Town and Country in Permanent Agriculture, Bill Mollison, Tagari publications, Australia, 



The Permaculture Tree: Knowledge Flows to Productivity



Artificial open-environment (non closed, non autarch)

References & friends

Harrison Leaf :
Jeremijenko, Cubero, Haque, Harada : Urban Space Station :
What will the harvest be? :
The friends of Arnold circus :