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MLA style (parenthetical)

MLA style 8th edition 

Parenthetical references and Works Cited list

 

What are parenthetical references?

“As you prepare your paper, you should…seek to build on the work of previous writers and researchers.  And whenever you draw on another’s work, you must also document your source by indicating what you borrowed—whether facts, opinions, or quotations—and where you borrowed it from” (MLA 7th ed 126).

 

How do I do parenthetical references?

Each time that you need to credit someone for the language or ideas in your text, simply put the author’s name in brackets (parentheses) with the page number of the original source of the information.  Example: (Turner 398)

 

That’s all you have to do. If you can’t find an author, use whatever information will be at the beginning of the reference in your Works Cited list (bibliography). It might be the title of an encyclopedia or periodical article, or the title of a webpage.

 

It must be clear from the parenthetical reference which source you are referring to in the Works Cited list.

 

For exceptions and special cases, see the MLA Handbook in the library or online (click here for your username and password for the online version). You can also check the Concordia University Library website.

 

“Keep parenthetical references as brief – and as few – as clarity and accuracy permit. Give only the information needed to identify a source, and do not add a parenthetical reference unnecessarily.” (MLA 7th ed 216).


Please note: some teachers may require you to use footnotes and endnotes rather than parenthetical references, although this style is no longer supported by the MLA Handbook. Please click here for help with footnotes and endnotes.

 

What is a Works Cited list?

A Works Cited list shows all of the resources that you used to write your paper.  The sources are listed alphabetically by author’s last name or by title if there is no author named.  The Works Cited list is generally the last page of the assignment.  All entries are double-spaced.

 

How do I do a Works Cited list?

The five most common cases – books, reference books, periodicals (in print and in an online database) and websites – are listed below.  For exceptions and special cases, see the MLA Handbook in the library or online (username  library@nepeanhs.ocdsb.ca and password nepeanhs). You can also check the Concordia University Library website.

 

 

MLA style 8th edition

Works Cited List

(Should be double-spaced)

 

Book

Author’s last name, first name. Title of book: subtitle.  Publisher, year of

     publication.

example

Pepin, Ronald E. Literature of Satire in the Twelfth Century. Edwin Mellen

     Press, 1988.

 

Encyclopedia or reference book

Author’s last name, first name. “Title of article.”  Title of reference book,

     edited by name of editor, publisher, year of publication.

example

Rowe, J.G.  “Inquisition.” Encyclopedia Americana, edited by Tom Coker,

     Grolier, 2002.

 

Periodical

 

Author’s last name, first name. “Title of article.” Title of periodical, date of

     publication, page numbers.

example

Geddes, John. “Out for blood.” Maclean’s, 21-28 Nov. 2005, pp. 30-32.

 

Online periodical database

(ex. Gale)

Author’s last name, first name. “Title of article.”  Title of periodical, date

     of  publication, page numbers. Name of database, URL of article.

example

Bemrose, John. “Two spring hits: Timothy Findley visits the heart of

       darkness.” Maclean’s, 19 Apr. 1993, p. 49. General OneFile

       http://go.galegroup.com /ps/i.do?p=GPS&sw=w&u=ko_k12hs_d47

       &v=2.1&id= GALE%7CA13675236&it=r&asid=c1cc3564fb5724236

        e71e509b12b1eee/.

 

Website

Author’s last name, first name. Title of web page. Organization

       responsible for site, date page created or last revised, URL.

example

Khoo, Heiko. 10 Years On: assessing Tiananmen today. In Defense of

       Marxism, 3 May 2001, 5 Dec 2005, http://www.marxist.com/china-

       tiananmen-today250599.htm/.


 

Works Cited

 

MLA handbook for writers of research papers: seventh edition. The Modern Language Association of America, 2009.


MLA handbook: eighth edition. The Modern Language Association of America, 2016.

Subpages (1): MLA en français
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