Glossary of Terms for 21st Century Learning
The following list of terms is a synthesis of research, teaching and learning implications in preparing students for success in college, career and life.
 
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21st Century Competencies 21st century competencies refer to transferable knowledge and skills that include three domains of competence: The cognitive domain, reasoning and memory, includes three clusters of competencies such as critical thinking, information literacy, reasoning, argumentation, and innovation: 1. Cognitive processes and strategies 2. knowledge 3. creativity The intrapersonal domain, self-management, includes three clusters of competencies such as flexibility, initiative, appreciation for diversity, and metacognition (ability to reflect on one's own learning and make adjustments accordingly): 1. Intellectual openness 2. work ethic and conscientiousness 3. positive core self-evaluation The interpersonal domain, communicating and collaboration, includes two clusters of competencies such as communication, collaboration, responsibility, and conflict resolution: 1. Teamwork and collaboration 2. Leadership  21st Century Competencies Glossary & Implementation Considerations Preparing ALL students for College and Career Readiness  
21st Century Competencies - Cognitive Domain One of the three domains that makes up 21st Century Competencies. The Cognitive Domain Includes reasoning and memory (processes, strategies, knowledge)   
21st Century Competencies - Interpersonal Domain  One of the three domains that makes up 21st Century Competencies. The Interpersonal Domain Encompasses the capacity to express ideas, actively seeking to communicate clearly, interpreting and responding to others.   
21st Century Competencies - Intrapersonal Domain  One of the three domains that makes up the 21st Century Competencies. The Intrapersonal Domain Involves the ability to reflect on and manage one’s behavior, attitudes, beliefs, and emotions to achieve one’s learning goals. Intrapersonal competencies are the biggest predictor of lifelong success in applying the cognitive and interpersonal competencies.   
Big Idea(s) / Enduring Understandings Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings have enduring value because they:  Identify core concepts, principles, theories, and processes  Serve to organize important facts, skills, or actions around central ideas  Will transfer to other contexts or other disciplines  Require “uncoverage” of the abstract/ complex ideas that require genuine and deeper insights and inquiry in their discovery *Source: Wiggins & McTighe 2001 *Source: Wiggins & McTighe, 2001   
Blended learning • Blended learning refers to instruction that is divided between face-to-face instruction at a location, such as a school, and through digital or online delivery with some element of student control over time, place, path, and pace.   
BYOD BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) programs where each student brings a personal smartphone, tablet or laptop to use in class. BYOT Bring your own Technology is used as well.   
CCR College and Career Readiness College and career readiness refers to the content knowledge, skills, and habits that students must possess to be successful in postsecondary education or training that leads to a sustaining career. A student who is ready for college and career can qualify for and succeed in entry-level, credit-bearing college courses without the need for remedial or developmental coursework. Epic Educational Policy Improvement Center  
CCR KCK Know Key Content Knowledge (KCK) College and Career Readiness, David Conley Key Content Knowledge refers to comprehension of foundational concepts of core subjects and structures of knowledge, which enables students to gain insight into and retain what they are learning. Epic Educational Policy Improvement Center  
CCR KCS Think Key Cognitive Strategies (KCS). College and Career Readiness, David Conley Key Cognitive Strategies are the ways of thinking that are necessary for college-level work; Problem formulation, research, interpretation, communication, precision/accuracy Epic Educational Policy Improvement Center  
CCR KLST Act Key Learning Skills and Techniques (KLST) College and Career Readiness, David Conley Key Learning Skills and Techniques are the self-management skills, attitudes, and habits necessary for students to learn and perform appropriately, effectively, and efficiently: Two components: (1) ownership of learning and (2) learning skills Epic Educational Policy Improvement Center  
CCR KTKS Go Key Transition Knowledge and Skills (KTKS) College and Career Readiness, David Conley Key Transition Knowledge and Skills refers to the information and behaviors necessary to understand the norms, culture, expectations, and systemic processes for gaining entrance into and navigating the postsecondary environment that aligns to one’s career or academic aspirations. Epic Educational Policy Improvement Center  
Concept Mapping  Visible Learning d=0.57. Concept maps are tools for organizing and representing knowledge. They include concepts, usually enclosed in circles or boxes of some type, and relationships between concepts or propositions, (indicated by a connecting line and linking word) between two concepts. Linking words on the line specify the relationship between the two concepts. Joe Novak defines "concept" as a perceived regularity in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by a label.  How to construct a concept map: See figure that demonstrate how there are two features of concept maps that are important in the facilitation of creative thinking: the hierarchical structure that is represented in a good map and the ability to search for and characterize cross-links. In a concept map the concepts should be represented in a hierarchical fashion with the most inclusive, most general concepts at the top of the map and the more specific, less general concepts arranged hierarchically below. Cmap - Theory underlying concept maps and how to construct them. Available a concept map tool (cost is a donation) 
Critique Detailed analysis and assessment of something, especially a literary, philosophical, or political theory. A careful judgment in which you give your opinion about the good and bad parts of something.   
Deeper Learning Deeper learning is an umbrella term for the skills and knowledge that students must possess to succeed in 21st century jobs and civic life. At its heart is a set of competencies students must master in order to develop a keen understanding of academic content and apply their knowledge to problems in the classroom and on the job. The deeper learning framework includes six competencies that are essential to prepare students to achieve at high levels. master core academic content, think critically and solve complex problems, communicate effectively, work collaboratively, learn how to learn, develop academic mindsets. The six deeper learning competencies: master core academic content, think critically and solve complex problems, communicate effectively, work collaboratively, learn how to learn, develop academic mindsets. The 50+ videos in this series showcase 10 Deeper Learning networks that are preparing students for success -- they collectively serve more than 500 schools and 227,000 students. 
Differentiated Instruction Differentiated instruction refers to providing instruction according to the different ability levels of the students in a classroom. I would expand this a little to include something about "providing instruction that offers students options in process (how they complete the assignment), content (what materials or curriculum they use to do the work), and product (how they demonstrate their understanding). It also implies that the teacher is personalizing and varying the instruction to meet the different ability levels and learning styles of students in a classroom."    
Effect Size d=  "'Effect size' is a statistical measure of the impact of an intervention on an outcome. Hattie shows that the average yearly effect of teaching in New Zealand in reading, mathematics, and writing from year 4 to year 13 is d=0.35. Effect sizes above 0.40 represent an improvement on business-as-usual and effect sizes of d=0.60 are considered large." – John Hattie, Visible Learning How to calculate effect sizes from published research: A simplified methodology Calculate effect size in excel, Cognition Education "How To" video 
Effect size r =  Effect size (ES) is a name given to a family of indices that measure the magnitude of a treatment effect. Unlike significance tests, these indices are independent of sample size. ES measures are the common currency of meta-analysis studies that summarize the findings from a specific area of research.There is a wide array of formulas used to measure ES. For the occasional reader of meta-analysis studies, like myself, this diversity can be confusing. One of my objectives in putting together this set of lecture notes was to organize and summarize the various measures of ES.  A summation of the various measures of ES. d and be converted to r and vice versa. For example, the d value of .8 corresponds to an r value of .371 and r^2 value of 0.138  
English-Spanish Education and Assessment Glossary, CA The English-Spanish Education and Assessment Glossary was developed by the California Department of Education (CDE) to encourage more consistent use of words and terminology that are commonly found in state and federal communication documents about assessment, education, and accountability. Its purpose has been, and continues to be, to ensure the consistency of documents the CDE produces for Spanish-speaking audiences, primarily parents and guardians. The CDE is now making this resource available to local educational agencies for the same purpose. Translation glossary developed by the California Department of Education.  
Epistemological beliefs Epistemological beliefs, which are personal traits, are the beliefs that individuals have in relation to the nature of knowledge and to acquiring the knowledge  An Evaluation of the Pattern between Students’ Motivation, Learning Strategies and Their Epistemological Beliefs: The Mediator Role of Motivation  
Error / Mistakes Errors are an important part of learning. the emphasis in schools must be on the process of learning, not solely the results.  Using the language of learning and welcoming error 
Errors / mistakes Errors and trust are welcomed as opportunities to learn, Visible Learning Effect size d=0.72  The Learning Process - explained by 5 yr. olds in NZ 
Errors / Mistakes  If students are afraid of mistakes, then they're afraid of trying something new, of being creative, of thinking in a different way. They're scared to raise their hands when they don't know the answer and their response to a difficult problem is to ask the teacher rather than try different solutions that might, gasp, be wrong. They're, "victims of excellence."  New Zealand Elementary Student describes the learning pit 
Errors / Mistakes elementary student describes why error is important to learning  the Learning Pit - Courtney describes 
Family Engagement Language Glossary Companion resource for the Family Engagement Framework (2014) for translation of words and terminology to Spanish.The English-Spanish Family Engagement Language Glossary was developed collaboratively by the California Department of Education (CDE) and WestEd to serve as a companion resource for the Family Engagement Framework (2014) and to encourage more consistent translation of words and terminology that commonly occur in communications about family engagement, including this framework. Modeled after the CDE's English-Spanish Education and Assessment Glossary (2013), its purpose is to ensure the consistency of documents the CDE produces for Spanish-speaking audiences, primarily parents and guardians. Companion resource for the Family Engagement Framework (2014) for translation of words and terminology to Spanish.  
Feedback Effect size feedback to teacher about their impact d=0.73 Expert teachers feedback to student and students feedback to teachers d=1.13 feedback provides formative assessment to the learner to support self-regulation and success in reaching learning goal. Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative. Feedback is about providing information regarding task performance. Feedback is more effective when it provides information on correct responses and builds on changes from previous trials.(thus reinforcing a growth mindset and creates a positive impact on learning). Expert teachers monitor student interaction with a given task; assess their level of understanding and progress, and provide relevant, precise, timely feedback(task performance, growth, effort). Feedback needs to help learner answer these questions: Where am I going? How am I progressing? Where do I go next? Teacher is open to feedback regarding what students know and understand, where they make errors, when they have misconceptions, and when they are disengaged, then they can respond accordingly. According to Hattie and Timperley (2007) feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative. They developed a model of effective feedback that identifies the particular properties and circumstances that make it work. Feedback on task, process and self regulation level is far more effective than on the Self-level (e.g. praise which contains no learning information).  Feedback - John Hattie talks about what feedback means 
Fluency Ability to recall and/or derive with ease and accuracy   
Formative assessment /evaluation Visible Learning Effect size d=0.90 Activity used as an assessment of learning progress before or during the learning process itself. Supports student’s self-regulation and success in application of content expertise. Refers to teachers attending to what is happening for each student in their classrooms as a result of their instruction—when teachers ask, “How am I doing?” Highest effects when teachers seek evidence on where students are not doing well. Smarter Balanced defines formative assessment as a deliberate process utilized by teachers and students during instruction to provide actionable feedback, which is then used to adjust ongoing teaching and learning strategies to improve students’ attainment of curricular learning targets/goals. The Formative Classroom 
Global Competence Global competence is the capacity and disposition to understand and act on issues of global significance Educating for Global Competence: Preparing Our Youth to Engage the World, CCSSO Asia Society Partnership for Global Learning, 2011  
Goal - Learning Goal The aim of learning goals is to acquire new knowledge or skills ( i.e., to increase one's ability)  Clarifying Achievement Goals and Their Impact, Heidi Grant and Carol S. Dweck. 2003  
Goal Orientation Goal Orientation generally refers to the reasons why students do what they do. Visible Learning d-0.56 Classroom Goal Structure, Student Motivation, and Academic Achievement. Meece, Anderman 2006  
Goal Setting Goal Setting tends to be concerned with what students are aiming for   
Goal structures Goal structures refer to the goal-related messages made salient in the classroom, including motivation climates   
Learning Progression “Learning progressions are descriptions of the successively more sophisticated ways of thinking about a topic that can follow one another as students learn about and investigate a topic over a broad span of time.” NRC (2007)Taking Science to School. Learning progressions can provide a schema for monitoring progress - matery of specific concepts and skills Novice to Expert, Developing meaningful assessments for learning, planning and modifying instruction(how to teach the standards) understanding the intent of grade-level standards) | "The step-by-step building blocks students are presumed to need in order to successfully attain a more distant, designated instructional outcome". (Popham, 2008) Progressions Documents for the Common Core Math Standards, K-12 Learning Progressions Frameworks Designed for Use with The Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts & Literacy K-12 , Hess 
Learning strategies Learning strategies are the behaviours and thoughts expected of learners during learning and influential in their process of encoding, and facilitating their learning. Learning strategies could be defined as learners’ displaying the efforts needed for their putting the new knowledge presented to them into mental processes and making sense of it, and thus constructing it in the learning-teaching process or in their individual activities (Tay, 2004, 2005).   
Literacy Capacities Are a portrait of the literate individual who exhibits with increasing fullness and regularity master of CCSS in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language. Literacy Capacities are to be taught, and practiced throughout the K-12 experience until they become “Habits of Mind”. Common Core State Standards Literacy Capacities   
Mastery Learning mastery learning programs did not become a prominent feature on the educational landscape until the 1960s. Two approaches became especially influential: Bloom's Learning for Mastery (LFM) and Keller's Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). In both LFM and PSI courses, material to be learned is divided into short units, and students take formative tests on each unit of material (Bloom, 1968; Keller, 1968). LFM and PSI differ in several respects, however. Lessons in LFM courses are teacher presented, and students move through these courses at a uniform, teacher-controlled pace. Lessons in PSI courses are presented largely through written materials, and students move through these lessons at their own rates. Students who fail unit quizzes in PSI courses must restudy material and take tests on the material until they are able to demonstrate mastery. Students who fail unit quizzes in LFM courses usually recieve individual or group tutorial elp on the unit before moving on to new material.  Effectiveness of Mastery Learning Programs: A Meta-Analysis  
Metacognition Awareness and understanding of one's own thought processes. Knowing about knowing. Metacognition has two parts; knowledge about cognition, and regulation of cognition. Includes self-monitoring, self-representation, and self-regulation processes.   
Metacognitive Strategies Visible Learning Effect size d=0.67 Meta-cognitive strategies refer to those “thinking about thinking” strategies: planning how to approach a learning task, evaluating progress, and monitoring comprehension. Self-questioning is another meta-cognitive strategy.   
mindframes (the 9 Mindframes for Visible Learning Educators) John Hattie in Visible Learning for Teachers, described "mind frames" or ways of thinking that toghether must underpin every action and decision in schools and systems. Educators who develop these ways of thinking are more likely to have major impacts on student learning.   John Hattie's 9 Mindframes for Visible Learning Educators, Cognition Education 
Motivation Activation to action. Level of motivation is reflected in choice of courses of action, and in the intensity and persistence of effort.   
MTSS In California, MTSS is an integrated, comprehensive framework that focuses on CCSS, core instruction, differentiated learning, student-centered learning, individualized student needs, and the alignment of systems necessary for all students’ academic, behavioral, and social success. California has a long history of providing numerous systems of support. These include the interventions within the RtI2 processes, supports for Special Education, Title I, Title III, support services for English Learners, American-Indian students, and those in gifted and talented programs. MTSS offers the potential to create needed systematic change through intentional design and redesign of services and supports that quickly identify and match the needs of all students. The California Department of Education's definition of Multi-Tiered System of Supports and a comparison between it and Response to Instruction and Intervention. Trish Shaffer is the Coordinator for Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) for the Washoe County School District (WCSD). In this talk, she discusses the practice and value of social and emotional learning.  
Piagetian Programs Visible Learning Effect size d=1.28 Focus on the thinking processes rather than the outcomes and do not impose the adult thinking process on to children. . The meta-study of Jordan and Brownlee (1981) that Hattie cites found that in primary school age there is a close correlation between the performance on Piagetian tests of the thinking level and achievement tests in mathematics and reading. Piaget's Stages of Development 
Pre-assessment An assessment that has the same concepts, skills, and knowledge as the post assessment. Used to determine what students know and understand at this moment in time. Teachers use this information to link new learning to what students already know and understand.    
Reciprocal Teaching Visible Learning, Effect Size d=0.74 Teaching cognitive strategies intended to lead to improved learning outcomes. Emphasis on teachers enabling students to learn and use strategies such as summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting. Dialogue between teacher and students around text. Students take turns as teacher and lead dialogue to bring meaning to written word with assistance to learn to monitor their own learning and thinking.   
Research - Action Research Action research at the classroom, school, or district levels offers possibilities for using formative assessment data to refine or “fill in gp g y a ps” in the existin g or “curricular” LPs. Collaborativel y analyzing data from ongoing classroom assessments provides a unique opportunity for teachers to develop a deeper understanding of how learning actually progresses. Teachers can “zoom in” for a closer look using formative assessment data with a much finer grain size and then “zoom out” a gain when usin g h l dd h g gg t he larger-graine d interim an d summative assessments t hat monitor progress over longer learning periods (Gong, 2008).   
Research - Cognitive Research Cognitive research provides descriptions of how learning generally occurs, such as Vygotsky’s ZPD/Zone of Proximal Development (1978).   
Research - Content Specific Content-specific research has uncovered indicators of how conceptual understanding typically develops for the content domain s ch as D i e ’s s nthesis of science lea ning and domain, s uch as D riv e r’s s ynthesis of science lea rning and common misconceptions (2002).   
Restorative Practices (RP) Restorative Practices (PR) = informal and formal processes that  precede a rule ‐ infraction. Processes aim to proactively build  relationships and a sense of community to prevent conflict and  wrongdoing (Wachtel, 2013). Restorative practice expand upon restorative justice in  the school setting and emphasize a preventative  approach. RP aims to promote support and connection, upold structure and accountability, integrate fair process and student voice. A Restorative Approach focuses on relationships, gives voice to the person harmed and the person who caused the harm, engages collaborative problem-solving, dialogue-based decision-making process, an agreed upon plan leads to actions aimed at repairing the harm done. SaferSanerSchools Whole-School Change Through Restorative Practices Video Examples 
Restorative Practices (RP)  Restorative Practices is a social science that studies how to build social capital, a network of relationships, and achieve social discipline through participatory learning and decision-making. RP includes informal and formal processes that precede wrongdoing, proactively build relationships and sense of community to prevent conflict and wrongdoing. Practices include affective statements and questions, small impromptu conference, group or circle, and formal conference (IIRP 2013).   
School Climate School climate is based on patterns of people’s experiences of school life and reflects norms, goals, values, interpersonal relationships, teaching and learning practices, and organizational structures.” (National School Climate Council, 2007, p.4). When considering the whole learner, school climate impacts a variety of factors that influence learning such as students' emotional health, feelings of safety, attendance, relationships, and motivation.    
Self-efficacy self-efficacy is "the belief in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to manage prospective situations." In other words, self-efficacy is a person’s belief in his or her ability to succeed in a particular situation. Bandura described these beliefs as determinants of how people think, behave, and feel (1994). Bandura and others have found that an individual’s self-efficacy plays a major role in how goals, tasks, and challenges are approached. People with a strong sense of self-efficacy: View challenging problems as tasks to be mastered Develop deeper interest in the activities in which they participate Form a stronger sense of commitment to their interests and activities Recover quickly from setbacks and disappointments Self-Efficacy, Albert Bandura, Stanford Univ. 1994  
Self-Regulation Exercise of influence over one's own motivation, thought processes, emotional states and patterns of behavior   
Social and Emotional Learning (SEL)  SEL is a process of acquiring knowledge and skills related to five core competencies: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, relationship skills, and responsible decision making (CASEL).   
Social Emotional Learning (SEL) Social Emotional Learning (SEL) is the process through which children and adults develop the fundamental skills for life effectiveness. These are the skills we all need to handle ourselves, our relationships and our work effectively and ethically. In OUSD, we believe everyone strengthening their social skills and competencies enhances our ability to connect across race, class, culture, language, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, learning needs and age. SEL skills and competencies need to be taught and developed in our students and modeled by adults in classrooms and schools and throughout our system. SEL is not separate from academic learning but, in fact, is critical to the transition to and effectiveness of developing the conditions to engaging instructional practices needed to teach academic content through the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards. The five SEL skills and competencies are: Self-awareness, self management, social awareness, relationship skills, responsible decision making Social Emotional Learning & leadership Development Office, Oakland School District  
Spaced Practice / Deliberate Spaced Practice Deliberate Spaced Practice is not “drill and practice” rather, it is an opportunity to experience what is to be learned in different ways. It increases the rate of correct academic responses to deliberative practice opportunities until minimal levels of mastery and fluency, defined by success criteria, are met. “ It takes three or four experiences involving interaction with relevant information for a new knowledge construct to be created in working memory and then transferred to long-term memory” (Nuthall, 200, p. 93) Deliberate Spaced Practice includes frequency of different learning opportunities that extend and/or provide multiple learning experiences: ● principles of challenge/rigorous tasks ● provides contextual variability to facilitate transfer of learning ● embeds the context of deeper and conceptual understands ● correct proportion of surface to deep learning (varies with individual and task) ● involves specific skills and complex performances ● Increases opportunities to acquire, enhance, and retain of skills, concepts, and knowledge. The effectiveness of length of spacing is related to the complexity and challenge of the tasks. Longer rest periods needed for more complex tasks (at least 24 hours or more). Deliberate Spaced Practice is the common denominator to other influences on learning such as: direct instruction, peer-tutoring, mastery learning, feedback.    
Standards for Mathematical Practice Describe varieties of expertise that educators seek to develop in their students. Mathematical Practices are to be taught, and practiced throughout the K-12 experience until they become “Habits of Mind”. 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 3. construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 4. Model with Mathematics. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for and make use of structure. 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practice  
Student Expectation of Self / High Expectations /Self-reported grading Visible Learning, Effect Size d=1.44 Refers to students’ expectations for and beliefs in themselves. Involves students predicting or self-reporting their grades. Implications: teachers need to provide opportunities for students to be involved in predicting their performance. “Making the learning intentions and success criteria transparent, having high, but appropriate, expectations, and providing feedback at the appropriate levels is critical to building confidence in taking on challenging tasks.” This learning strategy involves the teacher finding out what are the student’s expectations and pushing the learner to exceed these expectations. Once a student has performed at a level that is beyond their own expectations, he or she gains confidence in his or her learning ability. John Hattie : Children are the most accurate when predicting how they will perform: so where does that leave us? 
Student Mental Health Mental Health is the successful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with other people, and the ability to adapt to change and to cope with adversity (U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services, 2001).   
Success Criteria Visible Learning, Effect size d=0.77 The power of moving from what students know now towards explicit criteria that defines success / desired learning outcome   
Summative assessment Evaluates what students know or have learned at the end of the teaching, after all is done   
Teacher as Change Agent Teacher believes they can make a difference, that their fundamental role is to help ALL students succeed and exceed their own expectation. Teacher believes that student intellect, behavior, attitude, skills are malleable.   John Hattie: Teachers As Change Agents 
Teacher clarity Visible Learning, Effect Size d=0.75 A teacher explains learning goals clearly and ensures that student(s) understand. The student can both explain the learning goal in their own words as well as self-regulate their progress in achieving the learning target. Hattie defines teacher clarity quoting the (unpublished) work of Fendick (1990) as “organization, explanation, examples and guided practice, and assessment of student learning — such that clarity of speech was a prerequisite of teacher clarity.” (Hattie 2009, 126) One of the main points of Hattie’s books about Visible Learning is the importance to clearly communicate the intentions of the lessons and the success criteria. Clear learning intentions describe the skills, knowledge, attitudes and values that the student needs to learn. Teachers need to know the goals and success criteria of their lessons, know how well all students in their class are progressing, and know where to go next. Success Criteria: Setting Goals to Improve Student Learning 
Teacher credibility in the eyes of the students Visible Learning, Effect Size d=0.90 “If a teacher is not perceived as credible, the students just turn off. If a student doesn’t get (the value of education) by the age of 8, they are behind for most of the rest of their school life. Students are very perceptive about knowing which teachers can make a difference to their learning. And teachers who command this credibility are most likely to make the difference.”   
Teachers as evaluators of their impact on Student Learning Visible Learning, Effect Size d-0.93 Teachers, work together, as evaluators of their impact on student learning.  John Hattie; Why So Many of Our Schools are So Successful 
Teacher-student relationships Visible Learning, Effect Size d=0.72 ”Building relationships implies agency, efficacy, respect by the teacher for what the student brings to the class (from home, culture, and peers) and recognition of the life of the student.”   
Theory of Change The term “theory of change” is used widely and can mean different things to different people. Theories of change can have different characteristics, terminology or levels of sophistication. However, most would agree that a theory of change is a summary of the hypotheses that explain how and why the things you do will lead to the change that you seek to generate, that is, why what you do will work. A theory of change allows you to detect 1) what went right when a project or organization achieves its expected outcomes and what wrong when that does not occur and 2) how to adjust along the way. It is a living document that can be adjusted as learning takes place about what works and doesn’t work. Suggested Guidelines for Creating a Theory of Change, in English and Spanish  
Visible Learning John Hattie's work Visible Learning analyzes what has the   John Hattie, Building Connections and Cohesion, Festival of Education, Auckland, May 2014 
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