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Research and Resources to Support LCAP Goals
The work of the Professional Learning Team (PLC) is to analyzes quantitative and qualitative evidence of "students' progress in their learning" to determine what "influences" (i.e., reciprocal teaching, feedback, classroom discussion...)  work best in activating students' achievement of a specific learning goal. The PLC reviews the "influences" they have implemented during a given period of time, which of these "influences" have a significant effect on learning (effect size > d=0.40), and which "influences" effects have had little impact (effect size < d=0.40).  Lastly, the PLC determines which high yield "influences" they will systematically infuse into their practice. 

How to determine effect size to determine progress of student learning:  The PLC administers a Pre and Post Assessment(s) at the beginning and end of a given time frame to better understand and make visible student learning progress over time which is composed of a variety of Visible Learning "influences" (i.e., reciprocal teaching, feedback, classroom discussion...)

"Effect size' is a statistical measure of the impact of an "influence" on an outcome. John Hattie shows that the average yearly effect of teaching in New Zealand in reading, mathematics, and writing from year 4 to year 13 is d=0.35. Effect sizes above 0.40 represent an improvement on business-as-usual and effect sizes of d=0.60 are considered large."  Additional things to consider when reviewing the studies in the list below - 1. it depends who is calculating the effect size. 2. it depends on the measure. 3. sample size makes a big difference. 

Video: how to calculate effect size

How to compare research/studies by converting the measures, d can be converted to r and vice versa. For example, the d value of .8 corresponds roughly to an r value of .371

Please note: In the new regulations for LCAP 2015-16, districts with unduplicated counts of 55% or below need to provide evidence based strategies for meeting the needs of their students. 
Showing 365 items
Influences on AchievementThe ResearchEffect Size d=Comments
Influences on AchievementThe ResearchEffect Size d=Comments
Priority #1: Basic Services Uniform Complaint Procedures  he responsibilities of the complainant, the local educational agency, and the California Department of Education according to California Code of Regulations, Title 5, sections 4600-4687. 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards Common Core Mathematics Framework  All students, including English Language Learners, have access to school programs and services that are aligned with California’s academic content and performance standards. 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards The English Language Arts/English Language Development (ELA/ELD) Framework   All students, including English Language Learners, have access to school programs and services that are aligned with California’s academic content and performance standards. 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards California CCSS English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects  All students, including English Language Learners, have access to school programs and services that are aligned with California’s academic content and performance standards. 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards CCSS English Language Arts Appendices A-C. Common Core State Standards Initiative.  All students, including English Language Learners, have access to school programs and services that are aligned with California’s academic content and performance standards 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards English Language Development Standards, 2012  All students, including English Language Learners, have access to school programs and services that are aligned with California’s academic content and performance standards. 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards Career Technical Education (Updated January 2013 Prepublication Version)  All students, including English Language Learners, have access to school programs and services that are aligned with California’s academic content and performance standards. 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards Model School Library Standards, Adopted September 2010  All students, including English Language Learners, have access to school programs and services that are aligned with California’s academic content and performance standards. 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards Visual and Performing Arts, Adopted January 2001  All students, including English Language Learners, have access to school programs and services that are aligned with California’s academic content and performance standards. 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards Physical Education Model Content Standards, Adopted Jan-2005  All students, including English Language Learners, have access to school programs and services that are aligned with California’s academic content and performance standards. 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards History-Social Science, Adopted October 1998  All students, including English Language Learners, have access to school programs and services that are aligned with California’s academic content and performance standards. 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards Health Education Content Standards March 2008  All students, including English Language Learners, have access to school programs and services that are aligned with California’s academic content and performance standards. 
Priority #7: Course Access California Department of Education Frameworks  All students, regardless of what school they attend or where they live, have the opportunity to access a broad course of study in required subject areas in English, mathematics, social science, science, visual and performing arts, health, physical education, career and technical education and others 
Priority #6: School Climate – Social Emotional Healthy Minds, School Climate Improvement  A Gist List of Research on Impact of School Climate on Students, School Improvement, Staff, etc. A second research summary of research from Nat. School Climate Center  
Priority #6: School Climate – Social Emotional - Importance of School-based Student Mental Health Services  Removing Barriers to Learning and Improving Student Outcomes: The Importance of School-Based Mental Health Services. American Counseling Association, American School Counselor Association, National Association of School Psychologists, School Social Work Association of America  This brief includes: School mental health services are integral to student success., Research, growing and unmet need, integrated with community services, crisis events, quality services, wise investment... 
Priority #6: School Climate – Social Emotional - School Psychologists Improving Student and School Outcomes, National Association of School Psychologists  Achieving excellence in education for the 21st Century requires that every student is ready to learn and every teacher is empowered to teach. School psychologists work with students, educators, and families to support the academic achievement, positive behavior, and mental wellness of all students, especially those who struggle with barriers to learning. School psychologists help schools and families address some of our biggest challenges in education: improving and individualizing instruction to close the achievement gap; increasing graduation rates and preventing dropouts; creating safe, positives school climates and preventing violence; providing meaningful accountability; and strengthening family–school partnerships (NASP, 2008).... 
Priority #6: School Climate – Social Emotional  National Alliance of Specialized Instructional Support Personnel Effective Specialized Instructional Support Services Research Brief , May 2013  This brief includes research regarding: Art Therapy Services, Dance/Movement Therapy Services, Music Therapy Services, Occupational Therapy Services, School psychological services, school counseling services, school social worker services, school nurse services, speech-language pathology services,  
Priority #6: School Climate – Social Emotional - Mental Health Research on the Relationship Between Mental Health and Academic Achievement. NASP, 2012  NASP's list of research including annotation 
Priority #6: School Climate- Social Emotional NASP Effective School Discipline Policy and Practice: Supporting Student Learning  Selected Supporting Research: fair and consistent discipline, PBIS, Social and Emotional Development, School-Based mental health services, school-employed specialized instructional support personnel, zero tolerance policies, suspension, expulsion, and office disciplinary referrals,  
Priority #6: School Climate - Social Emotional - Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. Preventing Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People: Progress and Possibilities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2009.  Proventions research, scope of prevention, family, school, and community interventions, advances in prevention methodology. Prevention practices have emerged in a variety of settings, including programs for selected at-risk populations (such as children and youth in the child welfare system), school-based interventions, interventions in primary care settings, and community services designed to address a broad array of mental health needs and populations. 
Priority #6: School Climate - Social Emotional Jennings, T. (2009). "The Importance of Teacher Social and Emotional Competence" (article published in AERA Social-Emotional Learning SIG Newsletter):  The prosocial classroom model 
Priority #6: School Climate - Social Emotional AERA, The Importance of Teacher Social and Emotional Competence  highlights the importance of teachers’ social and emotional competence (SEC) and well-being to their ability to provide social, emotional, and instructional support to their students. The paper reviews current research suggesting a relationship between SEC and teacher burnout and reviews intervention efforts to support teachers’ SEC through stress reduction and mindfulness programs. 
Priority #6: School Climate - Social Emotional Cohen, J. (2006). Social, Emotional, Ethical, and Academic Education: Creating a Climate for Learning, Participation in Democracy, and Well-Being. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Review, 76:2.   Argues that the goals of education need to be reframed to prioritize not only academic learning, but also social, emotional, and ethical competencies. Surveying the current state of research in the fields of social-emotion education, character education, and school-based mental health in the US. Suggests that social-emotional skills, knowledge, and dispositions provide the foundation for participation in a democracy and improved quality of life. Discusses contemporary best practices and policy in relation to creating safe and caring school climates, home school partnerships, and a pedagogy informed by social emotional and ethical concerns.  
Priority #6: School Climate - Social Emotional Elias, M. (2012). Leading the Way in Social, Emotional, and Character Development Standards. Edutopia,, May 14, 2013  In 2012, Kansas became the first state to create and adopt a set of social, emotional, and character development (SECD) standards. These standards have been aligned with the Kansas Common Core Curriculum Standards, College and Career Readiness, 21st century skills, and other state and federal mandates. The policy, passed by the Kansas Board of Education, is organized around three domains, which I summarize below along with their definitions and focal skills: Social development, character development, personal develoment 
Priority #6: School Climate - Social Emotional  Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Hymel, S. (2008). Educating the heart as well as the mind: Why social and emotional learning is critical for students school and life success. Education Canada, 47, 20-25.  The research shows that we cannot and should not seperate how we feel from teaching or learning. it makes the case for SEL in schools clear. Because social and emotional factors play such an important role schools must attend to this aspect of the educational process fro the benefit of all students. Article includes further research for social emotional learning 
Priority #6: School Climate - Social Emotional The Economic Value of Social and Emotional Learning, Feb. 2015, Center for Benefit-Cost Studies in Education Teachers College, Columbia University  Research, benefit maps for evaluation - show impacts consistent measures, overlap or confounding across impacts. Recommend more attention to the wider benefits of SEL.  
Priority #6: School Climate - Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports Academic Achievement and School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports, Gage, Sugai, Lewis, 2013  SWPBIS with or without fidelity and control schools were found for academic achievement, including reading and math. The results of the state-level longitudinal study confirm these findings. The results of this study suggest that SWPBIS alone does not affect school-level academic achievement as measured by summative state high stakes tests. SWPBIS is an evidence-based practice for addressing school-wide problem behavior. However, SWPBIS alone does not change school-level academic achievement. This contradictor findings in this study suggests that research and practice should work to combine academic and behavioral models to increase the likelihood of increasing school-level academic achievement 
Priority #6: School Climate - Positive Behavior Support (PBS) Is School-wide Positive Behavior Support An Evidence-based Practice? March 2009  PBIS is not a packaged curriculum, but an approach that defines core elements that can be achieved through a variety of strategies 
Priority #6: School Climate – Social Emotional CASEL Guide: Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning School-wide social and emotional skills programming  Effective Social and Emotional Learning Programs: The CASEL Guide provides a systematic framework for evaluating the quality of classroom-based social and emotional learning programs and applies this framework to rate and identify well-designed, evidence-based SEL programs with potential for broad dissemination to schools across the United States. The Guide also shares best-practice guidelines for district and school teams on how to select and implement SEL programs. Finally, it offers recommendations for future priorities to advance SEL research, practice and policy.  
Priority #6: School Climate – Intervention for Drug Abuse Winters, K.C., et al. Brief intervention for drug-abusing adolescents in a school setting: Outcomes and mediating factors. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 42(3):279–288, 2012  Brief Intervention Helps Adolescents Curb Substance Use 
Priority #6: School Climate – Restorative Justice Restorative justice Online  Restorative justice emphasizes repairing the harm caused by crime. When victims, offenders and community members meet to decide how to do that, the results can be transformational. 
Priority #6: School Climate Forward Thinking/Reflective Journaling, The Change companies  The Forward Thinking Interactive Journaling® Series was developed in collaboration with the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, Division of Juvenile Justice's Interactive Journaling® Charter. Special thanks to the charter members and the subject matter experts who contributed to the content and development of the series. Forward Thinking/Reflective Journaling -curriculum to address anger management, social and emotional issues through journaling and curriculum 
Priority #6: School Climate  Metrics: As measured by multiple indicators, including but not limited to, pupil suspension rates, and expulsion rates, other local measures including surveys of pupils, teachers, and parents on sense of safety and school connectedness. School climate promotes success of all students. School climate means factors that impact student success. This includes student health, safety and discipline as well as how connected all students feel to their school. (School connectedness, Positive Behavior, Safe Environment) 
Priority #7: Course Access  Metrics: May use master schedules, course enrollment records, student/parent surveys All students, regardless of what school they attend or where they live, have the opportunity to access a broad course of study in required subject areas in English, mathematics, social science, science, visual and performing arts, health, physical education, career and technical education and others. 
Priority #1: Basic Services  All students have access to teachers who are fully credentialed in their subject areas, instructional materials aligned with state standards, and safe, properly maintained school facilities. All students have access to teachers who are fully credentialed in their subject areas, instructional materials aligned with state standards, and safe, properly maintained school facilities. 
Priority #1: Basic Services Williams Settlement  Impact of the Williams case settlement on the School Accountability Report Card (SARC). 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement - Middle School Parental Involvement in Middle School: A Meta-Analytic Assessment of the Strategies That Promote Achievement, Hill and Tyson, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University. 2009 ranged from d= −0.49 to d=0.73 In summary, parental involvement is positively related to achievement in middle school. Further, parental involvement characterized as academic socialization has the strongest and most positive relation and helping with homework has the strongest negative association with achievement. Other types of home-based and school-based involvement demonstrated significant positive relations with achievement. However, the strength of these relations was more moderate. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement - Secondary School The Relationship Between parental Involvement and Urban Secondary School Student Academic Achievement: a Meta-Analysis. Jeynes, CSULB, 42, 82-110 Specific Aspects of Parental Involvement range d=0.88 to d=0.32 Positive effects of parent involvement on both grades and standardized test scores.  
Priority #6: School Climate The California School Climate, Health, and Learning Survey (CAL-SCHLS) System comprises three interrelated surveys developed for and supported by the California Department of Education: The California Healthy Kids Survey (CHKS) The California School Climate Survey (CSCS) for staff The California School Parent Survey (CSPS), WestEd  These surveys provide schools and districts with critical information about the learning and teaching environment, the health and well-being of students, and supports for parents, school staff, and students that foster learning and school success. When used together, data from these three surveys help assess the needs, concerns, and successes of the whole school community – teachers, students, and parents - and allow schools and districts to compare perceptions about the status of these areas across stakeholder groups 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement Harvard Family Research Project. (2014) Let’s talk transition! Family engagement during the transition to school [Online Discussion Board].  This discussion board is part of FINE Interactive— a component of Harvard Family Research Project’s (HFRP) Family Involvement Network of Educators (FINE). We launched this board as a follow-up activity to our December 2013 issue on “Innovative Approaches to Preparing and Training Educators for Family Engagement.” Christine Patton, Senior Research Analyst at HFRP, has teamed up with Shannon Wanless, Director of the SEED Lab in the Department of Psychology in Education at the University of Pittsburgh and co-author of a FINE article on PD, to host this discussion board. We welcome educators and administrators who serve children ages 4-6 and who have a transition-specific family engagement goal. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement Caspe, M. (2014). Bridging worlds: Family engagement in the transition to kindergarten   this teaching case, “Bridging Worlds: Family Engagement in the Transition to Kindergarten,” calls attention to the powerful impact that adults’ feelings, assumptions, and expectations have on a young child’s learning and development. In other words, the case makes visible the too-often invisible aspects of family engagement. Making the invisible visible. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement Starkie, B. (2013). Data sharing through parent portals: An exploration of parental motivation, data use, and the promise of prolonged parent involvement. Family Involvement Network of Educators (FINE) Newsletter, 5(2).  Internet-based SIS parent portals offer a means of bridging the well-documented communication gap between the home and the school. They allow schools to provide parents with a range of meaningful data about their child’s progress on an ongoing basis. Data sharing in this capacity offers much promise as a vehicle to potentially increase and sustain parent involvement and to improve learning. With further research, as well as with the commitment of time, training, and resources, portals can help educators and families build a strong home-school alliance around learning. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement Early Learning Math at Home: Helping Your Children—Birth to Age Five—Learn and Enjoy Mathematics  This booklet offers ideas and resources to support parents/families as they introduce their young children to mathematics through play and everyday experiences. Practical, no-cost ideas make learning math fun. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement Seeing is Believing: Promising Practices for How Schools Promote Family Engagement  Spotlights how six school districts across the country have used innovative strategies to create and sustain family engagement “systems at work.” The findings point to three core components of these successful systems: creating district-wide strategies, building school capacity, and reaching out to and engaging families. It highlights promising practices to ensure quality, oversight, and impact from family engagement efforts, and proposes a set of recommendations for how federal, state, and local policies can promote district-level family engagement efforts that support student learning 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement The power of parents, Research Underscores the impact of parent involvement in schools, EdSource Report, 2014  This report presents a review of the vast research on the value and impact of parent engagement on their child’s academic performance, especially as it relates to the California experience. The report offers highlights of research findings, information on LCFF’s priority for parent involvement, and numerous resources to support schools with implementing best practices to increase parent engagement. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement - Secondary School The Family Engagement for High School Success Toolkit: Planning and implementing an initiative to support the pathway to graduation for at-risk students, 2011  The Family Engagement for High School Success Toolkit is designed to support at-risk high school students by engaging families, schools, and the community. Created in a joint effort by United Way Worldwide (UWW) and Harvard Family Research Project (HFRP) as part of the Family Engagement for High School Success (FEHS) initiative, the toolkit has two parts: Part 1 focuses on the comprehensive planning that goes into the development of a family engagement initiative. Part 2 focuses on the early implementation process. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement California State PTA – Family Engagement  CA PTA believe parents are children’s first teachers and that parent involvement is essential throughout a child’s educational experience. We believe that family is the basic unit of society responsible for the support and nurturing of all children, and we recognize that “the family” may be defined in many ways. We believe our responsibility includes advocating for the safety and welfare of all children and the opportunity for a quality public education for each child. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement National Coalition for Parent Involvement in Education  The evidence is in: when schools and families work together to support learning, everyone benefits. Students do better in school and in life. Parents become empowered. Teacher morale improves. Schools get better. Communities grow stronger. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – Foster Youth CAST, Research and Development  As part of its mission to bust all barriers to learning, CAST researches and develops innovative solutions to make education more inclusive and effective. We do so by applying the principles of Universal Design for Learning, a framework rooted in the learning sciences. CAST routinely partners with leading research organizations, institutions of higher education, corporations, and foundations to pursue this work. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – Foster Youth Foster Youth, DREDF  Educational needs of foster youth with disabilities to be funded by the US Department of Education opened its doors. DREDF’s Foster Youth Resources for Education (FYRE) trains and provides follow up technical assistance and advocacy support to foster caregivers, family members... 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – Foster Youth Child & Family Policy Institute of California  Policy Briefs regarding Foster Youth 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – Foster Youth California Foster Youth Education Task Force, PreK-12 and Beyond  The California Foster Youth Education Task Force (CFYETF) is dedicated to improving educational outcomes for foster youth in California. The Task Force was created in 2004 to address critical issues related to foster youth education. Subject matter experts representing more than 35 organizations and agencies, together with grassroots stakeholders, work together on the Task Force to improve the disparate educational outcomes for students in foster care.  
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – Foster Youth Foster Ed Connect  A site for all people helping children and youth in California's foster care system succeed in school 
Priority #5: Pupil Engagement – Truancy Prevention Attendance Works, Truancy Reduction Program – Office of Criminal Justice Program Best Practice  Attendance Works is a national and state initiative that promotes better policy and practice around school attendance. 
Priority #5: Pupil Engagement – Truancy Prevention Dropout Prevention, Institute of Education Sciences, IES  IES Dropout Prevention publications & products: Three Tier Evidence-Based Approach Data tools for tracking chronic absence US Department of Education drop-out prevention and intervention strategies 
Priority #5: Pupil Engagement – Truancy Prevention Dropout Prevention Evidence Review Protocol, IES, March 2014  Topic area reviews studies on middle school, junior high school, and high school programs, community–based interventions designed to help students stay in school, progress in school, complete school.… 
Priority #5: Pupil Engagement – Health Services Coordinated School Health (CSH Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  School Coordinated Health –Coordinated School Health (CSH) is recommended by CDC as a strategy for improving students' health and learning in our nation’s schools. These pages outline the rationale and goals for CSH, provide a model framework for planning and implementing CSH, and offer resources to help schools, districts, and states improve their school health programs. 
Priority #5: Pupil Engagement – Truancy Prevention CSBA Sample Board Policy Chronic Absence and Trunancy  California School boards Association sample policy 
Priority #5: Pupil Engagement – Truancy Prevention Attendance Works free data tools for calculating chronic absence  Many schools, districts, and communities are interested in analyzing their attendance data for the first time to see if missing school is a significant problem. To simplify the process, Attendance Works has partnered with Applied Survey Research to develop self-calculating spreadsheets for school districts called the District Attendance Tracking Tools (DATTs). These tools are especially effective for smaller districts with more limited data capacity. The companion tools are the School Attendance Tracking Tools (SATTs) which provides school-level analysis down to the individual student level. 
Priority #1: Basic Services – Class Size Do low attaining and younger students benefit most from small classes? Results from a systematic observation study of class size effects on pupil classroom engagement and teacher pupil interaction, UK 2008  Perhaps the main implication of this study is that smaller classes can benefit all pupils in terms of individual, active attention from teachers, but that the lower attaining pupils in particular can benefit from small classes at secondary level. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 - Literacy Literacy 6-12, Improving Adolescent Literacy: effective classroom and Intervention Practices: IES Practice Guide - What Works Clearinghouse  Goal of this practice guide is to present specific and coherent evidence-based recommendations that educators can use to improve literacy levels among adolescents in upper elementary, middle, and high school 
Priority # 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 – Deeper Learning Alliance for Excellent Education, A Time for Deeper Learning: Preparing Students for a Changing World, Policy Brief, 2011  This brief examines deeper learning—the knowledge and skills all students need to succeed in college, a career, and life—and explains its necessity and analyzes the growing body of global evidence supporting its widescale implementation. 
Priority # 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 – Deeper Learning Does Deeper Learning Improve Student Outcomes? Results From the Study of Deeper Learning: Opportunities and Outcomes. American Institutes for Research,   AIR analyzed data for students who attended well implementing network schools and students in comparison schools in California and New York to assess the outcomes of deeper learning strategies and structures. After accounting statistically for differences in student background characteristics, researchers identi!ed the following results: Test scores, interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, on-time high school graduation, college enrollment 
Priority # 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 – Deeper Learning Deeper learning for All - 500 Exemplar Schools  More than 500 schools around the country are currently implementing deeper learning. They are proof points—examples that show deeper learning can improve student outcomes. They are getting results by creating dynamic learning environments that enable students to develop a deep understanding of core content and can use that knowledge to solve problems, think critically, communicate effectively, and be self-reflective about their learning. These schools are part of ten school networks, each of which has its own set of principles about organizing schools. For that reason, the schools are not the same—there is no one approach to deeper learning. What they share is a commitment to a broader set of outcomes for young people than conventional approaches to schooling provide. 
Priority # 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 – Deeper Learning Academic Motivation and School Engagement and Their Links to Academic Achievement, Hewlett Foundation, 2012  The Hewlett Foundation’s Education Program recently added Deeper Learning practices and policies to its strategic plan. Deeper Learning refers to the content students learn as well as the strategies they use to synthesize and apply new knowledge. In this paper, I review evidence from key studies documenting the extent to which students’ beliefs and attitudes serve as the requisite building blocks for Deeper Learning. Includes logic model which positions deeper learning as the catalyst that launches stduents on a pathway toward productive citizenship.  
Priority #7: Course Access Multiple Pathways to Student Success: Envisioning the New California High School (California Department of Education, 2010)  Core components of each pathway. Essential characteristics of high-quality programs. Wide latitude in design options. Establish a Multiple Pathways Advisory Board and Establish the Multiple Pathways Approach as Foundational to High School Improvement. Establish a Transformational High Schools Pilot Program. Consolidate Career Technical Education. 
Priority #1-8 A Blueprint For Great Schools Report, 2011  • Accountability and School Improvement • Curriculum and Assessment • Early Childhood/Preschool • Education Supports and Parent/Community Involvement • Educator Quality • Facility/Construction Reform • Finance Reform and Efficiency • Higher Education and Secondary Alignment 
Priority #1: Basic Services Hattie, J. (2008). Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.  Adding for finances d=0.23 "Educational structures and working conditions have mainly indirect or probabilistic effects on student learning. That is, the effects of these structures (e.g., tracking, class size, school mix, finances) are mediated by an array of instructional and peer processes. The presence or otherwise of these kinds of structures can change the probability that these processes occur (Which then influences student learning). ..Hence, the claim is that the school and class compositional effects, at best, change probabilities that successful learning conditions can be constructed." (p. 244) 
Priority #1-8 John Hattie, Building Connections and Cohesion, Festival of Education, Auckland. May 2014 YouTube Video - 1.04.35 minutes  High Recommend watching. John Hattie gives his thoughts on the educational system and what to emphasis. As John Hattie says, "Our job is to help students exceed their own expectations"  
Priority #6: School Climate - Social & Emotional Learning SEL resources for Learning by Heart: Social and Emotional Learning in Secondary Schools   What would it take to weave social and emotional learning (SEL) into the daily fabric of our nation’s high schools? What distinct practices, programs, and structures help schools embed SEL into ongoing teaching and learning? How does this vary from school to school, in response to the conditions that make that school unique, that shape its climate? What formal and informal measures do schools use to assess the impact of social and emotional learning on student success? For the past year, with support from the NoVo Foundation, WKCD's research arm has asked these questions and more as part of an in-depth investigation of social and emotional learning in U.S. secondary schools--where the documentation is scant. We've parsed the existing research to clarify what's meant by "social and emotional learning" (SEL) and why it matters. We've studied effective practices in five American high schools that, by their own design, put social-emotional learning at their core. We've created multimedia to capture the authentic voices and experiences of students in these schools. And we've assembled selected SEL resources for educators. - See more at: 
Priority #6: School Climate - Social & Emotional Learning Executive Summary: Learning by Heart The Power of Social-Emotional Learning in Secondary Schools  This report provides Elements and Practices: A web of structural supports, intentional community, a culture of respect, participation, and reflection, a commitment to restorative practices, curriculum of connection and engagement, focus on developing agency 
Priority #1: Basic Services – Teaching Force California's Teaching Force 2010, Key Issues and Trends, The Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, SRI International  Recommendations from the Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning: 1. Establish an equitable, adequate, and simplified K–12 school funding formula that provides for the continuous improvement of teaching and learning. 4. Provide a well-prepared, effective, and caring teacher for each and every student.  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Active Education/Physical Activity Physically Active and Fit Children Perform Better in School, Fact Sheet and research 2012  Fact sheet highlights findings from research brief, Active Education; Physical Education, Physical Activity and Academic Performance.  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Active Education/Physical Activity Making the Connection: Linking Academic Achievement to Policies to Promote Physical Activity, 2011  This brief discusses policy recommendations that promote academic achievement by incorporating physical activity in school-aged children K-12. Children who perform better on physical capacity tests are more likely to receive higher reading and math scores, even when the added time for physical activity takes away from time in the classroom. Intensive physical activity programs in schools can improve cognitive skills and attitudes, including concentration, attention and classroom behavior. Improve the quality and amount of physical education and physical activity in schools. Provide opportunities for students to engage in physical activity outside of classroom time. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Active Education/Physical Activity Active Education: Growing Evidence on Physical Activity and Academic Performance, Research Briefs and Syntheses 2015  This research brief reviews evidence that examines how physical activity and fitness may help school-aged children maximize their academic performance, and provides an overview of the effects of physical activity on the developing brain. KEY FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Regular participation in physical activity has academic performance benefits. Single sessions of physical activity can enhance attention and memory. The effects of physical activity on brain health may explain improvements in academic performance. Educators, administrators and parents should thoughtfully integrate physical activity across the curriculum throughout the school day to facilitate learning for all students. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Active Education/Physical Activity Active Education: Growing Evidence on Physical Activity and Academic Performance, 2015  This research brief reviews evidence that examines how physical activity and fitness may help school-aged children maximize their academic performance, and provides an overview of the effects of physical activity on the developing brain. KEY FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Regular participation in physical activity has academic performance benefits. Single sessions of physical activity can enhance attention and memory. The effects of physical activity on brain health may explain improvements in academic performance. Educators, administrators and parents should thoughtfully integrate physical activity across the curriculum throughout the school day to facilitate learning for all students. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Concept Mapping Nesbit, J.C. & Adesope, O.O. (2006). Learning with concept and knowledge maps: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 76(3), 413-448. Effects were larger for concept mapping when compared to lectures or discussions on topic d=0.74. Higher effects when students were made to construct d=0.81, rather than just study concept maps d=0.37 Lower when asking students to construct a concept map to simply outline the topic d=0.19  Found greater effects when the emphasis was on understanding the central rather than the detailed ideas of the topic being mapped. It is the heuristic process of organizing and synthesizing that is the important feature. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Concept Mapping Assessing Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Toward Charismatic Megafauna: The Case of Dolphins, 2005 d=0.57 With respect to their knowledge, our participants depicted relatively simple concept maps, illustrating the salient dimensions of structural complexity and content validity, which grew progressively more sophisticated with increasing age and educational exposure. Experts were significantly more likely to depict scientifically acceptable knowledge, research strategies, and conservation efforts. In general, these differences in knowledge and attitudes were also reflected in participants' behavior toward dolphins. Our most knowledgeable and environmentally responsible participants were much less likely to engage in disruptive or potentially harmful harassment behavior. For environmental educators and researchers, these findings have several practical implications. Most important, they suggest that significant harassment behavior is related in complex ways to knowledge and attitudes in a predictable manner. 
Priority # 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 – Deeper Learning ASCD Education Update, Planning for Processing Time Yields Deeper Learning Pages 1-6,7. August 2013 | Volume 55 | Number 8   Planning for Processing Time Yields Deeper Learning. Why Think Time? How to Build in Think Time,  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Feedback Hattie, J. (2008). Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, NY: Routledge. d=0.73 Hattie points out that in education most things work, more or less. The questions are around those things that work best and therefore best repay the effort invested. Hattie analyzed a total of about 800 meta-analyses, encompassing 52,637 studies, 146,142 effect sizes, and millions of students (p. 15). According to Hattie, the simplest prescription for improving teaching is to provide "dollops of feedback." Providing students with feedback had the largest effect size on learning of any intervention studied. "Mistake I was making was seeing feedback as something teachers provided to students". " It was only when I discovered that feedback was most powerful when it is from the student to the teacher" (p. 173). When teachers seek, or at least are open to, feedback from students as to what students know, what they understand, where they make errors, when they have misconceptions, when they are not engaged - then teaching and learning can be synchronized and powerful.  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Feedback and Personalized System of Instruction Chase, J. A., & Houmanfar, R. (2009). The differential effects of elaborate feedback and basic feedback on student performance in a modified, personalized system of instruction course. Journal of Behavioral Education, 18(3), 245-265.  d=0.53 Results of this sutdy suggest that providng students with elaborate feedback can have a significant impact on performance in a large-enrollment course. Procedure introduced in this investigation enables an instructor to provide every student with immediate, individualized, and elaborate feedback regarding their performance  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Goals / Commitment and Goal Setting Process Goal Commitment and the Goal-Setting Process: Conceptual Clarifications and Empirical Synthesis, Klein, Alge, Wesson, Hollenbeck. 1999 d=0.47 Goal commitment had a strong positive effect on performance across studies.Goal difficulty moderated this relationship. Expectancy and attractiveness of goal attainment, the antecedents thought to be most proximal, were strongly and positively related to goal commitment.  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Goals / Commitment and Goal Setting Process Classroom Goal Structure, Student Motivation, and Academic Achievement. Meece, Anderman 2006 d=0.56 Over the past 25 years, achievement goal theory has emerged as one of the most prominent theories of achievement motivation. Considerable evidence suggests that elementary and secondary students show the most positive motivation and learning patterns when their school settings emphasize mastery, understanding, and improving skills and knowledge. Whereas school environments that are focused on demonstrating high ability and competing for grades can increase the academic performance of some students, research suggests that many young people experience diminished motivation under these conditions. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Goals / Commitment and Goal Setting Process An Evaluation of the Pattern between Students’ Motivation, Learning Strategies and Their Epistemological Beliefs: The Mediator Role of Motivation, 2014   it was found that students’ belief that learning depends on effort predicted their motivation. Students’ belief that learning depends on effort has significant impacts on their motivation. That students with sophisticated belief in learning control have sophisticated intrinsic goals . when students hold sophisticated epistemological beliefs, their motivation will also be influenced by this in a positive way and will be raised. Learners’ sophisticated beliefs concerning what knowledge is, how knowing and learning occur will contribute to the rise in their motivation for learning. Affecting their learning processes, learning outputs, and achievement.  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Goals / Commitment and Goal Setting Process A Multilevel Analysis of Classroom Goal Structures’ Effects on Intrinsic Motivation and Peer Modeling: Teachers’ Promoting Interaction as a Classroom Level Mediator, Kazuhiro Ohtani, Ryo Okada, Takamichi Ito, Motoyuki Nakaya. 2013 Mastery goal structure d=O.89 | Performance goal structure d=0.97 | Promoting interaction d=1.01 | Intrinsic motivation d=0.28 | Peer modeling d=1.10 This study investigated how classroom goal structures (mastery and performance goal structures) related to intrinsic motivation and peer modeling focusing on teachers’ promoting interaction as a classroom level mediator.  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Goals / Commitment and Goal Setting Process Clarifying Achievement Goals and Their Impact, Grant and Dweck, 2003 Learning goals also significantly predicted grade improvement and were the only goals to do so. Goals pertaining to learning d=0.8. learnging goals [growth] to validate one's ability [growth/progress/attainment] d=1.14. learning goals positively related to outcome goals d=0.88. learning goals and normative goals strongly correlated d=1.12. learning goals do exert a positive influence on both intrinsic motivation and performance when individuals encounter prolonged challenge or setbacks. In addition, although performance goals that are focused on validating ability can have beneficial effects on performance when individuals are meeting with success, these same goals can predict impaired motivation and performance after setbacks. 
Priority # 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 – Deeper Learning Guskey, T., & Gates, S. (1986). Synthesis of research on the effects of mastery learning in elementary and secondary classrooms. Educational Leadership, 43(8), 73-80 mastery learning in elementary school d=0.94, mastery learning in High School d=0.72 Found that group-based applications of matery learning have consistently positive effects on a broad range of student learning outcomes, including student achievement, retention of learned material, involvement in learning activities, and student affect.  
Priority # 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 – Deeper Learning Effectiveness of Mastery Learning Programs: A Meta-Analysis, Kulik, Kulik, Bangert-Drowns, 1990 Mastery Learning: effect of PSI was to raise student examination scores d= 0.48 ; effect of LFM was to raise scores d= 0.59 When we eliminated from Guskey and Gates's review the effects based on formative measures and between-class standard deviations, the remaining effect sizes had an average value of 0.61. This value is very similar to the average effect size of 0.59 in all LFM studies that we located.   the benefits of mastery programs appear to be relatively enduring, not just short-term, effects. In addition to influencing student examination performance, mastery learning programs have a positive effect on student attitudes. Mastery students are more satisfied with the instruction they receive and more positive toward the content they are taught than are students in conventional classes.The effect of PSI on student achievement, in other words, is a robust effect that shows up under a variety of conditions. Higher student achievement in PSI classes is not an illusion created by the withdrawal of the weaker students before final-examination time.  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Mathematics Developing Effective Fractions Instruction for Kindergarten Through 8th Grade, Institute of Education Sciences (IES), 2010 See last few pages of this report, Appendix D, for the various effect sizes Recommendations: Build on students’ informal understanding of sharing and proportionality to develop initial fraction concepts; Help students recognize that fractions are numbers and that they expand the number system beyond whole numbers. Use number lines as a central representational tool in teaching this and other fraction concepts from the early grades onward.; Help students understand why procedures for computations with fractions make sense; Develop students’ conceptual understanding of strategies for solving ratio, rate, and proportion problems before exposing them to cross-multiplication as a procedure to use to solve such problems.; Professional development programs should place a high priority on improving teachers’ understanding of fractions and of how to teach them. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Mathematics Improving Mathematical Problem Solving in Grades 4 Through 8, IES National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, 2012 See last few pages of this report, Appendix D, for the various effect sizes Recommendations: Prepare problems and use them in whole-class instruction; Assist students in monitoring and reflecting on the problem-solving process; Teach students how to use visual representations.  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Project-Based Learning (PBL) Strobel, J., & van Barneveld, A. (2009). When is PBL more effective? A meta-synthesis of meta-analyses comparing PBL to conventional classrooms.   Researchers from Purdue University and Concordia University synthesized eight meta- analyses of PBL studies spanning 40 years in order to evaluate the effectiveness of problem- based learning and the conditions under which PBL is most effective. The meta-analyses included medical students and adult learners in postsecondary settings. PBL was more effective than traditional instruction for long-term retention, skill development, and satisfaction of students and teachers. Traditional approaches, on the other hand, were more effective for improving performance on standardized exams, considered by the researchers as a measure of short-term retention. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Project-Based Learning (PBL) National Clearinghouse for Comprehensive School Reform. (2004). Putting the pieces together: Lessons from comprehensive school reform research. Washington D.C.  The strongest models that are not direct instruction included Success For All; Highly Promising Evidence of Effectiveness. Models in this category are those that had positive and statistically significant results from comparison or third-party comparison studies but did not have research bases that were as broad and generalizable as those of the models that met the highest standard 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Project-Based Learning (PBL) Thomas, J. W. (2000). A review of research on project-based learning   This review defines PBL as involving projects that are complex tasks, which typically results in a realistic product, event, or presentation, which is central to the curriculum, and which is organized around a driving question that leads to central principles or concepts of a discipline. PBL is student driven and constructive, involving inquiry, investigation, knowledge building, and resolution. PBL students are responsible for making choices and designing and managing their work, and they experience gains in factual learning that are equivalent or superior to those experienced by students engaged in traditional learning. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Project-Based Learning (PBL) Johnson, D.W., & Johnson, R. T., 2009. An educational psychology success story: Social interdependence theory and cooperative learning (Abstract). Educational Researcher, 38(5), 365- 379.  This article provides a qualitative review of findings from more than 1,200 research studies conducted in the past 11 decades on cooperative, competitive, and individualistic efforts. The authors describe the findings and implications of this vast body of research for educators. For small groups working together over a class period to several weeks, the authors recommend (1) structuring group work, (2) explaining the task and positive interdependence, (3) monitoring students' learning and intervening to provide assistance and increase interpersonal group skills, and (4) evaluating students' learning and helping students process how well their group is doing. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Project-Based Learning (PBL) Walker, A. & Leary, H. (2009). A problem-based learning meta analysis: Differences across problem types, implementation types, disciplines, and assessment levels  meta-analysis of 82 studies, 201 outcomes favored problem-based learning over traditional instructional methods. The authors review a typology of 11 problem types proposed by Jonassen (2000), which range from highly structured problems (focused on an accurate and efficient path to an optimal solution), to "ill-structured" problems (which do not necessarily have solutions and which prioritize evaluation of evidence and reasoning). The typology includes: logical problems, algorithmic problems, story problems (which are algorithmic problems with a story wrapper), "rule- using" problems, decision-making problems (e.g., cost-benefit analysis), troubleshooting (systematically diagnosing a fault, eliminating a problem space), "diagnosis-solution" problems (characteristic of medical school, which involve small groups understanding the problem, researching different possible causes, generating hypotheses, performing diagnostic tests, and monitoring a treatment to restore a goal state), strategic-performance, case analysis (characteristic of law or business school, which involve adapting tactics to support an overall strategy and reflecting on authentic situations), design problems, and dilemmas (such as global warming, which are complex and involve competing values, and which may have no solutions). Strategic-performance and design problems were deemed most effective in producing positive PBL outcomes 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Project-Based Learning (PBL) Mergendoller, J. R., Maxwell, N. L., & Bellisimo, Y. (2006). The effectiveness of problem-based instruction: A comparative study of instructional methods and student characteristics. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning, 1(2)  Five veteran teachers at four high schools taught macroeconomics using PBL with one or more classes and traditional lecture format in another class. Results from 246 students in 11 classes who completed a pre- and post-test showed that PBL was more effective than traditional instruction in teaching macroeconomics concepts 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Project-Based Learning (PBL) Wieseman, K. C., & Cadwell, D. (2005). Local history and problem-based learning (Abstract). Social Studies and the Young Learner, 18(1), 11-14.  Fourth graders collaboratively researched primary and secondary resources in a unit about human communities and the history of the local area. The use of PBL was associated with student excitement, inductive reasoning, and collaboration as students researched reasons and themes for human migration. The discussion and critical thinking involved in the PBL unit developed student knowledge about local human communities and local history. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 – Technology Open data: Unlocking innovation and performance with liquid information, McKinsey Global Institute, 2013  Opportunities to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of current systems. By standardizing and sharing data that already exist; Instruction;Matching students to programs, matching students to employment, transparent education financing. implications for stakeholders 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Early Learning /Preschool Incorporating Early Learning Strategies in the School Improvement Grants (SIG) Program: How Three Schools Integrated Early Childhood Strategies Into School Turnaround Efforts to Improve Instruction for All Students, Center on School Turnaround WestEd  A significant body of research shows that achievement gaps in persistently low-performing schools manifest, in many instances, prior to children entering kindergarten. High-quality preschool programs have proven to help close these gaps both for individual student subgroups in a school and for the school as a whole. This resource focuses on case studies of three schools that have used School Improvement Grant (SIG) funds, with the support of their districts, to implement early learning strategies as part of their turnaround models. The practices described in this publication are from elementary schools in Massachusetts, Missouri, and Nebraska. Data were gathered through school data reviews and interviews with school, district, and state leaders from both early learning and school improvement offices. This resource was produced by the Center on School Turnaround at WestEd and the Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Mathematics Math Placement: The Importance of Getting It Right for All Students, WestEd  Given the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, California’s history of math acceleration in the middle grades, and the concern for correct math course placement for all students, this brief examines patterns from the past to shed light on considerations for the future. The brief, written by WestEd’s Tony Fong and Neal Finkelstein, presents the results of further analyses of data from 24 school districts in California that were previously analyzed in an earlier released report. The additional analysis focuses on the math experiences of minority students: When did minority students take algebra I, how often did they repeat the course, and what proportion of minority students reached calculus by grade 12? The answers to questions like these are critical for ensuring that all students are placed in appropriate courses to enable them to succeed in high school and college. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – College and Career Ready The Ones That Got Away: Why Completing a College Degree Is Not the Only Way to Succeed, WestEd  Recent research on the California community college system has revealed that workforce training programs yield some of the highest earnings for community college students, regardless of whether those students complete a degree or college certificate. Still, most conversations about community college success are limited to whether students graduate. An exclusive focus on degree completion does not fit well with the diversity of workforce training pathways that colleges have built in career and technical education (CTE) because many of these pathways do not lead to a college credential. By expanding definitions of student success to include employment, earnings gains, and third-party credentials, colleges will be able to more accurately measure the outcomes of all their CTE programs. This brief draws on numerous studies to explore alternative approaches to measuring how well community colleges serve CTE students. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – Foster Youth The Invisible Achievement Gap: Education Outcomes of Students in Foster Care in California's Public Schools, WestEd  This first-of-its-kind analysis links data from California’s education and child welfare systems to create an education snapshot of K-12 students in foster care in California. The report, written by WestEd’s Vanessa Barrat and BethAnn Berliner, details a previously invisible achievement gap between children in foster care and other students, including students with low-socioeconomic status, English language learners, and students with disabilities.  
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement Core to College Evaluation: Building Bridges through Stakeholder Outreach and Engagement  What can K–12 and higher education systems do to foster increased collaboration in order to better prepare students for college? Core to College, a three-year, multi-state initiative funded by the Lumina Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the Carnegie Corporation of New York, is designed to promote collaboration among K–12 and higher education systems in the implementation of the Common Core State Standards and aligned assessments. This evaluation report, prepared by WestEd researchers, examines organizational and leadership strategies that support collaborative stakeholder engagement among the initial 10 states participating in the Core to College Initiative. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement Parent and Community Involvement in a College Ready Culture,   This resource provides a review of literature published since the year 2000 on the role of parent and community involvement in preparing students for college and/or careers. The literature indicates that both parents and community members can have a positive impact on student success 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement School, Family, and Community Partnerships: Preparing Educators and Improving Schools.Joyce L. Epstein, Available on ERIC  This book examines how teachers and administrators can prepare themselves to create positive relationships and productive partnerships with families and communities. There are two main parts with seven chapters. The chapters include readings by outside authors. Part 1, "Understanding School, Family, and Community Partnerships," includes: (1) "Introduction" (e.g., matching rhetoric with practice, the need, the gap, the goals, and achieving the goals); (2) "Theory and Overview," which includes "Toward a Theory of Family-School Connections: Teacher Practices and Parent Involvement" (Joyce L. Epstein) and "Perspectives and Previews on Research and Policy" (Joyce L. Epstein); and (3) "Research," which includes "Parent Involvement: A Survey of Teacher Practices" (Henry Jay Becker and Joyce L. Epstein);  
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement The Center for, Family, School, Community Engagement (The Center) is a project of the San Diego State University Research Foundation  The Center functioned as a federally funded Parent Information and Resource Center (PIRC) until 2004 when it became a statewide technical assistance center for school-family-community partnerships. In 2012 the California Parent Center joined The Center for, Family, School, Community Engagement.  
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement Strategies for Community Engagement in School Turnaround, Reform Support Network, March 2014  Our research shows how States, districts and schools— often with the active support of community-based nonprofit organizations—have used community engagement as a key strategy for making school turnaround more effective . When successful, the many approaches to community engagement create a continuum of interaction that builds trust, respect and a sense of purpose among those invited into the school turnaround initiative that ultimately results in stronger and more sustainable student outcomes. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement Lopez, M. Elena, & Caspe, Margaret. (2014). Family engagement in anywhere, anytime learning. Family Involvement Network of Educators (FINE) Newsletter, 6(3).  In this Commentary, M. Elena Lopez and Margaret Caspe explore the important and yet understudied role of family engagement in anywhere, anytime learning. They investigate how families, schools, and communities can come together to help close out-of-school opportunity gaps. They also highlight how programs across the country are innovating and partnering with families to ensure that children and youth get the skills and experiences that they need to succeed, regardless of their economic background. Continue reading to learn about the three processes by which families, schools, and community institutions can achieve this vision of anywhere, anytime learning. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement Strategies for Community Engagement in School Turnaround  This report examined the role of community engagement strategies in the effectiveness of the school turnaround strategy in improving the performance of low achieving schools. Initiatives in eleven states are reviewed, and five primary recommendations (or takeaways) were identified. A description of each of the eleven initiatives is included in the report. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement Handbook of Family and community Engagement, US Department of Education, 2011  This Handbook is intended to provide educators, community leaders, and parents with a succinct survey of the best research and practice in family engagement accumulated over the years. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement CalSTAT Technical Assistance and Training  CalSTAT common, or core messages, articulate critical research findings and essential components of effective application. All core messages have been identified by experts in the field and have been approved by the California Department of Education, Special Education Division: Partnership Program, community connections, Diverse Families, Homework, leadership on partnerships, Middle and High Schools, Policy, Results for Students, Special Education, stories from the Field 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement   Metrics: Measured efforts to seek parent input in decision-making, promotion of parent participation in programs for unduplicated pupils and special needs subgroups. School district and school sites seek input from all parents and engage them as partners in decision making.  
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement Partners in Education; A Dual Capacity-building Framework for Family-School Partnerships, SEDL in collaboration with US Department of Education, 2013  The framework buildis on existing research suggesting that partnerships between home and school can only develop an thrive if both families and staff have the requisite collective capacity to engage in partnership. Gives recommendations of what can be done.  
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement National Network of Partnership Schools Johns Hopkins University  “Based on more than three decades of research on parental involvement, family engagement, and community partnerships, NNPS’s tools, guidelines, and action team approach may be used by all elementary, middle, and high schools to increase involvement and improve student learning and development,” explains Dr. Joyce L. Epstein, Founder and Director of NNPS. NNPS also guides district leaders to help their schools develop goal-oriented programs of family involvement and community connections, and to meet NCLB requirements for parent involvement. In addition, NNPS assists state departments of education and organizations to develop policies and take actions that will support districts and schools in strengthening their partnership programs. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement Partnering with Families and Communities, Educational leqadership, May 2004  , a school learning community includes educators, students, parents, and community partners who work together to improve the school and enhance students' learning opportunities. One component of a school learning community is an organized program of school, family, and community partnerships with activities linked to school goals. Research and fieldwork show that such programs improve schools, strengthen families, invigorate community support, and increase student achievement and success (Epstein, 2001; Henderson & Mapp, 2002; Sheldon, 2003). 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement California Department of Education Family & Community Resources, Standards, Frameworks, Research, promising practices  amily and community engagement greatly increases the likelihood that students will learn and thrive. Students are more prepared for school, more likely to achieve, and more likely to graduate when they are supported by schools, families, and communities working together in a coordinated manner. Schools will be more effective at engaging families and communities when they move toward systemic, integrated, and sustained engagement. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement Creating Communication: Exploring and expanding your fundamental communication skills (2nd ed.). UK, Fujishin, 2009  Creating Effective communication 12 chapters of communication considerations and processes 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement - foster youth Stuart Foundation – Youth Family Community Engagement  The child welfare system alone cannot keep children safe, find them loving and permanent families, and help them become successful young adults. In recent years, this formerly closed system, hampered by strict confidentiality requirements, has begun to open its doors and welcome the opinions of youth, families, and communities. This input serves to improve services to individual children and families and ultimately improves outcomes. However, even with this newfound openness, the child welfare system has not yet developed adequate capacity to support and engage foster youth and their caregivers so that their experiences can translate into system-wide improvements to the policies and procedures that govern their lives. 
Priority #6: School Climate  A Climate for Academic Success: How School Climate Distinguishes Schools That Are Beating the Achievement Odds (Full Report)  his report, written by WestEd’s Adam Voight, Gregory Austin, and Thomas Hanson, describes a study that examines what makes successful schools different from other schools. Rather than define success in absolute terms, this study’s definition is based on whether or not a school is performing better than predicted given the characteristics of the students it serves. Using data from over 1,700 California public middle and high schools, 40 schools were identified that consistently performed better than predicted on standardized tests of math and English language arts achievement. These schools were labeled “beating-the-odds” (BTO) schools.Some key results 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement Understanding Formative Assessment: Insights from Learning Theory and Measurement Theory  Formative assessment is intended to yield real-time information about if and how students are learning—and what might be impeding their progress. Insights gained from this ongoing classroom assessment process can help teachers shape instruction and guide student efforts as well. The effective use of formative assessment can add balance to assessment systems that, in recent years, have leaned heavily toward assessment for accountability purposes. This paper, written by former WestEd researcher Elise Trumbull and WestEd’s Andrea Lash, defines formative assessment and includes: A description of the key features of formative assessment A summary of concepts in learning theory that are central to effective formative assessment A summary of concepts in measurement theory that are central to effective formative assessment A brief review of research summaries on the effect of formative assessment on student learning. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement Assessment for Learning: What Policymakers Should Know About Formative Assessment  Formative assessment in the classroom is a process intended to reveal not just what students are learning, but how they are learning and what might be impeding their understanding. Assessment results help teachers tailor subsequent instruction and help students get a clearer picture of what they need to do to advance their own learning. Formative assessment directly supports teaching and learning by providing valuable feedback about: How students are thinking Whether or not students are absorbing what is being taught Misunderstandings or misconceptions that might be getting in the way of learning Policymakers, educators, researchers, and even parents are calling for more balanced assessment systems. To achieve this balance, education systems must improve the quality and use of formative assessment. This policy brief, written by WestEd’s Martin Orland and Janice Anderson, highlights the formative component of next-generation assessment systems and makes recommendations for state and federal policymakers. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement Formative Assessment Policies, Programs, and Practices in the Southwest Region  Formative assessments help educators target instructional practices to meet specific student needs and monitor and support student progress toward valued state learning outcomes. Policies and programs in the five Southwest Region states suggest a range of strategies to support the development and use of formative assessments. Information about the regional educational laboratory (REL) system and other REL publications can be found at the National Regional Educational Laboratory Program website. 
Priority #5: Pupil Engagement Interventions in Developing Nations for Improving Primary and Secondary School Enrollment of Children: A Systematic Review  What does it take to get children into school and keep them there? This report reviews the research on the effects of intervention programs designed to increase school enrollment in developing nations. This research review asks the following questions: How do school enrollment interventions affect student enrollment, attendance, graduation, and progression? Do school enrollment interventions also affect test scores, grades, and other measures of achievement? By systematically gathering and analyzing rigorous research about the program effects of primary and secondary school enrollment and completion policies, researchers, including those from WestEd, provide evidence to inform funding, intervention, and evaluation efforts in this area. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – VAPA / Arts Improving the Assessment of Student Learning in the Arts: State of the Field and Recommendations  This study—the first of its kind—examines current trends, promising techniques, and successful practices being used to assess K-12 student learning in the arts nationwide. The study also identifies potential areas in which arts assessment could be improved, ultimately increasing student academic achievement. Given the increased focus on assessment and accountability since the 1990s, the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) identified the need to capture the current status of arts assessment. NEA commissioned WestEd to conduct this study and produce a resulting report. The report features: A brief history of arts assessment A description of the methodology used to capture study data Findings from the researchers’ literature review and survey responses Conclusions about the current status of arts assessment Recommendations The recommendations, in particular, set the stage for significant improvements in the quality, efficiency, cohesion, and usefulness of student assessment in the arts, in order to ultimately improve student learning. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – College and Career Ready Work-Based Learning in California: Opportunities and Models for Expansion  Work-based learning is an educational strategy that links academic instruction with the world of work. By itself, it is a powerful tool for motivating students and enhancing learning. But it holds particular promise in the context of multiple pathways, an approach to high school reform in California that seeks to prepare more young people for success both in college and the workplace. This report, prepared by WestEd researchers for The James Irvine Foundation, takes a broad look at work-based learning in California: how it is practiced, what it looks like when done well, and how it could be expanded to engage more students. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – College and Career Ready Beyond Tracking: Multiple Pathways to College, Career, and Civic Participation  How can we best prepare high school students for college and/or career? The contributors to this book, including Andrea Venezia, believe the solution involves using multiple pathways. Contributors to Beyond Tracking are not referring to the multiple pathways academic ability tracking system that marked so many American high schools during the past century. Instead, they propose a system of multiple pathways that will provide students with both the academic and real-world fundamentals needed for higher learning, training, and preparation to be responsible members of their communities. Venezia and fellow contributors propose four main components for multiple pathways schools: A college-preparatory core A professional/technical core Field-based learning and realistic workplace simulations Additional support services to meet the particular needs of students and communities Students and their families would be able to choose from among a variety of options, all of which lead students to the same destination: the groundwork to succeed in both college and career—not one or the other. In its detailed and innovative examination of multiple pathways, Beyond Tracking makes an important contribution to current discussions about high school reform and the education challenges of the 21st century. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – College and Career Ready Transitions from High School to College, 2013  The vast majority of high school students aspire to some kind of postsecondary education, yet far too many of them enter college without the basic content knowledge, skills, or habits of mind they need to succeed. In this article, Andrea Venezia and WestEd’s Laura Jaeger look at the state of college readiness among high school students, the effectiveness of programs designed to help student transitions to college, and efforts to improve those transitions. What role does the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) play? According to the authors, the CCSS offer the potential to improve college and career readiness among students. But that potential will be realized only if the standards are supplemented with the appropriate professional development for educators. 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs STEM Teachers in Professional Learning Communities: From Good Teachers to Great Teaching  To meet the needs of today’s learners, the tradition of artisan teaching in solo‐practice classrooms will have to give way to a school culture in which teachers continuously develop their content knowledge and pedagogical skills through collaborative practice that is embedded in the daily fabric of their work. Teacher collaboration supports student learning, and the good news is that teachers who work in strong learning communities are more satisfied with their careers and are more likely to remain in teaching long enough to become accomplished educators. This report takes us one step further, summarizing the impacts of learning teams, particularly in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) content areas, on teacher practice. 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs 30-100 hours Professional learning in the Learning Profession, NSDC report, 2009  Substantial contact hours of professional development (ranging from 30 to 100 hours in total) spread over six to 12 months showed a positive significant effect on student achievement gains. Clear organizational support, ongoing individual support is critical, understand more about how people learn and how to create environments for all to learn is school 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs Fundamentals of Learning Resource 2: WestEd and National Center for Research on Evaluati  Making meaning, participating and contributing, managing learning. "Is my classrrom practice consistent with the "more about"..? What might I need to work on...? 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs Time - Embed in School Schedule for Teachers Leveraging Expanded Time To Strengthen Instruction and Empower Teachers  Models/Details on How one might Embed Professional Learning into School Schedule and Site-based Professional Learning Communities. Time for Teachers looks deeply inside 17 schools that stand at the vanguard of the current revolution in teaching. This new National Center on Time & Learning (NCTL) report reveals the substantive ways in which these schools are providing their teachers with more time to reflect on, develop, and hone their craft, by very explicitly leveraging an expanded-time school schedule and calendar. These schools’ expanded time—on average, they are in session almost 300 hours more per year than the national norm of 1,170 hours—affords not only more hours and days focused on classroom instruction, but also a full array of professional learning opportunities.  
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs A Blueprint for RESPECT, US Dept. of Education, April 2013  A framework for Transforming Teaching and Leading: Seven Critical Components 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs Planning Professional Learning, Thomas R. Guskey, ASCD Educational Leadership, May 2014  we must look to credible sources of research, such as the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), an online library of education research and information sponsored by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences, or JSTOR (short for Journal Storage), a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. - Benefits of Backward Planning Professional learning, educator knowledge and skills, organizational support, new practices  
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs - Andragogy The Adult Learning Theory - Andragogy Malcolm Shepherd Knowles   Educators need to be involved in planning and evaluations, relevant experiences basis for learning - including mistakes, immediate relevance and impact to job or personal life, problem centered 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Literacy Building a Culture of Engaged Academic Literacy in Schools, 2015  New literacy standards and workforce expectations call for the creation of a culture of literacy in secondary education. In a culture of literacy, all students will need abundant opportunities to read complex disciplinary text. Their teachers in all subject areas will need to provide ample instructional support to build subject area literacy. School systems must provide structures and time for teachers’ high-quality professional learning and regular opportunities for collegial support and problem solving. Additionally, administrators must allow for the exploration and “messiness” that accompanies new learning. This article offers ideas about developing a schoolwide culture of literacy using the Reading Apprenticeship instructional framework in middle or high school. Practical examples and strategies for administrators and teachers to consider are also shared. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement New Guidance for Partnering with Diverse Families: The National Framework for Dual Capacity-Building (Webinar), 2014  This archived webinar explores what educators need to do to reach all families and embed family engagement in all school and district systems. The webinar is based on the U.S. Department of Education’s framework, Partners in Education: A Dual Capacity-Building Framework for Family-School Partnerships. What You Will Learn The research behind and key components of the Framework Why it is essential to develop the knowledge and skills of both staff and families for effective family-school partnerships 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement Family Engagement Framework: A Tool for California School Districts (2014 Edition)  The Family Engagement Framework is designed for school districts and schools that are developing and expanding school/family partnerships to support student achievement and close the academic achievement gap. A collaborative effort between the California Comprehensive Center (CA CC) at WestEd and the California Department of Education (CDE), this tool provides guidance to educators, districts, schools, families, and communities as they plan, implement, and evaluate strategies across programs for effective family engagement. The CA CC did a thorough review of literature showing a strong link between parent involvement activities and student achievement. The research is summarized in the Framework, along with specific examples of what schools, communities, and parents can do to help students succeed. This 2014 edition of the Family Engagement Framework was revised by CDE in collaboration with the Center for Prevention & Early Intervention (CPEI) at WestEd. Download the Spanish language edition of the Family Engagement Framework. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement Speak Out, Listen Up! Tools For Using Student Perspectives and Local Data for School Improvement, 2014  School improvement is complex work that requires multiple sources of information, including from students themselves. What students say about their student experiences can be used to understand and address school-related topics and problems and rethink policies and practices. This resource provides educators with a purposeful and systematic way to gather and analyze student experiences to inform school improvement efforts. This toolkit offers three exercises: Analyzing Surveys with Kids: Students analyze and interpret survey results associated with a school-related topic or problem and then make suggestions for school improvement Inside-Outside Fishbowl: Students and educators trade roles as speakers and listeners during a facilitated discussion of a school-related topic or problem, and then jointly develop an action plan Students Studying Students’ Stories: Students produce and analyze videotaped interviews of other students about a school-related topic or problem, and then host forums with educators to suggest improvements The toolkit includes detailed information on how the exercises work, the questions they address, the number and types of participants needed, the amount of time required, space and materials considerations, and directions for using the exercises. The resource also includes a tool template that schools and districts can use to create new tools appropriate to their particular needs and interests. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Literacy Doing What Works: Teaching Elementary School Students to Be Effective Writers  When students build strong writing skills at an early age, they gain an invaluable tool for learning, communication, and self-expression that will serve them for the rest of their lives. This digital portfolio contains everything—including agendas, PowerPoint slides, facilitator’s notes, multimedia, sample materials, and handouts—needed to conduct two three-and-a-half-hour professional development sessions on how to teach elementary school students to be effective writers. The professional development draws upon four research-based strategies that, implemented together, create effective environments for teaching, learning, and writing: Create an engaged community of writers Provide daily time for writing Teach foundational writing skills Teach students to use the writing process for a variety of purposes 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Literacy Accelerating Academic Literacy: A Cognitive Strategies Approach to Reading and Writing Instruction for Teachers of Secondary English Language Learners, UCI, Carol Booth Olson, 2007  his intervention study trained teachers in two school districts in research-based strategies to enhance and accelerate the academic literacy of mainstreamed, at-risk, and English language learning students in Grades 8-12, utilizing the Pathway Project professional development program. The study had several objectives: To improve the quality of teachers through intensive staff development in the reading/writing intervention. To enhance students' academic literacy and prepare them to become college bound. To provide strategies and practice in the analytical reading and writing abilities students need to perform successfully on district and state reading and writing assessments. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine the effects of the intervention. Students of teachers who participated in the professional development program were compared to students of teachers who did not receive the training. Change in students' reading and writing abilities was measured with annual pre- and post-test writing assessments. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Literacy How Teens Do Research in the Digital World, PEW Research Center 2012  Three-quarters of AP and NWP teachers say that the internet and digital search tools have had a “mostly positive” impact on their students’ research habits, but 87% say these technologies are creating an “easily distracted generation with short attention spans” and 64% say today’s digital technologies “do more to distract students than to help them academically.” These complex and at times contradictory judgments emerge from 1) an online survey of more than 2,000 middle and high school teachers drawn from the Advanced Placement (AP) and National Writing Project (NWP) communities; and 2) a series of online and offline focus groups with middle and high school teachers and some of their students. The study was designed to explore teachers’ views of the ways today’s digital environment is shaping the research and writing habits of middle and high school students. Building on the Pew Internet Project’s prior work about how people use the internet and, especially, the information-saturated digital lives of teens, this research looks at teachers’ experiences and observations about how the rise of digital material affects the research skills of today’s students. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Literacy "WWC Review of the Report 'A Randomized Experiment of a Cognitive Strategies Approach to Text-Based Analytical Writing for Mainstreamed Latino English Language Learners in Grades 6 to 12'" , UCI Pathway Project Study, Olson, Land and others The average effect size calculated by the WWC for the English language development domain was 0.22.  The Pathway Project is a professional development intervention that trains teachers to enhance the reading and writing abilities of mainstreamed English Language Learners (ELLs). This study examined the impact of the Pathway Project intervention on students who were mainstreamed Latino ELLs. . . . The study found, and the WWC confirmed, a statistically significant positive effect of the Pathway Project intervention on student outcomes in the spring of the implementation year in the English language development domain. The average effect size calculated by the WWC for the English language development domain was 0.22. The study did not find a statistically significant or substantively important effect in the reading domain. 
Priority #2, 4, 8 - Literacy Swain, Sherry and Paul G. LeMahieu. 2012. "Assessment in a Culture of Inquiry: The Story of the National Writing Project's Analytic Writing Continuum." In Writing Assessment in the 21st Century: Essays in Honor of Edward M. White, edited by Norbert Elliot and Les Perelman, 45-66. New York: Hampton Press.  Teachers, the heart of education, too often find themselves excluded from the very process that policymakers advise should be central to instruction, namely assessment. Across this country, K–12 faculty groups gather regularly for sessions on "data driven" instruction. They pour through pages of statistical materials, and then they go back to their classrooms and do what they've always done: the very best they can with the information they have. What's missing in this picture? We suggest that what's missing is the teacher's involvement in assessment in any meaningful way: helping to design it, learning from it, and using it to improve instruction. This is the story of how teachers thinking together with writing assessment experts helped to create a technically sound and rigorous writing assessment, one that is useful in the classroom as well as in research. The system diminishes the conundrum described by White: that often teachers feel "forced to choose between tailoring their teaching to an impromptu test and helping their students learn to write . . ." (2007, p. iv). At the center of this story is a cohesive educational community, imbued with a vital inquiry stance, that developed, investigated, refined, and expanded the uses of the assessment system over an extended period of time. The Analytic Writing Continuum (AWC), developed by the National Writing Project (NWP), offers an opportunity to explore the potential of assessment that is locally contextualized yet linked to a common national framework and standards of performance. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – VAPA / Arts Evaluation of Professional Development in the Use of Arts-Integrated Activities with Mathematics Content: Findings About Program Implementation  an Arts in Education Model Development and Dissemination (AEMDD) grant to develop, implement, and disseminate a research-based program of professional development (PD) that equips prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers to infuse mathematics instruction with arts instruction in their classrooms. The PD includes summer institutes and classroom-based residencies in which music, dance, and drama performing artists work with teachers in teams. This instructional approach is often called arts integration. American Institutes for Research (AIR) conducted an evaluation of the four-year grant from 2010-2014, examining the implementation of the PD and assessing its impact on teacher practices and student mathematics knowledge. This article reports on the experiences of the elementary school teachers and Wolf Trap teaching artists in the first cohort of participating schools during 2011–12 and 2012–13, drawing on data from a variety of sources (PD observations, residency artifacts, artist interviews, and teacher surveys). We find that the Wolf Trap PD program demonstrates features of effective PD. It is classroom-based, intensive, and focused on what teachers and students need to know to teach and learn mathematics. It is aligned with district standards and offers many opportunities to teachers for active learning. The Wolf Trap PD program delivered preparation to teachers to infuse performing arts-based strategies into their mathematics instruction, starting in the PD institutes and then continuing in the residencies and did so with fidelity to the planned model. Wolf Trap used several approaches to optimize fidelity: a planning year and practice sessions with teaching artists, consistent use of local content experts, and materials structured to reflect the concepts and approaches used in both institutes and residencies. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – VAPA / Arts Transforming Teaching through Arts Integration, 2014  Transforming Teaching through Arts IntegrationAI Implementation Results: Middle School Reform through Effective Arts Integration Professional Development In four years, Anne Arundel County Public Schools (AACPS) increased sixth and seventh grade student achievement on the Maryland State Assessment (MSA) by 20% at Bates Middle School, a low performing school that had been targeted for restructuring by the state. This improvement positively correlates with the implementation of the arts integration Supporting Arts Integrated Learning for Student Success (SAILSS) model funded through the Arts in Education Model Development and Dissemination (AEMDD) grant. This model, offered to teachers across all content areas, incorporates extensive professional development opportunities including: an intensive weeklong workshop for teachers with artists followed by a two-week teaching lab with students; participation in an cohort to achieve an arts integration post-baccalaureate certificate,; and extensive trainings, conferences and workshops at local, regional, and national schools, museums, arts institutes, and higher education facilities. Qualitative and quantitative data collected by AACPS was assessed through a quasi-experimental design from the treatment and comparison schools utilizing the following instrumentation: state and local standardized testing, School-level Environment Questionnaire (SLEQ), Arts Integration: Classroom Observations for Middle Schools (AICOM), arts integration logs and parent, student, and teacher surveys. Through this study we found that in addition to increasing student achievement on statewide assessments, implementing this arts integration model positively correlates with a 77% decline in discipline referrals, and overall positive change in school climate based on teacher, staff, student, and parent perception. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – VAPA / Arts A Study on the Relationsh​ip between Theater Arts and Student Literacy and Mathematics Achievement  Past studies have shown the existence of positive relationships between the arts and academic achievement when the arts are integrated into language arts, as well as mathematics and science. This study employed a multi-stage cluster randomized design in which the effects of infusing process drama into a traditional language arts curriculum are investigated. The study sample consists of sixth and seventh grade students enrolled in a high poverty urban school district. Study findings indicate that students in arts integrated classrooms tend to outperform their counterparts in both math and language arts. The authors conjecture that the arts reinforce theories that view student learning as a process of transmediation between different modes of making meaning. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – VAPA / Arts Increasing Engagement and Oral Language Skills of ELLs through the Arts in the Primary Grades  In this article, we look at the impact of an arts integration program offered at five large urban elementary schools on the daily attendance and oral language skills of children in kindergarten through second grade. Many of the children attending these schools spoke a language other than English at home. Teaching artists visited each class weekly for 28 weeks, co-teaching theater and dance lessons with the teacher. School engagement was measured by comparing attendance on days with and without scheduled arts lessons. Attendance was significantly higher on days the artists visited; absences were reduced by 10 percent. Speaking and listening skills were measured through standardized test scores. Qualitative analysis of interview and survey data revealed that teachers perceived the theater and dance lessons to provide rich opportunities for verbal interaction between teachers and pupils. Student speaking and listening skills improved significantly, as did teachers’ ability to promote oral language. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Cognitive Training New Cognitive Training Study Takes on the Critics, Scientific American, Oct. 2013  First, they found that people who have a growth mindset about intelligence (believe that intelligence is malleable) showed greater improvement on the visuospatial reasoning tests than those who have a fixed mindset about intelligence (believe intelligence can’t change). Second, the researchers found that intrinsic motivation mattered. Those who completed the study reported relatively stable engagement levels throughout the four weeks of training. Their data provides some hints. On the one hand, those who signed up for the study reported that they have more cognitive deficits in their lives than those who completed the pretest but dropped out of training. However, those with the highest pretest scores and the highest need for cognition scores ended up being the ones who actually completed the training! 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Cognitive Training Brain Training Doesn’t Make You Smarter Scientists doubt claims from brain training companies, Scientific American, Dec. 2014  t is too soon to tell whether there are any benefits of brain training. Perhaps there are certain skills that people can learn through brain training that are useful in real life. For example, University of Alabama Birmingham psychologist Karleen Ball and her colleagues have shown that a measure called “useful field of view”—the region of space over which a person can attend to information—can be improved through training and correlates with driving performance. What is clear, though, is that brain training is no magic bullet, and that extraordinary claims of quick gains in intelligence are almost certainly wrong. As the statement from the scientific community on the brain training industry concluded, “much more research is needed before firm conclusions [on brain training] can be drawn.” Until then, time and money spent on brain training is, as likely as not, time and money wasted.  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Cognitive Training In Defense of Working Memory Training, Scientific American, April 2013  It’s also important to keep in mind that regardless of the method, working memory improvements are transient. Repeated practice and challenge is essential to maintaining improvements in any kind of cognitive training or else they’ll very likely decline rapidly. This shouldn't be shocking. You wouldn't expect to go on a diet for 12 hours and maintain the one pound you lost the rest of your life. To keep growing and improving intellectually requires constant engagement in intellectually challenging material. To maintain improvements in focus and concentration requires getting in the habit of concentrating and manipulating complex material in your mind. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Cognitive Training Reasoning Training Increases Brain Connectivity Associated with High-Level Cognition, Scientific American, Mar 2013  But more relevant to the aims of their study, after training they found increased connectivity between the frontal and parietal regions at rest, primarily within the left hemisphere and between hemispheres. Consistent with their prediction, training particularly enhanced communication between the left frontopolar cortex (BA 10) and the posterior and medial parietal regions. They also found increased connectivity between the parietal cortex and the striatum, which is consistent with the role of the striatum in reasoning and skill learning across both cognitive and motor domains. These results are certainly exciting and promising, but since this was a single study with a small sample size, more research is needed.  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Deliberate Spaced Practice - Concept Mapping Retrieval Practice Produces More Learning than Elaborative Studying with Concept Mapping   Educators rely heavily on learning activities that encourage elaborative studying, while activities that require students to practice retrieving and reconstructing knowledge are used less frequently. Here, we show that practicing retrieval produces greater gains in meaningful learning than elaborative studying with concept mapping. The advantage of retrieval practice generalized across texts identical to those commonly found in science education. The advantage of retrieval practice was observed with test questions that assessed comprehension and required students to make inferences. The advantage of retrieval practice occurred even when the criterial test involved creating concept maps. Our findings support the theory that retrieval practice enhances learning by retrieval-specific mechanisms rather than by elaborative study processes. Retrieval practice is an effective tool to promote conceptual learning about science.  
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 – Technology Nsiah, G. (2013). Best Practices in Distance Education: A Review. Creative Education, 4, 762-766  Education plays a significant role in shaping a nation, and the proliferation of Internet-based educational opportunities has expanded distance learning modalities to all parts of the globe. However, though this mode of delivery is being capitalized upon as a result of the opportunities it offers, it is still new to many nations and institutions of learning. This article therefore reviews the best practices that make distance education works. This will better inform nations and their learning institutions as they capitalize on this mode for providing access to education. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – VAPA / Arts Oliva, G. (2014) Education to Theatricality inside Secondary School, Art and Body. Creative Education, 5, 1758-1775. doi:  The aim of this study was to present results of Education to Theatricality (IT: Educazione alla Teatralità) as scientific research and innovative pedagogy in the sector of the education of the person. Education to Theatricality has a lot of purposes to contribute to the psycho-physic well-being of each person; particularly it wants to help everyone to realize himself, as human being and as social actor; it wants to give everybody the chance to reveal his own diversity and specificity, because everybody has a message to convey through his body and his voice. The Education to Theatricality wants to stimulate skills, it wants to develop a better awareness of interpersonal relationships; it wants also give space to the assignment meaning process, because it considers “doing” as important as thinking, which permits to develop awareness about personal acts.  
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs Zhang, T. , Liu, M. and Chen, Y. (2014) To Deepen the Reform of Teaching Methods in Professional Education. Creative Education, 5, 1658-1661. doi:  Teaching is a complex system; the reform of teaching methods is very important in education. The teaching methods in traditional schooling education had many disadvantages; it can not satisfy the requirements for professional education. Along with the progress in the professional education, it is necessary to analyze and grasp the characteristics of the teaching methods, abide by the principle of the teaching method reform carefully and build up the scientific teaching methods to satisfy the needs of the professional education. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – College and Career Ready Educating California, Choices for the Future, CA 2025, PPIC  California’s economy is becoming increasingly dependent on highly educated workers. But unless young adults’ college-going and college graduation rates increase substantially, the supply of graduates is not likely to meet the demand. PPIC projects that by 2025, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor’s degree— but only 35 percent of California adults will have college diplomas. To put it another way, if current trends persist, the state will face a shortfall of one million college graduates. Moreover, adults with a high school diploma or less will outnumber the jobs available to people with that level of education. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – College and Career Ready California's Future - PPIC Report,2014: education, health care, corrections, housing, economy, political landscape  Calis higfornia’her education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state’s economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor’s degree. However, given current trends, the supply of highly educated workers is not on pace to meet that demand. Population and education trends suggest that by 2025 only 35 percent of working-age adults in California will have bachelor’s degrees. This equates to a shortfall of one million college graduates. When we add in the projected supply and demand for workers with postsecondary education short of a bachelor’s degree, the total shortfall exceeds two million. The state needs to act now to close the skills gap and meet the demands of tomorrow’s economy. Without a substantial improvement in educational outcomes, California’s economy will be less productive, incomes and tax revenue will be lower, and more Californians will depend on the social safety net. To close the gap, the state should set new statewide goals for higher education that are consistent with the demands of the 21st century. New investments in higher education will be necessary to meet those goals. Measuring progress and identifying programs and policies that improve student success should be a key component of those investments.  
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Standards - Professional Development / PLCs Council of Chief State School Offi cers. (2013, April). Interstate Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium InTASC Model Core Teaching Standards and Learning Progressions for Teachers 1.0: A Resource for Ongoing Teacher Development. Washington, DC: Author  This document is organized as follows: First is an introduction and summary of the Model Core Teaching Standards, which describe what the standards are and what they hope to achieve. Second is an introduction to the Learning Progressions for Teachers, which describe the increasing complexity and sophistication of teaching practice across a continuum of development. Third are the standards and progressions themselves, with each standard followed by its corresponding learning progression. Lastly, the document includes a glossary, a chart of cross-cutting themes in the standards, and names of committee members who drafted the standards and progressions. Our hope is that readers find this set of resources useful as we continue to refine our strategies for defining and supporting effective teaching for all learners. 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Standards - Professional Development / PLCs -  CA Dept Ed: Quality Professional Learning StandardsApproved by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, CA Dept. of Education, Nov. 2014  The QPLS lay the foundatoin for creating a coherent set of professional learning policies and activities that span the career continuum of an educator, which leads to improved educator knowledge, skills, and dispositions and, ultimately, increased student learning results. the standards describe the criteria for quality professional learning and point educators and stakeholders toward evidence-based elements and indicators to use when they make decisions about how to create and/or improve professional learning in their own systems. 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Standards - Professional Development / PLCs -  California Professional Standards for Educational Leaders, WestEd and the Association of California School Administrators  California's six professional standards 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs Planning Professional Learning, May 2014, ASCD, EL Education, Guskey  Why does professional learning for educators have such a mixed history? Why is it so hard to find solid research evidence of professional development programs that actually improve student learning outcomes? Part of the answer, writes Thomas R. Guskey, is that professional learning experiences for educators are rarely well planned. Consequently, they lack purpose, cohesiveness, and direction. To address this problem, Guskey recommends that professional developers practice backward planning. Schools should begin by deciding what student learning outcomes are desired, and then consider what instructional practices will produce these outcomes, what organizational supports are needed to implement those instructional practices well, what new skills teachers will need, and only then what professional learning activities will best help teachers develop these skills. 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs Harnessing the Power of PLCs Richard DuFour, , ASCD EL Education, May 2014  The first time the author was responsible for planning a districtwide professional development day, he secured a funny speaker, provided plenty of doughnuts, and made sure everyone could return to their classrooms in the afternoon. "The day was considered a huge success," he notes. "There was absolutely no evidence that the day had influenced teaching or learning in any way, nor was there any expectation that it should have." But professional development has come a long way since then. Research shows that professional learning communities (PLCs) provide the best environment for powerful professional development and that the best professional development builds staff capacity to function as members of a high-performing PLC. Profiles of several effective PLCs show administrators and teachers working in learning teams within a school, across schools districtwide, and in virtual learning networks. 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs New Thinking About Instructional Leadership, Horng, Loeb, Standford Univ., Kappan, 2010  Our studies have found that growth in valued school outcomes comes more from organizational management for instructional improvement than it does from principals’ time observing classrooms or directly coaching teachers. School leaders influence classroom teaching, and consequently student learning, by staffing schools with highly effective teachers and supporting those teachers with effective teaching and learning environments, rather than by focusing too narrowly on their own contributions to classroom instruction. 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs To Close the Achievement Gap, We Need to Close the Teaching Gap, Linda Darling-Hammond, Huff Post Education, 2014   We cannot make major headway in raising student performance and closing the achievement gap until we make progress in closing the teaching gap. That means supporting children equitably outside as well as inside the classroom, creating a profession that is rewarding and well-supported, and designing schools that offer the conditions for both the student and teacher learning that will move American education forward. 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Coaching - Professional Development / PLCs Instructional Coaching, Jim Knight, Kansas Coaching Project  Instructional Coaching, more completely described in Instructional Coaching: A Partnership Approach to Improving Instruction (Knight, 2007), provides intensive, differentiated support to teachers so that they are able to implement proven practices. Like other coaches using other models described in this book, Instructional Coaches (ICs) have excellent communication skills and a deep respect for teachers’ professionalism. Additionally, ICs having a thorough knowledge of the teaching practices they share with teachers, and they frequently provide model lessons, observe teachers, and simplify explanations of the teaching practices they share with teachers. 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Coaching - Professional Development / PLCs Paper: Studying the Impact of Instructional Coaching, Knight and Cornett, Kansas Coaching Project  Interest in the form of professional learning loosely described as coaching has grown dramatically in the past ten years. School districts and states are hiring thousands of coaches (e.g., there are currently more than 2,100 full-time coaches in Florida alone). However, little rigorous research has been conducted studying the effectiveness of this approach to professional development. As Michael Kamil (2006, p. 16) has succinctly commented, “At this point, we have absolutely no single piece of evidence that coaching is effective: no published research, no randomized control-style studies.” Given the keen interest in coaching, and the limited rigorous study of this approach to professional learning, further study of coaching is certainly needed. This study is designed to deepen our understanding of the potential impact of one particular approach to coaching: instructional coaching. 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Coaching - Professional Development / PLCs Research on Coaching, Cornett and Knight, University of Kansas  Educators and policy makers, naturally, want to know what research says about coaching. Unfortunately, the quickest answer to that question is, not enough. Although we have uncovered more than 200 publications describing some form of research relevant to coaching, most of those studies are preliminary, including some work on Instructional Coaching conducted at the Center for Research on Learning, and do not meet the standards of rigorous research. This work, despite some limitations, does shed light on what is being learned about coaching and also suggests where researchers need to study further. Indeed, Jake and I wrote this chapter as an outgrowth of our work writing proposals, because while conducting literature searches,we found (and Jake did the lion’s share of this research) that over the past 25 years, many before us, especially Bruce Joyce 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs Licensed to Create, Ten Essays on Improving Teacher Quality - RSA Action Research Centre 2014  Although the essays all focus on the situation in England, many of their arguments have international relevance. Tracey Burns and Kirsten Weatherby use data from the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) in 2013 to examine the factors underlying creative or innovative teaching practices 
Priority #2, 4, 8: Advanced Placement (AP) - College and Career Ready CCSS Alignment Advanced Placement, Research Report, College Board 2011  This report describes how the Common Core State Standards can prepare students to engage in the following courses: AP English Literature and Composition, AP English Language and Composition, AP Calculus AB, AP Calculus BC, AP Statistics, and AP Computer Science A. The comparison is nuanced in that the Common Core State Standards are designed to articulate the knowledge and skills students need to be ready to succeed in college and careers, and AP courses and exams are designed to represent the level of a first-year college course. " 
Priority #2, 4, 8: Advanced Placement (AP) - College and Career Ready Considering Practical Uses of Advanced Placement Information in College Admission, Research Report 2014, College Board  This study evaluated the predictive validity of various operationalizations of AP® Exam and course information that could be used to make college admission decisions. The incremental validity of the different AP variables, above and beyond traditional admission measures such as SAT® scores and high school grade point average (HSGPA), in predicting first-year grade point average (FYGPA) was also explored. The AP variables examined included the following: the number of AP Exams a student took, the number of AP Exams a student took on which he or she received a score of 3 or higher, the proportion of the number of AP Exams the student took in relation to the number of AP courses offered at his or her high school, his or her average AP score, his or her highest AP score, and his or her lowest AP score. Results showed that the two AP predictors most strongly related to FYGPA were the average AP score and the highest AP score, followed by the number of AP scores the student received that were greater than or equal to 3. With regard to the incremental validity of the different AP predictors above and beyond HSGPA and SAT scores to predict FYGPA, we found that the AP Average score variable produced the greatest increment. This report discusses the practical implications of these results in using AP information, in addition to traditional admission measures to improve admission decisions.  
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – College and Career Ready State Transitions to college-and Career-Ready Assessments, A Policymaker's Guide to Decisions Regarding High-Stakes Student Assessments, Educationcounsel LLC, 2014  This guide has been developed as part of ongoing work by EducationCounsel in partnership with the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) and Achieve to support state efforts to develop educationally and legally sound policies associated with the phase-in of new, high-quality, college- and career-ready (CCR) assessments. Over the past year, this work has involved leadership at CCSSO-sponsored convenings that have addressed numerous assessment transition issues including: school and district accountability, educator evaluation, high-stakes student decisions, and data and technology readiness.  
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – College and Career Ready Designing California's Next School Accountability Program, PPIC, Oct 2014  In 2013, it adopted tests of the new standards developed by the Smarter Balanced Assessment Collaborative (SBAC). These tests will be administered beginning in 2015, replacing the California Standards Tests (CSTs). In addition, the state revamped its school-finance system in 2013, creating the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) to streamline local funding and increase support for disadvantaged students. The LCFF also requires districts to set performance targets on a range of school and student success indicators as part of a district Local Control Accountability Plan (LCAP). 
Priority #2, 4, 8: Assessment - Standards-Based Grading - College and Career Ready Grades that mean something, Kentucky Develops Standards-Based Report Cards, Guskey, Swan, Jung  A group of teachers, school leaders, and education researchers create report cards that link course grades to student progress on mastering state standards 
Priority #2, 4, 8: Assessment - Standards-Based Grading - College and Career Ready A Practitioner's Guide to Growth Models, CCSSO, University of CA, Berkeley, Harvard Graduate School of Education, 2013  Growth refers to an increase, expansion, or change over time. If growth models for educational policy followed this commonsense intuition about growth, there would be little need for this guide. Instead, statistical models and accountability systems have become increasingly varied and complex, resulting in growth models with interpretations that do not always align with intuition. This guide does not promote one type of interpretation over another. Rather, it describes growth models in terms of the interpretations they best support and, in turn, the questions they are best designed to answer. The goal of this guide is thus to increase alignment between user interpretations and model function in order for models to best serve their desired purposes: increasing student achievement, decreasing achievement gaps, and improving the effectiveness of educators and schools.  
Priority #2, 4, 8: Assessment - Standards-Based Grading - College and Career Ready Measuring 21st Century Competencies, Guidance for Educators, Asia Society, Global Cities Education Network, Rand Corp. 2013  This paper is neither a comprehensive guide to 21st century competencies nor a comprehensive guide to educational assessment; however, by providing an overview of both topics combined with examples of 21st century competencies assessments, we hope to have provided educators with the background they need to make more informed choices about what to assess and how to assess it. This chapter offers school and school-system leaders some guidelines for promoting more effective and thoughtful assessment programs. Considerations When Adopting or Adapting Assessments of 21st Century Competencies Our review of 21st century competencies assessments suggested a number of guidelines that could help improve the implementation of these assessments (see Table 5). These guidelines are not meant to be rules to follow as much as principles to keep in mind. Specific assessment needs will vary from site to site, and local priorities should dictate how these criteria are weighed and how decisions are made.  
Priority #1-8 How the World's Most Improved School Systems Keep Getting Better, McKinsey Report, 2010  Analyzed 20 systems from around the world, all with improving but differing levels of performance, examining how each has achieved significant, sustained, and widespread gains in student outcomes, as measured by international and national assessments. 
Priority #1-8 2014- 2015 Orange County Workforce Indicators Report, Orange County Business Council, Orange County Workforce Investment Board  ” This research highlights the central accomplishments of Orange County’s employers, educators and workers, the education and workforce training system, as well as remaining challenges that California must address to close the skills gap and develop a highly-trained workforce for a competitive 21st century economy. 
Priority #2, 4, 8: College and Career Ready – Career Technical Education Taking Action on Workforce Preparedness, Business Roundtable, 2013  This report presents a practical, forward-leaning plan to equip the US workforce with the skills needed to compete and succeed in the 21st century. The report draws on interviews with more than 30 recognized experts in the fields of education and workforce development regarding what policy makers, business executives, school administrators, teachers, parents,and other key stakeholders can do to ensure that all Americans are ready to work and prepared to succeed.  
Priority #2, 4, 8: College and Career Ready – Career Technical Education Business Center for a College-and Career-Ready America  Downloadable resources, overview, basic facts 
Priority #2, 4, 8: College and Career Ready – Career Technical Education Advancing Competency-Based Pathways to College and Career Readiness Series. The Imperative for State Leadership, Achieve, 2014  The advancement of CBP holds great promise in meeting the central aims of the standards-based reform movement, to ensure that all students meet or exceed specific outcomes by high school graduation and that students have equitable access and exposure to rich instruction and strong support to learn and demonstrate their learning.  
Priority #2, 4, 8: College and Career Ready  Hire Education; Mastery, Modularization, and the Workforce Revolution, Clayton Christensen Institute for Disruptive Innovation. Weise, Christensen, 2014  In order to confront the growing inequality within our system, we need to raise the bar for everyone seeking a postsecondary credential. We need a system that prioritizes the demonstration of student-learning growth and outcomes. For the more than 13.5 million students attending schools outside of the top 250 colleges ranked by U.S. News and World Report, we need access to education to be the equivalent of access to quality. Mastery of subject matter via online technologies can displace the importance of place, time, and brand and ultimately put an end to the growing inequality built into our system of education. Students with obvious and identifiable proficiencies and skills that are related directly to industry needs will be undeniable contenders in the workforce. Online competency-based learning can even out the playing field by taking students to the farthest point possible in their learning experiences, regardless of their starting point, race, geographical location, or family income. With high standards of proficiency, quality, and outcomes aligned with employability, online competencybased education can build a dramatically new value network that changes the rules of the game for the common good. 
Priority #6: School Climate - Social Emotional - mindfulness research Resilient Mindful Learner Project, OCDE  From March 2013 through March 2014, fourteen teachers from 7 Title I schools in Orange County participated in a year-long professional development program to integrate resilience and stress management strategies into their daily classroom management practices. This page also includes additional research articles.  
Priority #6: School Climate - MTSS - Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. Considerations in Applying Benefit-Cost Analysis to Preventive Interventions for Children, Youth, and Families: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014.  Benefit-cost analyses hold great promise for influencing policies related to children, youth, and families. By comparing the costs of preventive interventions with the long-term benefits of those interventions, benefit-cost analysis provides a tool for determining what kinds of investments have the greatest potential to reduce the physical, mental, and behavioral health problems of young people. More generally, the growth of benefit-cost analysis as a field of research and practice represents an exciting and promising trend in the development and implementation of public policies 
Priority #2, 4, 6, 7: RTI / MTSS - Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Transforming Student and Learning Supports: Developing a Unified, Comprehensive, and Equitable System, 2015  Transforming student and learning supports is key to school improvement. To this end, this report incorporates years of research and prototype development and a variety of examples from trailblazing efforts at local, district, regional, and state levels.  
Priority #2, 4, 6, 7: RTI / MTSS - Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Tiered Interventions in High Schools: Using Preliminary ‘Lessons Learned’ to Guide Ongoing Discussion  This report provides a brief description of the RTI Framework and the essential components of RTI; it shows how these supports were implemented at 8 different high schools; and, it highlights contextual factors unique to high schools that can affect implementation. 
Priority #2, 4, 6, 7: RTI / MTSS - Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Gamm, S., Elliott, J., Halbert, J. W., Price-Baugh, R., Hall, R., Walston, D., Uro, G., & Casserly, M. (2012). Common Core State Standards and Diverse Urban Students: Using Multi- Tiered Systems of Support. Washington D.C.: Council of the Great City Schools.  This white paper defines and describes MTSS, and underscores its importance as a prevention and intervention framework. It then explores how CCSS (ELA and Mathematics) looks as part of an MTSS framework. 
Priority #2, 4, 6, 7: RTI / MTSS - Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Adelman, H., & Taylor, L. (2015). Transforming Student and Learning Supports: Developing a Unified, Comprehensive, and Equitable System. Los Angeles: UCLA School Mental Health Project.  This comprehensive treatise outlines the need for transformation at schools; identifies six areas for classroom and school-wide student and learning supports; outlines how to begin, sustain, and improve the implementation process; explores ways to rework structures for real change; and provides a number of planning tools in the appendices. 
Priority #2, 4, 6, 7: RTI / MTSS - Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Waldron, N. L., & McLeskey, J. (2010). “Establishing a collaborative school culture through comprehensive school reform.” Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 20(1), 58-74.  Research out of the University of Florida shows changes that improve teacher practice and student outcomes are achieved through Comprehensive School Reform, including the development of a collaborative culture, the use of high quality professional development, and strong leadership teams advocating for and working towards school improvement. 
Priority #2, 4, 6, 7: RTI / MTSS - Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Problem Solving/Response to Intervention Evaluation Tool Technical Assistance Manual (Revised November 2013)   Program evaluation of Problem Solving/TTI initiatives is a critical component of facilitationg successful implementation. Complex educational systems require that key stakeholders take a systems view of facilitating change and devleop plans to address variables likely to relate to successful implementation.  
Priority #2, 4, 6, 7: RTI / MTSS - Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Center on Response to Intervention at American Institutes for Research  The Center on RTI is a national leader in supporting the successful implementation and scale-up of RTI and its components. 
Priority #2, 4, 6, 7: RTI / MTSS - Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Florida Department of Education. (2011). A Teacher’s Guide to Problem Solving Within a Multi-Tiered System of Supports. PS/MTSS, a special project funded by the State of Florida, Department of Education, Division of Public Schools and Community Education, Bureau of Exceptional Education and Student Services.  This is a practical guide to understanding the MTSS framework that was designed to assist teachers in building background knowledge of the problem solving process that occurs through MTSS in order to be a knowledgeable participant of the MTSS team. 
Priority #1-8 Quality Schooling Framework, California Department of Education  he Quality Schooling Framework (QSF) is the California educator’s destination for timely tools and practices to guide effective planning, policy, expenditure, and instructional decisions at all schools and districts. The Quality Schooling Framework (QSF) is a web-based resource for all California schools and districts to use as they develop, implement, and monitor effective plans and systems to support student achievement. It includes definitions, research, and tools that educators can use to help students learn and thrive. The QSF draws from a large body of research to highlight 10 critical and interrelated elements of quality schooling. When effectively addressed in a coordinated way, these 10 elements can serve as leverage points for creating and sustaining quality schools. The framework is not intended as the basis for a set of mandates or a checklist of do’s and don’ts. Instead, it is intended to serve as a lens educators can use to examine their schools systemically to gauge what is most likely to support student success. Curriculum Instruction Assessment Leaders Teachers Resource Alignment Culture and Climate Equity Professional Learning Family and Community Engagement 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards Common Core State Standards in Mathematics  All students, including English Language Learners, have access to school programs and services that are aligned with California’s academic content and performance standards. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 – Technology Computer Science Education in California- From Kindergarten to the Workforce, CSLNet Publication, 2014  A new policy brief that outlines a comprehensive plan to strengthen pipeline of future computer science workforce. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM/Engineering National Academy of Engineering. Advancing Diversity in the US Industrial Science and Engineering Workforce: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014.  Thousands of gifted individuals, including women and underrepresented minorities, remain a disproportionally small fraction of those in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) careers. Industry, as the largest employer category of those with STEM backgrounds, stands to benefit considerably from greater inclusion of women and underrepresented minorities in the workforce. However, nothing short of a game-changing environment must be created to harness the talent of those not fully represented in the STEM workforce. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM/CTE  National Research Council. 3D Printing in Space. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014.  Additive manufacturing has the potential to positively affect human spaceflight operations by enabling the in-orbit manufacture of replacement parts and tools, which could reduce existing logistics requirements for the International Space Station and future long-duration human space missions. The benefits of in-space additive manufacturing for robotic spacecraft are far less clear, although this rapidly advancing technology can also potentially enable space-based construction of large structures and, perhaps someday, substantially in the future, entire spacecraft. Additive manufacturing can also help to reimagine a new space architecture that is not constrained by the design and manufacturing confines of gravity, current manufacturing processes, and launch-related structural stresses. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM California STEM Learning Network  Resources include CSLNet Publications, videos, learning about STEM... 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM California STEM Service-Learning Initiative  STEM Service Learning resources include: networks, web resources, presentations, and documents. he California STEM (Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics) Service-Learning Initiative supports secondary school and higher education students working together to meet community needs through a STEM design process. They are guided by STEM industry advisors, secondary teachers and higher education faculty as they use the service-learning instructional method to deliver STEM related academic content and explore STEM related educational and career opportunities. The California effort is lead by staff from the Yolo County Office of Education, Curriculum and Instructional Services Department and the California Department of Education, CalServe Initiative. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM Innovate: A Blueprint for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics in California Public Education, 2014  a new vision and direction for STEM education in the state, paying particular attention to remedying issues of access to high-quality learning experiences and professional STEM workforce needs. The task force, made up of teachers and administrators from K-12 and higher education as well as leaders of partner organizations, explored the current status of STEM education, assessed the state’s future needs, and developed recommendations for improving teaching, learning, and access to STEM-related courses and careers for K-12 students. 1 This report details the results of the task force’s work and calls upon California’s policy makers and educators to ensure the realization of seven strategic action areas 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM National Research Council. STEM Learning Is Everywhere: Summary of a Convocation on Building Learning Systems. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014.  Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) permeate the modern world. The jobs people do, the foods they eat, the vehicles in which they travel, the information they receive, the medicines they take, and many other facets of modern life are constantly changing as STEM knowledge steadily accumulates. Yet STEM education in the United States, despite the importance of these subjects, is consistently falling short. Many students are not graduating from high school with the knowledge and capacities they will need to pursue STEM careers or understand STEM-related issues in the workforce or in their roles as citizens. For decades, efforts to improve STEM education have focused largely on the formal education system. Learning standards for STEM subjects have been developed, teachers have participated in STEM-related professional development, and assessments of various kinds have sought to measure STEM learning. But students do not learn about STEM subjects just in school. Much STEM learning occurs out of school--in organized activities such as afterschool and summer programs, in institutions such as museums and zoos, from the things students watch or read on television and online, and during interactions with peers, parents, mentors, and role models. 
Priority #6: School Climate - Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports The Relationship of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support to Academic Achievement in an Urban Middle School. Lassen, Steele, Sailor. 2006 ODRs predicting Reading and Math Scores, Reading d=0.06 (r^2=0.01), Math d=0.12 (r^2=0.02) Examines the relationship of school-wide PBS-induced reductions in out-of-class referrals to student academic achievement. It should be noted that, although the relationship between academics and behavior was statistically significant, the effect sizes were small, accounting for between 1 and 2% of the variance in math and reading scores. Consistent with hypotheses and the school-wide PBS literature, the number of ODRs per student was significantly reduced each year of the study. Not only does this reduction indicate a decrease in student problem behavior, but it also has implications for two other areas of school functioning. The amount of instructional time a student loses for each ODR incurred has been estimated to be 45 min.Certainly, schools function much more effectively, academically and behaviorally, when students are in class. Additionally, since administrators must personally deal with each ODR within a school, ODRs can also be viewed as depleting administrator time. From this perspective, decreases in ODRs can translate into considerable time added to administrators’ schedules that can then be used in other, more preventative and positive activities (i.e., training teachers, acknowledging student achievements). Thus, reducing ODRs in a school is likely to produce a number of positive effects and result in overall improved functioning and performance.  
Priority #6: School Climate - Culture National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. Culture Matters: International Research Collaboration in a Changing World--Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014.  In an increasingly interconnected world, science and technology research often transects international boundaries and involves researchers from multiple nations. This paradigm provides both new opportunities and new challenges. As science and technology capabilities grow around the world, United States-based organizations are finding that international collaborations and partnerships provide unique opportunities to enhance research and training. At the same time, enhancing international collaboration requires recognition of differences in culture, legitimate national security needs, and critical needs in education and training. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM / Engineering National Research Council and National Academy of Engineering. Career Choices of Female Engineers: A Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014.  Despite decades of government, university, and employer efforts to close the gender gap in engineering, women make up only 11 percent of practicing engineers in the United States. What factors influence women graduates' decisions to enter the engineering workforce and either to stay in or leave the field as their careers progress? Researchers are both tapping existing data and fielding new surveys to help answer these questions. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM STEM Smart Brief: Preparing Students for College and Careers in STEM  Implementing rigorous math and science standards across the country is an important part of preparing more students for STEM college courses and careers. But it is not the only work to be done. 
Priority #1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM National Research Council. Exploring Opportunities for STEM Teacher Leadership: Summary of a Convocation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014.  This research report explores empowering teachers to play greater leadership roles in education policy and decision making in STEM education at the national, state, and local levels. Exploring Opportunities for STEM Teacher Leadership is a record of the presentations and discussion of that event. This report will be of interest to STEM teachers, education professionals, and state and local policy makers. 
Priority #8: Other Pupil Outcomes   Measure other student performance in some specific, required areas of study such as physical education, the arts, career technical training and foreign languages.  
Priority #1: Basic Services – Class Size Class Size The Research, AEU Victorian Branch, Australian education Union, July 2014 range d=0.21 to d=0.66 “The message could be that if teachers were retrained to work with smaller class sizes then indeed many of these optimal strategies may take effect; but merely reducing the number of students in front of teachers appears to change little—in teaching and in outcomes.” (Visible Learning, p.88) 
Priority #1: Basic Services – Class Size CLASS SIZE AND STUDENT OUTCOMES:Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 32(2): 411–438 (2013) RESEARCH AND POLICY IMPLICATIONS,    Most studies find at least some evidence of positive effects of smaller classes, but the size of these benefits is inconsistent across studies and often small. The significant costs of reducing class size coupled with these modest benefits implies that many school systems in the U.S. have overinvested in class-size reduction and that increasing class size in some situations may represent a budget cutting strategy that minimizes harm to students. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Feedback Praise for Intelligence Can Undermine Children's Motivation and Performance, Dweck and Mueller, 1998  children in the effort and control conditions distinctly preferred an incremental view vis-a-vis the malleability of intelligence d=1.84. 56% of children praised for effort used these terms (e.g., "It is to work hard") to describe the nature of intelligence. Praise for ability is commonly considered to have beneficial effects on motivation. Contrary to this popular belief, six studies demonstrated that praise for intelligence had more negative consequences for students' achievement motivation than praise for effort. These findings have important implications for how achievement is best encouraged, as well as for more theoretical issues, such as the potential cost of performance goals and the socialization of contingent self-worth. children's goal choice was clearly affected by the content of the praise that they were given. analysis revealed a significant difference in children's choice of achievement goals after praise. Whereas 55% of children who received intelligence feedback chose performance goals, only 23% of children who received effort feedback preferred these goals; 34% of children in the control condition elected to pursue performance, rather than learning, goals. Thus, again, intelligence praise led children to wish to continue looking smart, whereas effort praise led children to want to learn new things. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Not labeling students Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York: Routledge d=0.61 Many of the meta-analyses reviewed do not have achievement as an outcome, but do relate to how teachers (and Parents) differentiate between special and regular students (and many other labels) The controversy in distinguishing between mentally disabled and non-disabled children is often couched between the developmental and cognitive processing claims...Very often the labels help "classify" these students and can lead to extra funding, but rarely does it make a difference to what works best - regardless of these labels. 
Priority #2, 4, 8 - Student Labels THE EFFECTS OF LABELING STUDENTS UPON TEACHERS' EXPECTATIONS AND INTENTIONS* Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Northeastern University  In order to examine the impact of special education labels and students' behavior on both teachers' expectations and their behavioral intentions, 75 high school teachers were asked to evaluate a ninth grade student as described in a school psychologist's report. The experiment was a 4 x 2 x 2 factorial design in which diagnostic labels, levels of student achievement, and sex of S were studied. Results indicated that only the emotionally disturbed label and level of student achievement significantly influenced teachers' expectations; none of the independent variables significantly influenced teachers' behavioral intentions. 
Priority #2, 4, 8 - Student Labels  Effects of Disability Labels on Students with Exceptionalities, A Brief Review of the Research Literature, WV, 2012  Researchers have studied the effects of disability labels on students from several angles, including labels as a basis of stigma and lower teacher expectations and the mitigating effects that labels can sometimes have—especially for students with dyslexia and high-functioning autism. Other research has looked at the behavior of disabled students, to see how it may affect both teacher and peer expectations and relationships. Lastly, researchers point out the need to address issues of school culture, especially stigma and mistreatment of students with disabilities by their nondisabled peers. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Feedback Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York: Routledge d=0.90 formative feedback, Effective feedback d=0.73 In an often cited article from 2007 Hattie and Timperley provide a conceptual analysis of feedback and analyse the evidence related to its impact on learning and student achievement. They develop a model of effective feedback that identifies the particular properties and circumstances that make it work. Hattie and Timperley demonstrate how feedback can be used to enhance teachers effectiveness in the classroom and student achievement. Where am I going? (The Goals) Feed Up ; How am I going? Feed back ; Where to next? Feed Forward. Task level, Process level, Self-Regulation Level; Self level. The Power of Feedback research  
Priority #2, 4, 8 - Student Labels  Truth in Labeling: Disproportionality in Special Education, NEA, 2007  NEA views disproportionality as an important issue to address in any local or state eff orts aimed at closing the gaps in student achievement. As a matter of fact, disproportionate representation of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students in special education programs has been a national concern for nearly four decades.  
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – College and Career Ready Early Assessment Program (EAP)  The Early Assessment Program (EAP) is a collaborative effort among the State Board of Education (SBE), the California Department of Education (CDE) and the California State University (CSU). The program was established to provide opportunities for students to measure their readiness for college-level English and mathematics in their junior year of high school, and to facilitate opportunities for them to improve their skills during their senior year. Goal The goal of the EAP program is to have California high school graduates enter the CSU fully prepared to begin college-level study. 
Priority #1, 2, 4, 8: - CTE / College and Career Ready An evaluation of the Studio Schools Trust and its role in raising the status of practical & vocational learning, UK, 2013  Report conclusions: PBL, work placements and CREATE-based coaching sessions – shines through, One particularly interesting aspect of the Studio School model is that practical learning is being used to teach what are usually referred to as ‘academic’ subjects to students of all abilities, potentially bringing it out of the English cupboard marked ‘for low achievers’ and into the mainstream.... 
Priority #1, 2, 4, 8: - CTE / College and Career Ready WISE Initiative Studio Schools Curriculum, 14-19 year olds, UK  WISE is promoting innovation and building the future of education through collaboration. WISE connects innovators and offers a global platform for the development of new ideas, supports innovative approaches to education and promotes successful practices from various sectors and from around the world to build the future of education. . Studio Schools are innovative state schools for 14-19 year-olds, backed by local employers. The first wave of Studio Schools opened in 2010, 16 are now open and 14 additional schools opened in September 2013. The Studio Schools Trust (SST) has developed the unique Studio Schools curriculum model, which has been developed through extensive research and consultation with employers, education experts and young people. The SST is the organization that unites all Studio Schools, enabling the sharing of best practice as well as providing advice and curriculum support. 
Priority #2 - Implementation of State Standards - Environmental Education California Department of Education, Environmental Education  The Environmental Education Program has the primary purpose of supporting programs and projects which will result in long-term educational benefits to potentially all California educators and/or students. The state legislature approved the allocation of Environmental License Plate Funds (ELPF) to the California Department of Education (CDE) to support the distribution of funds through the Environmental Education Program. 
Priority # 2, 4, 6, 8: Outdoor Education Health Benefits to Children from contact with the outdoors & nature  Physical activity and exposure to nature are important to good health In this literature review, Pretty and colleagues examine the role of physical activity and nature contact on health and well-being, with a particular focus on children. The authors discuss the current state of physical inactivity, the positive health benefits of nature contact, and the potential role of green exercise (activity in the presence of nature) toward improving health and well-being. Pretty and colleagues review three stages of childhood and their differing needs, evidence regarding children’s physical activity levels, and the benefits of children’s exposure to nature. The authors discuss the impact of urban design and green space in terms of physical activity and various health outcomes, including cognitive health and learning, as well as the impact of nature-based interventions, such as care farms and wilderness therapy, for children with special needs. Based on their review, Pretty and colleagues propose two conceptual pathways—healthy and unhealthy—that shape our lives and life outcomes.  
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards - EEI EEI - California Education and the Environment Initiative,  EEI is California’s groundbreaking, first-in-the nation K-12 environmental education curriculum. It’s California State Board of Education-approved, teaches select California science and history/social science standards and helps support Common Core and Next Generation Science Standards. 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards - EEI Center for EcoLiteracy   The Center for Ecoliteracy is a nonprofit that advances ecological education in K–12 schools. We recognize that students need to experience and understand how nature sustains life and how to live accordingly. The Center for Ecoliteracy was cofounded by Fritjof Capra, author and systems thinker; Peter Buckley, farmer and founder of the David Brower Center; and Zenobia Barlow, who serves as executive director. It is located in the award-winning David Brower Center, a home for environmental and social action in Berkeley, California. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement ? Community Engagement - Measurement Approaches National Research Council. Civic Engagement and Social Cohesion: Measuring Dimensions of Social Capital to Inform Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014.  Civic Engagement and Social Cohesion identifies measurement approaches that can lead to improved understanding of civic engagement, social cohesion, and social capital - and their potential role in explaining the functioning of society. With the needs of data users in mind, this report examines conceptual frameworks developed in the literature to determine promising measures and measurement methods for informing public policy discourse. The report identifies working definitions of key terms; advises on the feasibility and specifications of indicators relevant to analyses of social, economic, and health domains; and assesses the strength of the evidence regarding the relationship between these indicators and observed trends in crime, employment, and resilience to shocks such as natural disasters. Civic Engagement and Social Cohesion weighs the relative merits of surveys, administrative records, and non-government data sources, and considers the appropriate role of the federal statistical system. This report makes recommendations to improve the measurement of civic health through population surveys conducted by the government and identifies priority areas for research, development, and implementation. 
Priority #6: School Climate - Reducing Bullying Institute of Medicine and National Research Council. Building Capacity to Reduce Bullying: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014.  Building Capacity to Reduce Bullying is the summary of a workshop convened by the Board on Children, Youth, and Families of the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council in April 2014 to identify the conceptual models and interventions that have proven effective in decreasing bullying, examine models that could increase protective factors and mitigate the negative effects of bullying, and explore the appropriate roles of different groups in preventing bullying. This report reviews research on bullying prevention and intervention efforts as well as efforts in related areas of research and practice, implemented in a range of contexts and settings, including schools, peers, families, communities, laws and public policies, and technology. Building Capacity to Reduce Bullying considers how involvement or lack of involvement by these sectors influences opportunities for bullying, and appropriate roles for these sectors in preventing bullying. This report highlights current research on bullying prevention, considers what works and what does not work, and derives lessons learned. 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs Professional Learning - Linking to Teachers' Real Work. American Educational Research Assoc  Professional Development must provide teachers with a way to directly apply what they learn to their teaching...connects to the curriculum materials that teachers use, district and state academic standards that guide their work, and the assessment and accountability measures that evaluate their success. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – College and Career Ready Core to College Evaluation: Statewide Networks—Connecting Education Systems and Stakeholders to Support College Readiness, WestEd  The Core to College initiative aims to facilitate greater coordination between K–12 and postsecondary education systems around implementation of the Common Core State Standards and aligned assessments. Core to College grants have been awarded to teams in Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Oregon, Tennessee, and Washington. The grant model places one individual—the alignment director—at the hub of a statewide reform effort. This report examines the strategies alignment directors have used to inform and engage others in the state, particularly around their states’ top priority goals for Core to College. The report focuses on the depth and breadth of the social networks that have been developed or leveraged as a result of the alignment directors’ work. Researchers sought to answer several driving questions: 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs National Research Council. Exploring Opportunities for STEM Teacher Leadership: Summary of a Convocation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014.  mpowering teachers to play greater leadership roles in education policy and decision making in STEM education at the national, state, and local levels. Exploring Opportunities for STEM Teacher Leadership is a record of the presentations and discussion of that event. This report will be of interest to STEM teachers, education professionals, and state and local policy makers. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM National Research Council. Monitoring Progress Toward Successful K-12 STEM Education: A Nation Advancing?. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2013.  Following a 2011 report by the National Research Council (NRC) on successful K-12 education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), Congress asked the National Science Foundation to identify methods for tracking progress toward the report's recommendations. In response, the NRC convened the Committee on an Evaluation Framework for Successful K-12 STEM Education to take on this assignment. The committee developed 14 indicators linked to the 2011 report's recommendations. By providing a focused set of key indicators related to students' access to quality learning, educator's capacity, and policy and funding initiatives in STEM, the committee addresses the need for research and data that can be used to monitor progress in K-12 STEM education and make informed decisions about improving it. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM National Research Council. Reaching Students: What Research Says About Effective Instruction in Undergraduate Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2015.  Reaching Students presents the best thinking to date on teaching and learning undergraduate science and engineering. Focusing on the disciplines of astronomy, biology, chemistry, engineering, geosciences, and physics, this book is an introduction to strategies to try in your classroom or institution. Concrete examples and case studies illustrate how experienced instructors and leaders have applied evidence-based approaches to address student needs, encouraged the use of effective techniques within a department or an institution, and addressed the challenges that arose along the way. The research-based strategies in Reaching Students can be adopted or adapted by instructors and leaders in all types of public or private higher education institutions. They are designed to work in introductory and upper-level courses, small and large classes, lectures and labs, and courses for majors and non-majors. And these approaches are feasible for practitioners of all experience levels who are open to incorporating ideas from research and reflecting on their teaching practices. This book is an essential resource for enriching instruction and better educating students. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 – NGSS National Research Council. Guide to Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2015.  Guide to Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards provides guidance to district and school leaders and teachers charged with developing a plan and implementing the NGSS as they change their curriculum, instruction, professional learning, policies, and assessment to align with the new standards. For each of these elements, this report lays out recommendations for action around key issues and cautions about potential pitfalls. Coordinating changes in these aspects of the education system is challenging. As a foundation for that process, Guide to Implementing the Next Generation Science Standards identifies some overarching principles that should guide the planning and implementation process. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 – STEM  National Research Council. The Mathematical Sciences in 2025. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2013.  The Mathematical Sciences in 2025 examines the current state of the mathematical sciences and explores the changes needed for the discipline to be in a strong position and able to maximize its contribution to the nation in 2025. It finds the vitality of the discipline excellent and that it contributes in expanding ways to most areas of science and engineering, as well as to the nation as a whole, and recommends that training for future generations of mathematical scientists should be re-assessed in light of the increasingly cross-disciplinary nature of the mathematical sciences. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 – STEM / College and Career Ready National Research Council. Community Colleges in the Evolving STEM Education Landscape: Summary of a Summit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2012.  Community colleges are also essential in accommodating growing numbers of students and in retraining displaced workers in skills needed in the new economy. Community Colleges in the Evolving STEM Education Landscape: Summary of a Summit looks at the changing and evolving relationships between community colleges and four-year institutions, with a focus on partnerships and articulation processes that can facilitate student success in STEM; expanding participation of students from historically underrepresented populations in undergraduate STEM education; and how subjects, such as mathematics, can serve as gateways or barriers to college completion. 
Priority #1-8 Glossary of Education Reform for Journalists, Parents, and Community Members  Created by the Great Schools Partnership, the GLOSSARY OF EDUCATION REFORM is a comprehensive online resource that describes widely used school-improvement terms, concepts, and strategies for journalists, parents, and community members. 
Priority # 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 – Deeper Learning National Research Council. Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2012.  Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century describes this important set of key skills that increase deeper learning, college and career readiness, student-centered learning, and higher order thinking. These labels include both cognitive and non-cognitive skills- such as critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, effective communication, motivation, persistence, and learning to learn. 21st century skills also include creativity, innovation, and ethics that are important to later success and may be developed in formal or informal learning environments. This report also describes how these skills relate to each other and to more traditional academic skills and content in the key disciplines of reading, mathematics, and science. Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century summarizes the findings of the research that investigates the importance of such skills to success in education, work, and other areas of adult responsibility and that demonstrates the importance of developing these skills in K-16 education. In this report, features related to learning these skills are identified, which include teacher professional development, curriculum, assessment, after-school and out-of-school programs, and informal learning centers such as exhibits and museums. 
Priority # 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 – Deeper Learning Teaching and Learning 21st Century Skills: Lessons from the Learning Sciences, GCEN report, 2012  This report addresses: Why students need 21st Century Skills, How to teach them - nine lessons from the science of learning 
Priority #5 - Pupil Engagement - Afterschool systems National Network: Better Together: A Resource Directory for Afterschool System Builders, 2014  t is difficult to know and stay on top of the ever-evolving list of national organizations, their work, and the leading afterschool tools, information, and resources they provide. Explore “Better Together: A Resource Directory for Afterschool System Builders,” a tool produced by the American Youth Policy Forum (AYPF), intended to serve as a comprehensive directory that identifies over 50 organizations offering resources and tools on afterschool system building. The Directory includes: A comprehensive listing of over 50 organizations Resources categorized by key theme Easy access to relevant information, data and briefs 
Priority #1,2,4 - Professional Development / PLCs Improving Teacher Quality Around the World: The International Summit on the Teaching Profession, Asia Society Partnership for Global Learning, 2011  • Put a spotlight on the teaching profession; • Identify and share the world’s best policies and practices in developing a high-quality profession; • Examine ways of engaging teachers in education reform; and • Initiate an ongoing international dialogue on the teaching profession. 
Priority # 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 – Deeper Learning Education for Life and Work Guide for Practitioners, National Research Council of the National Academies  This report summarizes the key information for implementation of Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable knowledge in the 21st Century. It analyzes deeper learning in the context of English language  arts, mathematics, and science. And it identifies areas of convergence with the learning  goals set for mathematics and English language arts by the new Common Core State  Standards and for science as outlined in the National Research Council’s Framework for K-12 Science Education. It also outlines the kinds of changes needed in the overall educational system to give all students the opportunity to develop the competencies they need in today's world.  
Priority # 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 – Deeper Learning Educating for Global Competence: Preparing Our Youth to Engage the World, CCSSO, Asia Society Partnership for Global Learning, 2011  Educating for Global Competence: Preparing Our Youth to Engage the World is intended for classroom teachers, administrators, informal educators, policymakers, community leaders, researchers, parents, students, and all other stakeholders interested in preparing our youth for the 21st century. Becoming better at educating for global competence involves rethinking practices and recognizing that there are no simple recipes for success. As such, this book is meant to be used flexibly—browse, make connections, and concentrate on the chapters that you find most pertinent to your work. Experiment with ideas, challenge concepts, and share with colleagues. Ultimately this book must work for you. It is meant to be read in the way that best meets your needs, inspires your curiosity, and proves fruitful in the classroom.. Global competence is the capacity and disposition to understand and act on issues of global significance. What is needed more than ever is a laser-like focus on the kinds of human beings that we are raising and the kinds of societies—indeed, in a global era, the kind of world society— that we are fashioning. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools, OECD, Asia Society Partnership for Global Learning, 2012  his report presents the key recommendations of the OECD publication Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools (2012a), which maps out policy levers that can help build high quality and equitable education systems, with a particular focus on North American and Asian-Pacific countries. It has been prepared by the OECD Education Directorate with support from the Asia Society as a Background Report for the first Asia Society Global Cities Network Symposium, Hong Kong, May 10-12, 2012. Asia Society is grateful for OECD’s leadership in international benchmarking and for our ongoing partnership.  
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement New Indicators Released to Evaluate High School Performance, Education Sector at American Institutes for Research  Confession: I’m a sucker for a good infographic. And today, the Strategic Data Project at Harvard (part of the Center for Education Policy Research) released three(!). As Caralee Adams reported in College Bound, the project has developed a set of performance indicators for school districts and high schools – indicators that provide insight into how well they do in preparing and sending their graduates to college. While Harvard has partnered with five specific school districts, the work could expand to more with the help of a free educator toolkit on how to better use data. The project hopes these data points will become as commonly-used (and understood) as price-to-earnings ratios in the business sector. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement Strategic Data Project, Center for Education Policy Research Harvard University  Transforming the use of data in education to improve student achievement 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement Webinar 8 - Evaluating Family Engagement Strategies: Addressing Measurement Challenges / Achieving Excellence and Innovation in Family, School, and Community Engagement Webinar Series / Projects / Family Involvement / HFRP - Harvard Family Research Project  Evaluating family engagement strategies to demonstrate their impact on student learning is essential for strengthening practice, and is becoming an increasingly important factor in securing program funding. Yet evaluation in this field is still in a developmental phase, and there are few clear guidelines available for identifying meaningful indicators of successful family engagement efforts. This webinar will highlight promising approaches for evaluating family engagement strategies, address challenges in defining and measuring outcomes, and provide guidance for building evaluation into a family engagement plan from the beginning.  
Priority #3: Parental Involvement ? Community Engagement SiG Resource Library: Family Engagement  ere is a good resource list for parent, family, and community engagement compiled by Marsha Goldberg, OSEP (June 2010). It's organized under the following headings: general governance financing; standards, needs assessments, data systems, and research professional development partnerships and capacity building 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement Using the Head Start Parent, Family, and Community Engagement Framework in Your Program: Markers of Progress. National Center on Parent Family, and Community Engagement  The PFCE Framework encourages programs to embed PFCE practices within the foundations of the program (program leadership, continuous program improvement, professional development) as well as the program impact areas (program environment, family partnerships, teaching and learning, and community partnerships). Equally important is the depth of your PFCE practices. You may choose to begin exploring your PFCE practices by thinking about the questions in Bringing the Parent, Family, and Community Engagement Framework to Your Program: Beginning a Self-Assessment.  
Priority #1-8 - LCAP Data Sources  LCAP Data Sources from Riverside County Office of Education  This is a great 1 pager that RCOE created that gives you the Data source, metric, and priority  
Priority #1-8 - LCAP Data Sources  Data. K-12, SBCSS - (The charts, tables, and graphs are produced from publicly released research files from CDE)  This site was created to assist District and Site Administrators in monitoring their progress toward Federal and California state level goals, student achievement gaps, and provide the information and resources necessary to focus on student achievement. The Accountability Progress Reports (APR) display up to 7 years of the state Academic Performance Index (API), the federal Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP), and Program Improvement (PI) cycle data and charts on one page. These reports include targets, participation, and proficiency rates of all major subgroups and indications of what targets were met or missed. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Mathematics College Bound in Middle School and High School?: How Math Course Sequences Matter  Research shows that success in high-level mathematics in high school predicts postsecondary success and careers in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. Similarly, students academic successes in middle school can determine their performance in high school. This study, produced by the Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning at WestEd, explores the connection between mathematics achievement in middle school and high school to better understand the degree to which students stay on the path toward postsecondary STEM study and, if students veer off the trajectory, to better understand when and why. Some key findings: Seventh-grade math performance predicts high school math course taking Continuing to take more advanced math classes each year does not help students who are already not proficient in math in the seventh grade Few students who repeat algebra become proficient on their second attempt Districts are aware of poor student performance in math and less aware of course-taking patterns Districts know they must improve algebra outcomes The report concludes with a set of considerations for state and local policymakers and education leaders. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Mathematics New Math: How U.S. Schools Can Realize Singapore’s Success in Mathematics Achievement, Whetsone  School principals have authority to plan and coordinate their school’s program under the guidelines established by the MOE. Thus, within national guidelines, local schools maintain flexibility to meet the needs of their students.  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Mathematics A Coherent Curriculum, Case of Mathematics, 2002  We should be moving on a variety of fronts to bring about a more common, coherent curriculum and to let the benefits of that flow to our schools, our teachers, and especially our students - who derserve no less than the quality of education experienced by children in the A+ countries.  
Priority #6: School Climate - Social Emotional NASP: Enhancing Conditions for Learning: Selected Research  Selected Research: Social and Emotional, Bullying, School climate, Wellness, Family-School Partnerships, School Mental Health Services 
Priority #6: School Climate - Social Emotional PBIS FAQs,  FAQs 
Priority #6: School Climate - Social Emotional NASP: Safe, Supportive Conditions for Learning: Making Connections for Student Success Selected Research  Selected research: violent crime, bullying, sexual assault and harassment, student perceptions of school safety, social and emotional development, school climate and bonding to school, PBS, qualified personnel, cost-benefit analysis,  
Priority #6: School Climate - Social Emotional NASP Fact Sheet Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports  PBIS Fact Sheet 
Priority #6: School Climate - Social Emotional General Information: website/OSEP  PBIS General Information 
Priority #6: School Climate - Social Emotional Fixed School Discipline - Research and Resources  Fix School Discipline is a comprehensive resource for school superintendents, principals, teachers, parents, students, community leaders and organizations and anyone who is interested in learning about how to eliminate harsh, push-out discipline practices and put in place solutions that work for all students. Here, you can find the latest data and news about the impacts that suspensions and expulsion have on students and school climate. You can also use our step-by-step tools to help you implement or advocate for supportive, inclusive discipline policies that hold students accountable and improve school climate and safety for all members of the school community. 
Priority #6: School Climate - Social Emotional Fix School Discipline Tool Kit for Educators  he How We Can Fix School Discipline Toolkit is a step-by-step guide to working together to change harsh discipline rules. Ready to roll up your sleeves and get started? 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs The use of Evidence to Improve Education and Serve the Public Good  Evidence, Use of: effective leadership, professional learning, and teaching. May be of interest when aligning LCAP and single-school plans: effective leadership, professional learning, and teaching 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs Peer Observation Toolkit, IDEO  Toolkit may be helpful in how to take a deep look at student learning  
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs HCD Design Toolkit: A step-by-step guide to the elements of human-centered design By  A step-by-step guide to the elements of human-centered design, specifically adapted for NGOs and social enterprises working with low-income communities around the globe. Through a series of methods, activities, and resources, the toolkit can empower individuals and organizations to become designers themselves and enable change in their own communities. 
Priority #1-8 Doing What Works Library. Research-Based Practices for Educators, WestED  Provides site tour, overview of topics and resources, CUSTOMIZABLE tools and templates!!! 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Mathematics Math K-2, Facts Wise. First-Grade Basic Facts: An Investigation into Teaching and Learning of an Accelerated, High-Demand Memorization Standard. Henry, V.J. and Brown, R.S. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education. 2008 Effect sizes: 1.00** (All students; 141 treatment and 98 control students) 1.53** (Spanish L1 students; 12 treatment and 12 control students) ** Statistically significant at p < .01 based on independent samples t-test  Math k-2, Facts Wise: In many classrooms, students are tested on their basic facts fluency without having significant learning experiences to help them learn. In a 2006 study, students who experienced 5 to 10 minutes of basic facts learning activities on a daily basis were significantly more fluent with their addition and subtraction facts than students in classrooms using "traditional" approaches. FactsWise helps teachers learn to teach basic facts using five research-based principles. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Mathematics Sherin, M.G., Linsenmeier, K.A., & van Es, E.A. (2009). Issues in the design of video clubs: Selecting video clips for teacher learning. Journal of Teacher Education, 60(3), 213-230.  This study explores the use of video clips from teachrs' own classrooms as a resource for investigating student mathematical thinking. Three dimensions for characterizing video clips of student mathematical thinking are introduced: the extent to which a clip provides Windows into student thinking, the depth of thinking shown, and the clarity of the thinking.  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Mathematics van Es, E.A. & Sherin, M.G. (2008). Mathematics teachers’ “learning to notice” in the context of a video club. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 244-276.  This study examines changes in teachers’ thinking as they participated in a video club designed to help them learn to notice and interpret students’ mathematical thinking. First, we investigate changes in teachers’ talk about classroom video segments before and after participation in the video club. Second, we identify three paths along which teachers learned to notice students’ mathematical thinking in this context: Direct, Cyclical, and Incremental. Finally, we explore ways the video club context influenced teacher learning. Understanding different forms of teacher learning provides insight for research on teacher cognition and may inform the design of video-based professional development. r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Mathematics van Es, E. (2007). Designing Video Clubs to Support Teacher Learning. In C. Crawford et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 3333-3340). Chesapeake, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.  video is a popular tool in may PD programs. Little is know about video, and the contexts in which it is used, suppor teahcer learning. This study examins teacher learning in the context of a video club designed to support teachers in "learning to notice" student mathematical thinking.  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Mathematics  This study examinses how a particular type of video-based professional development, namely video clubs, supports teacher development. video clubes are professional development environments in which groups of teachers come together to view and discuss videos of one another's teaching. In this paper we studen how two different video club designs support teachers in "learning to notice" classroom interactions in new ways.  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Mathematics Sherin, M.G. & van Es, E.A. (2003). A new lens on teaching: Learning to notice. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 9(2), 92.  What is learning to notice? We have been examining what it means for teachers to notice classroom interacts and how the ability to notice develops among both new and expereineced teachers. on the basis of this work, we identified three key elements of learning to notice... 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – English Learners / Title III Focusing Formative Assessment on the Needs of English Language Learners  How can formative assessment enhance the teaching and learning of English language learner (ELL) students? What, if anything, from our experience with summative assessment of ELL students can inform effective formative assessment practices? And finally, what are the opportunities and challenges inherent in integrating formative assessment into instruction for ELL students in this era of Common Core and other next generation standards? This paper addresses these questions. In addition, the authors, all former or current WestEd researchers, argue that in order to use formative assessment effectively in classrooms with ELL students, teachers must attend simultaneously to the students’ needs both in learning content and skills, as well as in developing the English required to express their learning.  
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – English Learners / Title III National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition  A new NCELA website will be launched in early 2015, with an abundance of resources for stakeholders in the education of English learners (ELs). Funded by the Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students (OELA) of the U.S. Department of Education 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – English Learners / Title III Strengthening Policies and Practices for the Initial Classification of English Learners: Insights From a National Working Session, 2015  Misclassifying students as English language learners (ELLs) who are in fact English fluent, or vice versa, could lead to long-term negative academic outcomes. This report examines issues in current state policies and practices associated with initially classifying ELLs. It then provides guidelines for initial ELL classification; strategies to address ELL misclassification; and approaches to support comparability of initial ELL classification criteria and procedures both within and across states and consortia. The report, cowritten by WestEd’s Robert Linquanti, is the third in a series of guidance papers intended to support states in large-scale assessment consortia that are expected to move toward more common policies and processes for defining English language learners as part of their assessment grant requirements. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – English Learners / Title III Understanding Language, Stanford University  Understanding Language aims to heighten educator awareness of the critical role that language plays in the new Common Core State Standards and Next Generation Science Standards. The long-term goal of the initiative is to increase recognition that learning the language of each academic discipline is essential to learning content. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information; articulating and building on ideas; constructing explanations; engaging in argument from evidence—such language-rich performance expectations permeate the new Standards.  
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – English Learners / Title III US Department of Education English Language Learners   Resources, polices, self-evaluation tools,  
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – English Learners / Title III Research-based strategies for English Learners and Long-Term English Learners, Laurie Olsen  Research Reports: Reparable Harm, Secondary Schol cours LTEL Report, A Closer Look at long Term English Learners, Ensuring Academic Success For English Learners, Educationg English Learners, The PROMISE Model 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III Redesigning English-Medium Classrooms: Using Research to Enhance English Learner Achievement David P. Dolson & Lauri Burnham-Massey, Editors Published by California Association for Bilingual Education (CABE)  This book describes practical applications of the research reviewed in the publication, Improving Education for English Learners: Research-Based Approaches, published by the California Department of Education. It includes descriptions of program models, delivery of standards-based instructional services, approaches to enhancing core learning components (e.g., cooperative learning and global learning networks, and augmented/extended instruction). 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – English learners / Dual Language California's Best Practices for Young Dual Language Learners: Research Papers Produced by State Advisory Council on Early Learning and Care, CDE and the leadership of WestEd project  This publication is designed to provide early childhood educators with the most current research on the development of young dual language learners. The publication, divided into separate overview papers, spans the disciplines of neuroscience, cognitive science, developmental psychology, assessment, education research, family engagement, and special needs. The overview papers focus on: How dual language development relates to development in other domains Neuroscience research related to dual language development Preschool programs Assessment Early intervention and learners with special needs 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 – Technology Flipping classroom, Active Learning, Pedagogy. Improvements from a Flipped Classroom May Simply Be the Fruits of Active Learning  The “flipped classroom” is a learning model in which content attainment is shifted forward to outside of class, then followed by instructor-facilitated concept application activities in class. Current studies on the flipped model are limited. Our goal was to provide quantitative and controlled data about the effectiveness of this model. Using a quasi-experimental design, we compared an active nonflipped classroom with an active flipped classroom, both using the 5-E learning cycle, in an effort to vary only the role of the instructor and control for as many of the other potentially influential variables as possible.  
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 – Technology Digital Citizenship; Seal of alignment CA Library Standards, This wiki is maintained by Dr. Lesley Farmer, California State University Long Beach.  This site provides k12 curriculum on digital citizenship and professional development for adults working with K12 students on digital citizenship. 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards Science Standards, NGSS for California Public Schools, K-12, 2013  All students, including English Language Learners, have access to school programs and services that are aligned with California’s academic content and performance standards. 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards Model School Library Standards  Information about and resources to support the Model School Library Standards for California Public Schools adopted by State Board of Education in September 2010. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 – NGSS National Research Council. Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014.  Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards recommends strategies for developing assessments that yield valid measures of student proficiency in science as described in the new Framework. This report reviews recent and current work in science assessment to determine which aspects of the Framework's vision can be assessed with available techniques and what additional research and development will be needed to support an assessment system that fully meets that vision. The report offers a systems approach to science assessment, in which a range of assessment strategies are designed to answer different kinds of questions with appropriate degrees of specificity and provide results that complement one another. 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards  National Research Council. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2012.  A Framework for K-12 Science Education outlines a broad set of expectations for students in science and engineering in grades K-12. These expectations will inform the development of new standards for K-12 science education and, subsequently, revisions to curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development for educators. This book identifies three dimensions that convey the core ideas and practices around which science and engineering education in these grades should be built.  
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards - NGSS National Research Council. Literacy for Science: Exploring the Intersection of the Next Generation Science Standards and Common Core for ELA Standards: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014  Literacy for Science is the summary of a workshop convened by the National Research Council Board on Science Education in December 2013 to address the need to coordinate the literacy for science aspect of CCSS and the practices in NGSS. The workshop featured presentations about the complementary roles of English/language arts teachers and science teachers as well as the unique challenges and approaches for different grade levels. Literacy for Science articulates the knowledge and skills teachers need to support students in developing competence in reading and communicating in science. This report considers design options for curricula and courses that provide aligned support for students to develop competencies in reading and communicating, and addresses the role of district and school administrators in guiding implementation of science and ELA to help ensure alignment. Literacy for Science will be a useful point of reference for anyone interested in the opportunities and challenges of overlapping science and literacy standards to improve the learning experience. 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards - NGSS National Research Council. Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014.  Developing Assessments for the Next Generation Science Standards makes the case that a science assessment system that meets the Framework's vision should consist of assessments designed to support classroom instruction, assessments designed to monitor science learning on a broader scale, and indicators designed to track opportunity to learn. New standards for science education make clear that new modes of assessment designed to measure the integrated learning they promote are essential. The recommendations of this report will be key to making sure that the dramatic changes in curriculum and instruction signaled by Framework and the NGSS reduce inequities in science education and raise the level of science education for all students. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III  The Cognitive Benefits of Being Bilingual, The Dana Foundation, 2012 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III  Becoming a Teacher of language and literacy, Boecke, Auld, Wells, Cambridge University Press, 2014  This comprehensive collection of cutting-edge interdisciplinary research into bilingual cognition makes important contributions to theory and practice alike. A must for both students and experienced researchers 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III  Making Content comprehensible for English Language Learners  Compiled by the Bilingual and Compensatory Education Resource Team, Dearborn Public Schools, 2002. Source taken from: “Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners”, Echevarria, Vogt, Short.  
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III  Developing Literacy in Second-Langauge Learners: Report of the national Literacy panel on Langauge-Minaority children and Youth, August & Shanahan, LEA, 2006  Findings: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension; instructoin in the key components of reading is necessary;Oral proficiency and literacy in the first language 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III  Echevarria, J., Vogt, M.E. & Short, D. (2008). Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners: The SIOP® Model, Third Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon  Making Content Comprehensible for English Learners: The SIOP ® Model - Presents the most comprehensive, coherent model of sheltered instruction yet by fully explaining the widely popular SIOP®(Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol) Model and providing lesson plans and instructional activities to help teachers implement it effectively in K–12 classrooms.  
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III  Genesee, F. (1987). Learning through two languages: Studies of immersion and bilingual education. Cambridge, MA: Newbury House.  Learning Through Two Languages: Studies on Immersion and Bilingual Education  
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III Hoff, Erika and Marilyn Shatz (eds). Blackwell Handbook of Language Development. Blackwell Publishing, 2006. Blackwell Reference Online. 30 March 2015   provides a comprehensive treatment of the major topics and current concerns in the field. Including new academic terrain such as brain development, computational skills, bilingualism, education, and cross-linguistic comparisons, this volume explores the progress of twenty-first-century research in language development while considering its precursors and looking towards promising research topics for the future.  
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III Lantolf, J. P. (2006). Sociocultural theory and second language learning: State of the art. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 67-109.  The intent of this chapter is to familiarize readers with the principles and constructs of an approach to learning and mental development known as Sociocultural Theory. SCT argues that while human neurobiology is a necessary condition for higher order thinking, the most important forms of human cognitive activity develop through interaction within these social and material environments. This chapter describes the major theoretical principles and constructs associated with SCT and focuses specifically on second language acquisition (SLA).  
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III  Bilingual Research Journal: The Journal of the National Association for Bilingual Education  Official Journal of the National Association for Bilingual Education 
Priority # 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 – Deeper Learning Deeper learning Advocacy cluster Evaluation Key Findings, Nov 2013  The cluster evaluation of the foundation’s Deeper Learning advocacy sought to understand the portfolio’s role and influence in the education advocacy and policy landscape. Broadly, we found good alignment to, and awareness of, the foundation’s concept of Deeper Learning. Given the state of the field related to Common Core and the kinds of policies that can support the foundation’s goals related to helping students be prepared for college, careers, and life, the time may be right to form a tighter, more formal advocacy coalition using better-shared definitions of Deeper Learning to build momentum around implementation—both of the Deeper Learning elements contained within the Common Core and of “proof points” that address the full set of knowledge, skills, and dispositions.  
Priority # 2, 4, 5, 7, 8 – Deeper Learning Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension Fostering and Comprehension Monitoring Activities   Reciprocal teaching, with an adult model guiding the student to interact with the textin more sophisticatedways, led to a significantimprovement in the quality of the summaries and questions.It alsoled to sizablegainson criterion tests of comprehension,reliable maintenance over time, generalization to classroom comprehension tests, transfer to novel tasks that tapped the trained skillsof summarizing,questioning, and clarifying,and improvementin standardized comprehension scores 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III Improving Education for English Learners: Research-Based Approaches, OCDE Archived Webinars  Improving Education for English Learners is perhaps the most recent, comprehensive book surrounding best practices for English Learners (ELs) in grades K-12. This California Department of Education publication "represents work by a fabulous pooling of talent from the researcher and practitioner communities" (Kenji Hakuta, Stanford University). The California Comprehensive Center at WestEd has coordinated webinars for each chapter of the publication led by the chapter authors themselves. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III Lyster, R. 2007 Learning and tracking language through content: A counterbalanced approach. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.  This online book provides information regarding processing language through content, instructional practices, negotiating language through content, counterbalance instruction,  
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III Olneck. M. R. 2004 Immigrants and education. In Handbook of research on multicultural education, 2nd ed., ed. J. A. Banks and C. A. McGee Banks. New York: Macmillan.  This updated book describes and analyzes changes such as increased immigration to the United States and new developments in theory and research related to race, culture, ethnicity, and language. It addresses new issues such as findings on the increase in the number of interracial children and the characteristics of children of immigrant families. The educational implications of new research and trends are also discussed. Topics include trends and developments, ethnic groups in historical and social science research, language issues, academic achievement, higher education, and international perspectives on multicultural education. The volume also offers comprehensive and balanced analyses of key controversies and debates in the field. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III Paradis, J. 2005. Grammatical morphology in children learning English as a second language: Implications of similarities with specific language impairment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools 36: 172-87  This study was conducted to examine whether the expressive language characteristics of typically developing (TD) children learning English as a second language (ESL) have similarities to the characteristics of the English that is spoken by monolingual children with specific language impairment (SLI), and whether this could result in the erroneous assessment of TD English-language learners (ELLs) as language impaired. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III Riches, C., and F. Genesee. 2006. Cross-linguistic and corss-modal aspects of literacy development. In Educating English language learners: A synthesis of research evidence, ed. F. Genesee, K. Lindholm-Leary, W. Saunders, and D. Christian, 64-108. New York: Cambridge University Press.  "Crosslinguistic relationships between the L1 and the L2 as well as crossmodal relationships between oral and written language provide a basis for discussing research on the reading and writing development of ELLs in this section. There are two fundamental and inescapable reasons why this is so. First of all, the learners under consideration, by definition, are acquiring literacy in English as a second language and have an ongoing developmental history in their first language. As a result, the relationship between their L1 and their L2 figures prominently in much of the research on reading and writing development in ELLs. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III Snow, C. E., M. S. Burns, and P. Griffin. Eds. 1998. Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Committee on the Prevention of Reading Difficulties in Young Children, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.  Reading is essential to success in our society. The ability to read is highly valued and important for social and economic advancement. Of course, most children learn to read fairly well. In this report, we are most concerned with the large numbers of children in America whose educational careers are imperiled because they do not read well enough to ensure understanding and to meet the demands of an increasingly competitive economy. Current difficulties in reading largely originate from rising demands for literacy, not from declining absolute levels of literacy. In a technological society, the demands for higher literacy are ever increasing, creating more grievous consequences for those who fall short. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III Solano-Flores, G., and E. Trumbull. 2003. Examining language in context: The need for new research and practice paradigms in the testing of English language learners. Educational Researcher 32(2): 3-13  "Concerns about how to ensure the valid and equitable assessment of English-language learners (ELLs) and other students from culturally non-mainstream backgrounds are longstanding. This article proposes that new paradigms in the research and practice related to ELL testing are needed to address the complexities of language and culture more effectively. Three main areas are identified as key to this paradigm shift: test review, test development, and treatment of language as a source of measurement error. Research examples are provided that illustrate that the proposed paradigm shift is not only necessary but also possible. The authors propose the combined use of generalizability theory and research designs in which ELLs are given the same items in both English and their native languages—an approach that has the potential to reveal more fine-grained understandings of the interactions among first and second language proficiency, student content knowledge, and the linguistic and content demands of test items. " 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III Thomas, W., and B. Collier. 2002. A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students' long-term academic achievement. Santa Cruz, CA: Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence  "This longitudinal study examined the education of language minority students in five school districts nationwide. Qualitative data included interviews, school visits, surveys, and source documents. Quantitative data included information from registration centers, language minority student databases, student information systems databases, testing databases, and other federal and state reporting databases. Overall, the districts have attempted to address the dimensions of the Prism Model of Language Acquisition for School (Thomas & Collier in Ovando & Collier, 1998) as they continue to improve programs for English language learners (ELLs). This model emphasizes four developmental processes that students experience through K-12 sociocultural, linguistic, cognitive, and academic processes. Findings demonstrate the importance of providing a socioculturally supportive school environment for language minority students that allows natural language, academic, and cognitive development to flourish in the native and second language. Findings note that each school context is different, and significant elements within each context can strongly influence students' academic achievement. Bilingually schooled students outperform monolingually schooled students in all subjects after 4-7 years of bilingual education. Short-term programs are not sufficient for ELLS with no English proficiency. The strongest predictor of L2 achievement is amount of formal Ll schooling." 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - English Learners / Title III Wong Fillmore, L. 1991. When learning a second language means losing the first. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 6: 323-34  "In societies like the United States with diverse populations, children from linguistic minority families must learn the language of the society in order to take full advantage of the educational opportunities offered by the society. The timing and the conditions under which they come into contact with English, however, can profoundly affect the retention and continued use of their primary languages as well as the development of their second lan- guage. This article discusses evidence and findings from a nationwide study of language shift among language-minority children in the U.S. The find- ings suggest that the loss of a primary language, particularly when it is the only language spoken by parents, can be very costly to the children, their families, and to society as a whole. Immigrant and American Indian families were surveyed to determine the extent to which family language patterns were affected by their children's early learning of English in preschool pro- grams. Families whose children had attended preschool programs con- ducted exclusively in Spanish served as a base of comparison for the families whose children attended English-only or bilingual preschools. " 
Priority #6: School Climate – Social Emotional - Restorative Practices SaferSanerSchools: Whole-School Change Through Restorative Practices, International Institute for Restorative Practices  Evidence from whole-school implementation: Evidence of Effectiveness, Tools & Resources, Video examplars 
Priority #6: School Climate – Social Emotional OCDE School Climate - Research, Resources, Tools, Webinars   OCDE School Climate webpage includes: Resources, research links, tools, and webinars 
Priority #1-8 ‘Education for Sustainability’ The National Strategy on Education for Sustainable Development in Ireland, 2014- 2020   Priority action areas 1. Leadership and coordination 2. Data collection and baseline measurement 3. Curriculum at pre-school, primary and post primary. 4. Professional development 5. Further Education and Training 6. Higher Education and Research 7. Promoting participation by young people. 8. Sustainability in action. Key principles ESD in Ireland will aim to: - balance environmental , social and economic considerations; - promote lifelong learning; - be locally relevant while also linking the local to the national and international; - engage all sectors of the education system, as well as the non-formal education sector; - be interdisciplinary and recognise interdependence and interconnectivities across other sectors; - use a variety of pedagogical techniques that promote active and participatory learning and the development of key dispositions and skills; - emphasise social justice and equity; - focus on values and promote active democratic citizenship and inclusion as a means of empowering the individual and the community. - be an agent for positive change in reorienting societies towards sustainable development.  
Priority #5: Pupil Engagement Measures for a College and Career indicator: course-Taking Behavior, EPIC, CDE, 2014  This white paper considers course-taking behavior—specifically the a–g subject requirements for the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) systems, career technical education (CTE) course pathways, and an integrated course pathway—as potential measures to be included in California’s college and career indicator. This white paper begins by presenting a brief overview of the a–g subject requirements and CTE course pathways, their respective histories, their current applications to other state accountability systems, and the connections between both sets of course-taking behaviors. Next, the a–g subject requirements and CTE course pathways are evaluated against the framework being used for all five categories of potential college and career preparedness measures. This white paper concludes with a summary that identifies major strengths, weaknesses, and tradeoffs. 
Priority #2, 4, 6, 7: RTI / MTSS - Multi-Tiered Systems of Support  Florida Self-Assessment of Problem Solving Implementation (SAPSI)*  Self-Assessment of Problem Solving Implementation (SAPSI)*: Helpful tool for developing common terminology, practice, understanding, system 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement / Community Engagement Equity Alliance Report: Achieving Ambitious Educational Outcomes through School and Community Partnerships, 2013  Educating students requires engaging and working with families, community services and resources, businesses, higher education, diverse public agencies, and researchers. This in turn requires intentional and sustained partnerships among multiple institutions and organizations committed to better outcomes for young people. Partnerships respond to students’ academic, social, emotional, and physical needs. They also engage children and youth in meaningful learning experiences from early in their lives to young adulthood, both during and after school hours. The engine of education in the 21st century will need to be powered by sustainable partnerships because schools cannot accomplish their job alone and education does not occur only within the four walls of K-12 schools. We encourage use of this summary in further discussions of why and how to grow and sustain partnerships in communities across the country. 
Priority #5 - Pupil Engagement - Afterschool systems A vision for Expanded learning in California, Strategic Plan 2014-2016  California’s Expanded Learning programs are an integral part of young people’s education, engaging them in year-round learning opportunities that prepare them for college, career, and life. Developed by the California Department of Education After School Division in collaboration with K-12 educators, program practitioners, and support providers. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement Successful Family Engagement in the Classroom: What teachers need to know and be able to do to engage families in raising student achievement , Spielberg, Flamboyan Foundation, Harvard Research Project  We define family engagement as collaboration between families and schools that drives student achievement. The goals of this collaboration are to help families guide, support, and advocate for their children’s learning; to encourage families and educators to foster high expectations for children; and to enable families and schools to share decision-making and leadership to improve school quality. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement Family Engagement Framework, A Tool for California School Districts, CDE 2014  The implementation of the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) has placed a renewed emphasis on families and educators working together as partners.The revisions to this Framework include updates to state and federal program requirements where family engagement is a vital component, including those under the new LCFF. And for the first time, the entire Framework is available in Spanish to reach even more families who want to fully participate in their child’s learning. At the core of the Framework are district principles that were developed collaboratively with input from a wide variety of parent, education, and community organizations. The principles describe expectations, or standards, for districts to engage family members in supporting their children’s education.The principles address capacity building, leadership, resource allocation, progress monitoring, access, and equity. Implementation activities are provided for each district principle, with legal references cited where appropriate. 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement Parent Institute for Quality Education.   Parent Institute for Quality Education (PIQE) creates partnerships between parents, students and educators to further students’ academic success 
Priority #3: Parental Involvement Family Engagement Language Glossary, California Department of Education  The English-Spanish Family Engagement Language Glossary was developed collaboratively by the California Department of Education (CDE) and WestEd to serve as a companion resource for the Family Engagement Framework (2014) and to encourage more consistent translation of words and terminology that commonly occur in communications about family engagement, including this framework. Modeled after the CDE's English-Spanish Education and Assessment Glossary (2013), its purpose is to ensure the consistency of documents the CDE produces for Spanish-speaking audiences, primarily parents and guardians. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement  Metrics: performance on standardized tests (CAASPP, when scores are available), score on Academic Performance Index, share of pupils that are college and career ready, share of English learner reclassification rate, share of pupils that pass Advanced Placement exams with 3 or higher, share of pupils determined prepared for college by the Early Assessment Program School district and schools strive to improve outcomes for all students to ensure student success. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement Center for Assessment, National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment  The Student Learning Objective Toolkit is a resource developed by the Center to help educators map out the process for developing quality SLOs. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement Two Sides of the Same Coin: Competency-Based Education and Student Learning Objectives, Marion, National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment, January 29, 2015   Student learning objectives have emerged as the most common approach for documenting teachers contributions to student learning (Hall, Gagnon, Thompson, Schneider, & Marion, 2014). Competency-based education has taken hold to help ensure that students have mastered critical knowledge and skills before becoming eligible for graduation or moving on to the next learning target rather than simply occupying a seat for a certain amount of time. Unfortunately, many school leaders do not see the strong relationship between these two initiatives and feel like they have to do “double-duty” to meet both sets of policy goals. I describe each of these initiatives below and then illustrate how the close connection between the two can create coherence and efficiencies. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement Learning Progressions in K-8 Classrooms: How Progress Maps Can Influence Classroom Practice and Perceptions and Help Teachers Make More Informed Instructional Decisions in Support of Struggling Learners, NCEO Karin Hess, Center for Assessment, 2012  Learning Progressions in K-8 Classrooms: How Progress Maps Can Influence Classroom Practice and Perceptions and Help Teachers Make More Informed Instructional Decisions in Support of Struggling Learners  
Priority # 2, 5, 7 U.S. Smartphone Use in 2015  Today nearly two-thirds of Americans own a smartphone, and 19% of Americans rely to some degree on a smartphone for accessing online services and information and for staying connected to the world around them — either because they lack broadband at home, or because they have few options for online access other than their cell phone. 
Priority #2, 4, 8: College and Career Ready – Career Technical Education Planning Guide for Career Academies and Pathways, 2014, CCASN  Career Academies and Pathways:How to to start, begin, who does what, where to get help 
Priority #2, 4, 8: College and Career Ready – Career Technical Education California Partnership Academies 2009-10 Executive Summary, 2011  Overview of the Academies, locations, industry sectors, and sources of support, student profile, student performance, student intentions and experiences... 
Priority #2, 4, 8: College and Career Ready – Career Technical Education The Economy Goes to College, Center on Education and the Workplace, 2015  This report analyzes long-term changes in how goods and services are produced. These shifts have created millions of high-skill professional jobs and increased the economic value of obtaining a college degree. The report finds that college-educated workers now produce more than half of the nation’s annual economic value. The findings undermine the fear that good manufacturing jobs of the past are being replaced with low-paid, dead-end service jobs. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM / Engineering National Academy of Engineering. The Past Half Century of Engineering---And a Look Forward: Summary of a Forum. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2015.  Engineering is poised to make an even greater contribution to society in the next half century than it has made in the past half century. At its annual meeting on September 28-29, 2014, the National Academy of Engineering celebrated the 50th anniversary of its founding. A highlight of the meeting was a forum of distinguished speakers who considered the achievements of the last 50 years and looked toward the potential achievements of the next 50. The Past Half Century of Engineering - and a Look Forward summarizes their presentations. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council. STEM Integration in K-12 Education: Status, Prospects, and an Agenda for Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014.  STEM Integration in K-12 Education examines current efforts to connect the STEM disciplines in K-12 education. This report identifies and characterizes existing approaches to integrated STEM education, both in formal and after- and out-of-school settings. The report reviews the evidence for the impact of integrated approaches on various student outcomes, and it proposes a set of priority research questions to advance the understanding of integrated STEM education. STEM Integration in K-12 Education proposes a framework to provide a common perspective and vocabulary for researchers, practitioners, and others to identify, discuss, and investigate specific integrated STEM initiatives within the K-12 education system of the United States. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM National Research Council. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2015.  synthesizes and integrates the available research to provide guidance on assembling the science team; leadership, education and professional development for science teams and groups. It also examines institutional and organizational structures and policies to support science teams and identifies areas where further research is needed to help science teams and groups achieve their scientific and translational goals. This report offers major public policy recommendations for science research agencies and policymakers, as well as recommendations for individual scientists, disciplinary associations, and research universities. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM  National Research Council. Literacy for Science: Exploring the Intersection of the Next Generation Science Standards and Common Core for ELA Standards: A Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2014.  complementary roles of English/language arts teachers and science teachers as well as the unique challenges and approaches for different grade levels. Literacy for Science articulates the knowledge and skills teachers need to support students in developing competence in reading and communicating in science. This report considers design options for curricula and courses that provide aligned support for students to develop competencies in reading and communicating, and addresses the role of district and school administrators in guiding implementation of science and ELA to help ensure alignment. Literacy for Science will be a useful point of reference for anyone interested in the opportunities and challenges of overlapping science and literacy standards to improve the learning experience. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM National Research Council. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2015.  Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science synthesizes and integrates the available research to provide guidance on assembling the science team; leadership, education and professional development for science teams and groups. It also examines institutional and organizational structures and policies to support science teams and identifies areas where further research is needed to help science teams and groups achieve their scientific and translational goals. This report offers major public policy recommendations for science research agencies and policymakers, as well as recommendations for individual scientists, disciplinary associations, and research universities. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Team Science will be of interest to university research administrators, team science leaders, science faculty, and graduate and postdoctoral students. 
Priority # 1, 2, 4, 8 - STEM / Innovation National Academy of Engineering. Educate to Innovate: Factors That Influence Innovation: Based on Input from Innovators and Stakeholders. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2015.  he aim of the Educate to Innovate project is to expand and improve the innovative capacity of individuals and organizations by identifying critical skills, attributes, and best practices - indeed, cultures - for nurturing them. The project findings will enable educators in industry and at all levels of academia to cultivate the next generation of American innovators and thus ensure that the U.S. workforce remains highly competitive in the face of rapid technological changes. Educate to Innovate summarizes the keynote and plenary presentations from a workshop convened in October 2013. The workshop brought together innovators and leaders from various fields to share insights on innovation and its education. This report continues on to describe the specific skills, experiences, and environments that contribute to the success of innovators, and suggests next steps based on discussion from the workshop. 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs Greatness by Design, Supporting Outstanding Teaching to Sustain a Golden State, 2012, A report by State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson’s Task Force on Educator Excellence   Chapter 5: Educator Evaluation. 5A: Establish professional learning expectations for educators linked to the certification renewal process and orchestrated through Individual Learning Plans. 5B: Establish a strong infrastructure for ongoing high-quality professional learning that ensures educators will be able to develop the skills they need to support student success. 5C: Create review processes to support statewide learning about high-quality professional development. 5D: Provide consistent, high-leverage resources for professional learning. 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs Professional Capital as Accountability, Michael Fullan, santiago Rincon-Gallardo, Andy Hargreaves, EPPA, 2015  This paper seeks to clarify and spells out the responsibilities of policy makers to create the conditions for an effective accountability system that produces substantial improvements in student learning, strengthens the teaching profession, and provides transparency of results to the public. The authors point out that U.S. policy makers will need to make a major shift from a heavy reliance on external accountability and superficial structural solutions (e.g., professional standards of practice) to investing in and building the professional capital of all teachers and leaders throughout the system. The article draws key lessons from highly effective school systems in the United States and internationally to argue that the priority for policy makers should be to lead with creating the conditions for internal accountability, that is, the collective responsibility within the teaching profession for the continuous improvement and success of all students.  
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs Accountability for College and Career Readiness Developing a New paradigm, linda Darling-hammond, Gene Wilhoit, and linda Pittenger, SCOPE, CIE, 2015  As schools across the country prepare for CCSS, states are moving toward creating more aligned systems of assessment and accountability. This report recommends an accountability approach that focuses on meaningful learning, enabled by professionallly skilled and committed educators, and supported by adequate and appropriate resources, so tha tall students regardless of background are prepared for both college and career when they graduate from high school.  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 - Literacy  Literacy, Doug Fisher and Nancy Frey journal publications  Literacy, Doug Fisher and Nancy Frey journal publications 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – College and Career Ready Ready by 21 - Forum for Youth Initative  Ready by 21® is a set of innovative strategies developed by the Forum for Youth Investment that helps communities improve the odds that all children and youth will be ready for college, work and life. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – College and Career Ready   The Forum for Youth Investment helps leaders get young people ready for life, college and career 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – College and Career Ready  The Forum for Youth Investment - Pipeline for educating the whole child  educating the whole child—focusing not only on the traditional education pipeline that links early childhood programs to schools, and schools to higher education, but also on the families and community organizations that insulate this pipeline. While a well-insulated education pipeline will benefit all youth, it is particularly important...Statement by Karen Pittman, President and CEO The Forum for Youth Investment Before the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement – College and Career Ready  College and Career Readiness -when students graduate, are they really equipped for the next stage?  AASA, the School Superintendents Association, advocates for the highest quality public education for all students, and develops and supports school system leaders. 
Priority #5: Pupil Engagement  Metrics: As measured by multiple indicators including but not limited to school attendance rates, chronic absenteeism rate, middle school dropout rate, high school dropout rate, high school graduation rate. Provide students with programs, course work and opportunities, in and out of the classroom, that motivate them and keep them in school. 
Priority #6: School Climate - Healthy kids / healthy foods /physical activity Growing a Movement; Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities Final Report, Dec 2014  Gain insights on what is achievable through collaboration among community-based organizations, residents, decision makers and other partners by reading Growing a Movement. This report provides an overview of the Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities national program, which supported 49 partnerships to increase children’s access to healthy foods and opportunities for physical activity through changes in policies, systems and environments in communities at greatest risk for childhood obesity based on race, ethnicity, income and geographic location. Growing a Movement includes common themes, key findings and brief vignettes, along with implications for the field that are valuable for local leaders, partners and funders alike. 
Priority #4: Pupil Achievement - Career Ready Education to Employment: Designing a System that Works, McKinsey & Company   Report and appendices address what matters to youth and how to engage youth and to resolve that young people today are three times as likely as their parents to be out of work.How to close the gap? McKinsey and Company profiled innovative organizations—that are pioneering new approaches to successfully transition greater numbers of students from education into employment.» These examples hint at two related global crises: high levels of youth unemployment and a shortage of people with critical job skills.  
Priority #6: School Climate - Healthy kids / healthy foods Obesity in California: The Weight of the State, 2000-2012 (Report)   
Priority #4 and #5: Pupil Achievement and Pupil Engagement: healthy kids/healthy foods State-Level Estimates of Obesity-Attributable Costs of Absenteeism  Between 6.5% - 12% of total absenteeism costs for workplace is estimated to be due to obesity related issues 
Priority #4 and #5: Pupil Achievement and Pupil Engagement: healthy kids/healthy foods  This Study indicated that fruit and vegetable intake of elementary aged students can be increased by small changes to the names of the dishes served in the school cafeteria to more attractive/playful names such as “X-ray Vision Carrots” 
Priority #4 and #5: Pupil Achievement and Pupil Engagement: healthy kids/healthy foods Healthy convenience: nudging students toward healthier choices in the lunchroom  Small changes in the cafeteria can improve student food consumption by placing more healthier foods in a convenient location and placing unhealthy options in less convenient locations. 
Priority #3 Parent Involvement: healthy kids/healthy foods Parents’ beliefs about the healthfulness of sugary drink options: opportunities to address misperceptions  This Study indicates how Parent beliefs about sugary drinks can be addressed in order to decrease unhealthy consumption of sugary drinks in students 
Priority #4 and #5: Pupil Achievement and Pupil Engagement: healthy kids/healthy foods Inspiring Youth As partners  Describes methods that can be used to affect change in the healthy and well-being of students by involving students in youth engagement 
Priority #2, 4, 8: College and Career Ready – Career Technical Education Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative Annual Report, 2013  The Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative prepares students to succeed in the workforce, through partnerships between California Community Colleges and the California Department of Education. These partnerships provide students with a seamless career technical education from middle school through community college. This report captures the most recent highlights of the Initiative’s progress in three key areas: Monitoring statewide coordination of regional pathways Building human and organizational support Sharing data/progress monitoring 
Priority #2, 4, 5, 8: College and Career Ready – Career Technical Education Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative  The Career Technical Education Pathways Initiative prepares students to succeed in the workforce through partnerships between California Community Colleges and the California Department of Education 
Priority #2, 4, 5, 8: College and Career Ready – Career Technical Education Work-based learning in linked learning  Provide clarity for teachers, partners, and others implementing Linked Learning concerning the definition of high-quality, outcomes-driven work-based learning, which is one of four core components of the Linked Learning approach and part of the learning and Teaching Framework for Linked Learning 
Priority #2, 4, 5, 8: College and Career Ready – Career Technical Education Work-based learning in California: Opportunities and Models for Expansion  This report summarizes the findings of a study conducted by WestEd. In order to gain a deep understanding of the content and application of work-based learning, researchers reviewed the literature, interviewed scholars and practitioners, and conducted 13 site visits with a variety of schools and programs throughout California. This report mines the data gathered during this exploration in order to describe the characteristics and benefits of work-based learning, and the elements of high-quality implementation. In addition, it invites state and local practitioners and decision makers to consider what it will take to expand successful work-based learning models for the benefit of California’s young people. 
Priority #2, 4, 5, 8: College and Career Ready – Career Technical Education A Guide for Implementing Programs of Study in Wisconsin  The primary focus of this guide is to demonstrate how PK-12 teams and post-secondary educational leaders and employers collaborate to facilitate effective P-12 preparation and subsequent transition into post-secondary course work and into careers. 
Priority #6: School Climate – Violence Proventions Injury Prevention & Control : Division of Violence Prevention   
Priority #6: School Climate – Violence Preventions Friends NRC: Protection Factors Survey   
Priority #6: School Climate – Violence Preventions OC Health Information    
Priority #6: School Climate – Violence Preventions Measuring Bullying Victimization, Perpetration, and Bystander Experiences: A Compendium of Assessment Tools  Bullying, particularly among school-age children, is a major public health problem. This compendium provides researchers, prevention specialists, and health educators with tools to measure a range of bullying experiences: bully perpetration, bully victimization, bully-victim experiences, and bystander experiences. Some researchers continue to examine the risk and protective factors associated with bullying experiences.  
Priority #6: School Climate – Violence Preventions Measuring Violence-Related Attitudes, Behaviors, and Influences Among Youths: A Compendium of Assessment Tools  his compendium provides researchers and prevention specialists with a set of tools to assess violence-related beliefs, behaviors, and influences, as well as to evaluate programs to prevent youth violence. .. 
Priority #6: School Climate - Violence Preventions WHO-5 Questionaires  The purpo​​se of this homepage is to make the WHO (Five) Well-being Index (WHO-Five, WHO-5, or WBI) in all existing language versions available to all interested parties.​ The questionnaires are available in pdf-format.​​ 
Priority #6: School Climate - Violence Preventions The Protective Factors Survey User’s Manual Revised, October, 2011  The Protective Factors Survey (PFS) is a 20-item measure designed for use with caregivers receiving child maltreatment prevention services such as home visiting, parent education, and family support. It is a pre-post survey completed by the program participants, usually parents or caregivers. The PFS measures protective factors in five areas: family functioning/resiliency, social support, concrete support, nurturing and attachment, and knowledge of parenting/child development. The primary purpose of the Protective Factors Survey is to provide feedback to agencies for continuous improvement and evaluation purposes. 
Priority #6: School Climate – Violence Preventions  Orange County Health Care Agency PEI & INN Data Guidebook Protective Factors Survey (PFS)  The primary purpose of the Protective Factors Survey is to provide feedback to agencies for continuous improvement and evaluation purposes. .. 
Priority #6: School Climate – Violence Preventions  Protective Factor Survey  The PFS is a pre-post evaluation tool for use with caregivers receiving child maltreatment prevention services. It is a self-administered survey that measures protective factors in five areas: family functioning/resiliency, social support, concrete support, nurturing and attachment, and knowledge of parenting/child development.  
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Mathematics  National Research Council. Fueling Innovation and Discovery: The Mathematical Sciences in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2012  Fueling Innovation and Discovery will be of use to policy makers, researchers, business leaders, students, and others interested in learning more about the deep connections between the mathematical sciences and every other aspect of the modern world. To function well in a technologically advanced society, every educated person should be familiar with multiple aspects of the mathematical sciences. 
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards  Metrics: May be measured by surveys, observations, lesson plans, courses of study, etc. All students, including English Language Learners, have access to school programs and services that are aligned with California’s academic content and performance standards, including Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics, Next Generation Science Standards, and English Language Development Standards.  
Priority #2: Implementation of State Standards Viva Teachers - Common Core State Standards the Keys to Success  e it is imperative to rely on the professional expertise of teachers to create curricula based on the Common Core State Standards. Far from standardizing what students are learning and doing, this puts the power in the hands of teachers and parents, supported by schools and communities. We believe it is important for time and resources to be allocated and shared so that teachers can continue to learn, share, and improve their practice through professional development that makes sense. We believe parents and community members deserve to know what the Common Core State Standards really are, how they work, why they are important, and that they won’t lead to standardization or impersonal education for their children. Teachers are uniquely positioned to help with this effort, we just need time, resources, and support. 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Project-Based Learning (PBL) Parker, W., Mosberg, S., Bransford, J., Vye, N., Wilderson, J., & Abbott, R. (2011). Rethinking advanced high school coursework: Tackling the depth/breadth tension in the AP U.S. Government and Politics course. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 43(4), 533-559.   Researchers from the University of Washington, the Bellevue Schools Foundation, and The George Lucas Educational Foundation conducted a multiyear study to test a rigorous project-based learning approach to teaching Advanced Placement (AP) U.S. Government and Politics. Three hundred fourteen students from Washington's Bellevue School District were randomly assigned to a traditional course or project-based learning course on AP U.S. Government and Politics (AP+). The PBL course included five project cycles: (1) role- playing a United Nations task force advising a new nation on the various forms and features of democracy, (2) proposing a public policy and actions to improve society, (3) role-playing legislators in the U.S. Congress, (4) role-playing party campaign strategists in an election, and (5) role-playing a Supreme Court case. The PBL students performed as well as or better than traditionally taught students on the AP test and better on a complex scenario test, which measures strategies for realistically monitoring and influencing public policy 
Priority # 2, 4, 8 – Early Learning /Preschool LCAP/LCFF: Leveraging the Local Control Funding Formula: Making the Case for Early Learning and Development in Your School District  help communities leverage the LCFF priority-setting process to promote access to high-quality ELD programs at the local level. . A strong body of research shows children’s social-emotional and cognitive development during the period from birth to age 5 greatly influences the degree to which they will be prepared for kindergarten and perform throughout school. With effective preparation and community engagement, local early learning advocates can capitalize on this unique opportunity provided under LCFF implementation to position ELD at the forefront of California’s public agenda for the next decade. 
Priority #1, 2, 4 – Professional Development / PLCs Yoon, K. S., Duncan, T., Lee, S. W.-Y., Scarloss, B., & Shapley, K. (2007). Reviewing the evidence on how teacher professional development affects student achievement (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2007–No. 033). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest. 2007 See tables 1, Effects of Professional Development on Student Achievement by Study and Table 2 Effects of Professional Development on Student Achievement on Student Achievement by Content area, within this report.  Affects on Student Achievement Findings: The average effect size of 0.54 in mathematics, science, and reading and English/language arts—and the consistency of that effect size—indicates that providing professional development to teachers has a moderate effect on student achievement across the nine studies. Average control group students would have increased their achievement by 21 percentile points if their teacher had received professional development. The gap between the amount of professional develop¬ment found effective in the four studies and the average received by elementary school teachers is worth considering. Four studies in mathematics reviewed here generated six effects, averaging 0.57, with an improvement index of 22 percentile points. The contact hours in the four studies averaged just over 53 hours, ranging from 30 hours to 83 hours, over a period of four months to one year. This professional development is longer than that of the typical elementary school teacher—only 9 percent of elementary school teachers partici¬pated in mathematics professional development for more than 24 hours over a year in Birman et al. (2007). (See page 14) 
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