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Hebrew: A member of the ancient Semitic tribes that peopled Palestine, not a synonym for Jew; also the language of ancient and modern Israel.

Jew: Originally a member of the tribe of Judah, part of which returned from the Babylonian captivity and carried on the old Hebrew tradition. Hence, a follower (male or female) of the religion after the return from captivity to the present.

Jewish: Adjective for Jew.

Judaism: Religion of the Jews. Judaism is divided mainly into Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform (not Reformed) branches.

Yiddish: A High German language spoken by some Jews today.

Israelite: A descendant of Jacob. Use in biblical context only.

Israeli, Israelis (noun): Inhabitant(s) of the modern nation of Israel.

Israeli (adjective): Pertaining to modern Israel:
            Israeli troops, etc.

Rabbi (not a pastor, though some Reform rabbis call themselves ministers):
            Rabbi Danny Goldberg, Rabbi Goldberg, the rabbi
            Dr. Danny Goldberg, Dr. Goldberg (if holding degree)
            Incorrect: the Reverend Danny Goldberg, Mr. Goldberg