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General Guidelines
  1. Bibliographies need not be long; use as many sources as you think will be interesting and helpful. Don't include websites unless referencing a specific article. (See below: online articles)
  2. Keep the reader in mind and provide sources that are published and easily obtainable and not too general, esoteric, or technical. Sources should provide additional interesting and in-depth information about the topic.
  3. Alphabetize your sources—by author or editor if applicable.

Technical Form

A. Books
  1. Name of author—last name (comma), first name (period). (Additional authors, names not inverted. Comma between each author's name in a series. List in order shown on title page.)
  2. Title of book, including subtitle (preceded by colon) if there is one, in italics—followed by period (unless indicated, book is 1st edition).
  3. If a second or later edition, put a comma after the title and indicate edition number in roman: e.g. 3rd ed.
  4. If a multivolume work, use Arabic number, vols., period: e.g., 4 vols. Or refer to volume used: Vol. 2.
  5. Publisher—followed by comma. (Use and in publisher's name—Simon and Schuster—even if the publisher uses an ampersand [&].)
  6. Date of publication (year only), followed by period.
One author:
Jackson, William T. Wagon Roads West. Vol. 2. University of California Press, 1952.
Holliday, J. S. Rush for Riches: Gold Fever and the Making of California. 4 vols. Simon and Schuster, 1999.

Two or three authors
Wexler, Alan, and Molly Braun. An Atlas of Westward Expansion. Facts on File, 1995.

Two authors with same family name:
Weinberg, Arthur, and Lila Weinberg. Clarence Darrow: A Sentimental Rebel. Putnam's Sons, 1980.

No authororganization or editor:
American Council of Learned Societies. Studies in the History of Culture. George Banta Publishing Co., 1942.
Tortelli, Anthony, ed. Sociology Approaching the Twenty-first Century. Peter and Sons, 1991.

Author and translator:
Weber, Max. General Economic History, Trans. Frank Knight. Free Press, 1927.

Books available online as well as in print:
U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, 1998. U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000. Available online at

B. Chapters or essays within books, articles in periodicals
  1. Name of author—last name (comma), first name (period).
  2. If a chapter within an edited volume, give author's name first (inverted), then chapter title in quotations, book title in italics, and editor's name.
  3. Title of article or chapter enclosed in quotation marks—with period preceding final quotation marks. Follow capitalization of original article.
  4. Title of book or periodical, italicized, followed by period.
a.    Book: Publisher (comma), date of publication (period).
b.    Periodical: Date within parentheses—followed by comma, inclusive page numbers (no "p.")—followed by period. Spell out months; don't abbreviate.

Russell, Bertrand. "Modern Homogeneity." In Praise of Idleness and Other Essays. Unwin, 1960.

Kaiser, Ernest. "The Literature of Harlem." In Harlem: A Community in Transition, ed. J. H. Clarke. Citadel Press, 1964.

Kearney, Jay T. "Training the Olympic Athlete." Scientific American (June 1996), 44-55.

Blair, Walter, and Jane Green. The Literature of the United States, 2 vols. Scott Foresman, 1966.
(Or if reference to a particular volume: …of the United States, Vol. 1. Scott Foresman, 1966.)

Aizenberg, Joanna, and others. "Calcitic microlenses as part of the photoreceptor system in brittlestars." Nature (August 23, 2001), 819-21.

Franklin-Barbajosa, Cassandra. "A Traveler's Map of Spain and Portugal." Supplement map, National Geographic (September 1998).

C. Newspapers
  1. Author—last name (comma), first name (period). Title of article within quotation marks.
  2. Name of paper italicized, followed by comma. Omit "The". Name of city or state sometimes necessary for clarity; it should be in roman preceding the title unless it is part of the official name.
  3. Date of the issue—day, month, year (if all available)—followed by period.
  4. Omit page numbers.

Rensberger, Boyce. "How Muscles Work." Washington Post, January 11, 1995.

Valentine, Paul W. "Town Makes Maryland a State of Matrimony." Washington Post, October 9, 1987, C1.

Baltimore Sun, July 4, 2000.

Williams, John. "Big Wheels," New York Times, February 17, 1995, sec. 3.

D. Books, articles, or reports available online
  1. Do not underline the URL, as it will automatically be underlined when it is hyperlinked.
  2. After author, title, and organization (period), say "Available online at [URL]."

Singer, Audrey, and others. "The World in a Zip Code: Greater Washington, D.C. as a New Region of Immigration." Brookings Institution, 2001. Available online at

Storey, Kenneth, and Janet Storey. "Lifestyles of the Cold and Frozen." The Sciences (May/June 1999). Available online at

Harden, Blaine. "Africa's Diamond Wars." New York Times on the Web, 2000. Available online at