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12th Grade Advanced Research Project Pathfinder
Mrs. Burke and Dr. Califf
Research Paper



Research Tips:
- Database usernames and passwords can be found in ND Cloud 
- Do not pay for scholarly articles you find online.  For full text of article, Google search the article title (in quotes) or see Mrs. Abens (West Chester U.)/contact author.
- Use "Advanced Search" feature in databases and search engines to narrow search results by date, source type (i.e. newspaper, journal, dvd, books, scholarly journals, etc.), and document type (i.e. interview, obituary, conference proceedings, government document, etc.).
- Look for "subject headings" in databases. This is a more official method than keywords in organizing topics because they are assigned by a person, not a computer.  They help reduce irrelevant results.
- Don't forget the 'Ctrl F' feature when scanning text ('Command F' on a Mac)........it takes you directly to a word or words you are looking for within the text.
- Your research should not start with Google.  Books, databases and websites (using academic search engines) should be your focus first.....then, if necessary, Google.
- 'Think outside the box' when researching.  In addition to the above books, databases and websites, consider using scholarly blogs, Twitter, museums, historical societies, presidential libraries, interviews, video, podcasts, etc.
- Peer-reviewed journals are different from magazines.  "Peer-review" is an academic term for quality control.  Each article in a peer-reviewed journal is examined by a panel of reviewers who are experts on the article's topic. Magazine articles are usually edited for spelling and grammar but not for intellectual integrity.  They do not support research at an academic level. (American Public University Library)
- Remember that research is a process: identify a focused topic (this could take a while), write a thesis statement, try a few searches, identify the best keywords/helpful material, read, read, read and then......start to write your paper! Well begun is half done!


Keywords - the better your keywords, the better your search results

- Try to reduce your topic to a few words or a phrase
("Why was Holden Caulfield's hat red in The Catcher in the Rye?" - color and symbolism) 
("Are left-handed people more creative than right-handed people?" - handedness)

Boolean Operators: and / or / not
college and students and test and anxiety.........or better yet "college students" and "test anxiety" (group words when you can for articles with all these words)
Concussion or "head injury" - doctors or physicians - cars or automobiles - "capital punishment" or "death penalty" (one or the other would work)
Eagles not Philadelphia - personality not disorders - dogs and communication not human (excludes certain results)

Truncation - use an asterisk (*)
econom* finds economy, economics, economical
*biology finds nanobiology, microbiology

- Narrow keywords/topic if too broad in order to get fewer, more specific results:
(WWII ⇢ War in Europe ⇢Hitler ⇢Holocaust ⇢Nazi Looting)

- Broaden keywords/topic if too narrow in order to get more results (and use index/table of contents)
(Nazi Looting ⇢ Holocaust ⇢Hitler ⇢War in Europe ⇢WWII)

Related Subjects - include as you get familiar with your topic, include:
(JFK - Election of 1960 - U.S. Presidents - Jacqueline Kennedy - First Ladies - Cuban Missile Crisis - Peace Corp. - NASA - Presidential Assassinations)


Books (Print Sources)
Public Libraries - fills ND gaps
West Chester University Library - open to the public
World Cat - fills public library gaps (especially for more scholarly books)

Databases
Use these databases when researching a person:

Use these databases when researching a country/culture:

Use these databases when researching a controversial or pro/con topic:

Use these databases when searching for scholarly articles:
Proquest Research Library (full-text pdf will provide page numbers for citation and in-text citation, even though online resource)
Biography in Context ("Academic Journals")
Student Resources in Context ("Academic Journals")
Science in Context ("Academic Journals")

Use these databases when researching a religious topic:

Use these databases when searching for primary sources:

Use these databases when researching health related topics:
Student Resources in Context ("Science and Health")

Use these databases when researching science topics:
Student Resources in Context ("Science and Health")

Use these databases/ebooks for eras in world history or great events in world history (for ex. "Louisiana Purchase" or "Nixon's Resignation" or "French Revolution")


Websites/Internet
Academic Search Engines:

Scholarly Search Engines:

NoodleTools/Annotated Bibliography
*Revalidate with ndapa
**Use MLA-Advanced
***Note** - you should not be using MLA Lite or NoodleTools Express (these are free versions that do not have the same functionality as your school account)

Annotated Bibliography
- A list of citations where each is followed by a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph
- (1) describe the source and (2) explain how it was helpful to your research
For example:  "This book discussed Theodore Roosevelt's foray into politics including his vice-presidency and swearing in as president after the assassination of President McKinley in 1901.  It went on to explain his landslide victory in the 1904 presidential election.  It was helpful to my research because it highlighted some of his most important, yet controversial, political acts including his aggressive use of the United States Antitrust Laws and his issuance of over 1000 executive orders during his presidency."



Primary Sources
- Original documents or objects which were created at the time under study
- Thorough research includes the use of primary sources
- Diaries/journals, newspaper articles, autobiographies, maps, interviews, video, audio, posters, letters, photographs, court decisions, meetings, etc.
- Do some background research before looking for primary sources....this will help identify/clarify what to look for

Primary Sources - PowerPoint, definitions, tips and a list of resources containing primary sources