Social Learning Theory

 

 

 

 

 

YouTube Video

 

 A picture is worth a thousand words...

A great commercial illustrating social learning theory.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X_s9pG5CWXM

 

The Social Learning Theory of

Albert Bandura

 Photo source: http://www.uni-bielefeld.de/paedagogik/Seminare/moeller02/04tvgewalt/Bilder/bandura.jpg

Social Learning Theory originated from Albert Bandura. He believed that behaviorism alone could not explain all that be observed. He believed that behavior and the environment affected each other. He called this phenomenon reciprocal determination. He extended his theory by braiding in a person’s personality with behavior and the environment. After his acknowledgement of mental images, his behaviorism philosophy turned to cognitivism. The beginning of cognitivism leads to his expanded research on language acquisition, learning, and self-regulation.

Graphic source: http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/Image2.gif

Bandura researched aggression and modeling through his Bobo experiments. The changes Bandura observed in a child’s behavior after watching an adult show aggression triggered him to his social learning theory. Bandura continued research with other objects, and even humans, receiving the aggression. He also experimented with and without rewards and punishments. Bandura concluded several points. 1. Attention to task affects learning. 2. Information learned must be retained. 3. You must be able to reproduce or imitate the behaviors learned. 4. Motivation either from past, promised, or vicarious reinforcement drives imitation and punishment never works as well as reinforcement.
  
 
 
 
 

YouTube Video

Bandura on social cognitive theory: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SW9I7X9Wmqo

Graphic source: http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Bandura/table1.gif

Social Learning Theory also includes other aspects of behavior. Bandura believed we could control our own behavior through self regulation. Self regulation requires a person to self-observe, make judgments about our environment and ourselves, and self-response, which is a personal reward/punishment system based off our behavior or performance. These theories led to another concept in psychology, self concept also known as self-esteem. Again, a reward system is healthier that a punishment system. Those with poor self concepts may be overly aggressive, compliant, or avoidant.

Graphic source: http://simania.co.il/bookimages/covers76/766962.jpg

Bandura’s suggestion is to know yourself, set appropriate standards for yourself, and use rewards instead of punishments. Setting one’s bar too high or dwelling on failures is very unhealthy behavior.

Graphic source: http://www.kilfreud.com/selfesteem.jpg

 

 

 

 

More information is available at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html

 

 
 
 

YouTube Video

An explanation of Bandura's social learning theory from doctorate students: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=byhLPxT_FJQ
 

YouTube Video

More about Social Learning Theory: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YqCi-f6xmM0

 

 

 

The Social Learning Theory of

Julian B. Rotter

Graphic source: http://psychologie.fernuni-hagen.de/lernportal/lernumgebung/Bilder/Rotter.jpg 

Julian B. Rotter developed his own Social Learning Theory. During Rotter’s day, the prominent theories came from Freud. Rotter disagreed with the premise that humans were naïve and victims of their unconscious impulses to satisfy urges. Rotter chose to detour from the instinct-based or drive-based behaviorism and chose the motivating factor of the empirical law of effect. His theory argued that people are motivated to seek reinforcement and positive stimulation and avoid unpleasant stimulation. The driving force in Rotter’s theory is that personality represents an interaction of the individual and the environment. Thus to understand behavior, a person’s history of education and experience are coupled with the stimuli acting on that person from their environment.

Rotter believed that if you changed the environment or how someone thinks, you will change behavior. He argued that people will be draw towards their goals, will seek maximum reinforcement, and will avoid punishment.

Graphic source: http://g-ecx.images-amazon.com/images/G/01/ciu/0a/ac/2e29828fd7a00bf1036df010.L._SL500_AA300_.jpg

Rotter believed by examining the four aspects of his social learning theory, behavior could be predicted. First, he emphasized behavior potential. What is the likeliness of a person displaying a certain behavior in a certain situation? Next, he added expectancy. How likely is the proposed behavior going to lead to a desired outcome? In conjunction with expectancy is reinforcement value. What is the desirability of the outcome or value of the behavior? Lastly, is the predictive formula. The formula combines the three earlier mentioned aspects to create a value that expresses the behavior potential.

BP = f(E & RV)

Julian B. Rotter also believed in a “Locus of Control”. Individuals possessing a strong internal locus of control believe that the responsibility for whether or not they get reinforced ultimately lies with themselves. These individuals believe that success or failure is due to their own efforts. Externals believe that the reinforcers in life are controlled by luck, chance, or powerful others. Therefore, they see little impact of their own efforts on the amount of reinforcement they receive. This theory ties in with internal and external motivators in a classroom.

 

Graphic Source: http://btr.michaelkwan.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/locusofcontrol.jpg

Due to his views on social learning theory, Rotter does not believe in mental disorders as being illnesses or diseases. He sees the offending behavior as a product of incorrect learning experiences. Therapy for the individual would include proper learning experiences to rectify the offending behaviors. He blames faulty adaptive behaviors for many such offending behaviors. His theories play a major role in education when it comes to an individual’s irrationally low self-expectations. The person starts by not believing his or her efforts will be reinforced. Then he or she puts little effort into his or her behavior.  The individual believes they will fail, and when they do, it confirms his or her theory. Teachers are charged with utilizing the aspects of social learning theory to correct internal motivators and self-expectations.

More information is available at http://psych.fullerton.edu/jmearns/rotter.htm

 

 

 Contemporary Research in Social Learning Theory

More work is being done in Social Learning Theory. Personality research and mood regulation are just two contemporary research topics that continue to benefit from developments from Rotter’s theory. Bandura’s work is related to the theories of Vygotsky and Lave which also emphasize the central role of social learning.

Graphic source: http://www.southalabama.edu/oll/mobile/theory_workbook/elaboration%20theory%20diagram.jpg 

Social Learning Theory in the Classroom

 

An essential question: What behavior are we subjecting our students to or allowing our students to witness for them to imitate?

While social learning theory is the behavior theory most relevant to criminology, it has many applications in the classroom. Albert Bandura’s main theory involved learned aggression from observing modeling. He also researched non-violent behavior that was learned through modeling as well. The three reinforcements that Bandura stated that many individuals believed that aggression would produce could also be achieved through other means. Students must witness and buy into appropriate desired behavior and/or desired reinforcements. Students seek the reduction of tension, the gain of financial rewards, or the gain of the praise of others, or build self-esteem. Knowing the desired reward students seek enables teachers to provide the same reward for the desired behaviors. Albert Bandura believed behaviors reinforced by family members were the most prominent source of behavior modeling. Behaviors can also be learned from watching television. Teachers have little control over what happens at home or what is witnessed on television, but they are not without influence. Teachers not only have to be appropriate models, but also equip students to self-regulate, self-monitor, self-correct, and properly self-monitor.

More information about social learning theory and criminology is available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/bandura.htm

Other descriptions of Bandura’s work can be found at:
http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/bandura.html

http://tip.psychology.org/bandura.html

 
 

Beemee630. (2010) Social Learning Theory. You Tube. Retrieved June 21, 2010 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YqCi-f6xmM0

 

Boeree, C. George Ph. D. (1998) Albert Bandura. Personality Theories. Retrieved June 21, 2010 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html

 

Docochs. (2008) Theory Master Theater-Bandura Social Learning. You Tube. Retrieved June 21, 2010 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=byhLPxT_FJQ

 

Isom, Margaret Delores. (1998) The Social Learning Theory. Retrieved on June 21, 2010 from http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/bandura.htm

Kenshinchan. (2007). Children See, Children Do. You Tube. Retreived on June 22, 2010 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X_s9pG5CWXM

 

Mearns, Jack. (2000) The Social Learning Theory of Julian B. Rotter. Retrieved on June 21, 2010 from

http://psych.fullerton.edu/jmearns/rotter.htm

 

 

Ormrod, J.E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Portion named Social Learning Theory. Retrieved on June 21, 2010 from http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~lynda_abbott/social.html

 

Situated Learning  (J. Lave). Retrieved on June 21, 2010 from http://tip.psychology.org/lave.html

Social Development Theory (L. Vygotsky).  Retrieved on June 21, 2010 from http://tip.psychology.org/vygotsky.html

 

Social Learning Theory (A. Bandura). Retrieved on June 21, 2010 from http://tip.psychology.org/bandura.html

Thebiggjoker. (2003/2008) Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory. Davidson Films/You Tube. Retrieved June 21, 2010 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SW9I7X9Wmqo

 

 This site was created by Wendy Ellis.

 
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