Welcome to Ms. Cantrelle's 6th grade Social Studies Web site. I will be listing what assignments the students are expected to complete this week. I will also let you know when to expect quizzes and tests. I am excited to walk this ad

****Please check out Forms and Docs tab on the left for the Power Point and the documents used in this unit.
 Students: You should be reviewing what was covered in class daily.
           Tell a story.
Parents: Ask your child to tell you a story of what we learned in social studies
         each day. It is the best way for them to learn the material.

****DO NOT memorize notes. You should be able to talk and explain all that is listed in UNDERSTAND. The notes are for reference only. 

Unit 5 - Civilizations in Africa and Asia

The empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai were all located in the western part of Africa. All thrived and became wealthy from trading gold and salt along the sub-Saharan trade routes. they benefited from strong armies and effective tax systems. Many of these ancient African kingdoms developed advanced societies before any Europeans colonized this region. many African Empires had centralized governments during the age of European feudalism.

Image result for map of west african kingdoms  

Ghana (@A.D. 300 - 1200):

1. Ghana became a thriving center for trade because of their central location between the salt mines to the north and the gold mines to the south.

2. Ghana became wealthy by charging a tax to traders entering Ghana, passing through Ghana, and leaving Ghana.

3. There were NO gold or salt mines within the empire of Ghana.

4. These taxes became a major source of wealth for Ghana.

5. Other than gold and salt, religion, language, and ideas (cultural diffusion) spread through trade between Ghana and traders from the east (Arabs).

6. Traders from the east (Arabs) brought silk and spices obtained from trade along the Silk Road to trade with Ghana for gold and salt.

7. Islam was introduced to the people of Ghana by the Arab traders. From the Arabs, the people of Ghana learned important math and literacy skills.

8. Ghana began to decline when the king lost his monopoly on trade, a  drought was beginning to have long-tern effects on crops and animals, and the empire was under pressure from outside forces (other civilizations).

Mali (@A.D. 1230 - 1550):

9. Mali began as a small kingdom after A.D. 1235 around the upper Niger River.

10. Sundiata, a Mali leader, organized a rebellion against Ghana. Mali conquered and gained control of Ghana and its trading empire, including the salt and gold trade.

11. Mali gained all lands once occupied by Ghana and added many small surrounding states to its empire.

12. The people of Mali used the Niger river for trade and transportation, using boats to carry large loads.

13. Mali became a rich farming ares because of its fertile lands near the Niger River.

14. Mali was able to develop a more stable economy then Ghana because of the gold and salt mines it owned and because of the trading city of Timbuktu, which was located along the Niger River.

15. The Mali Empire grew and prospered by monopolizing the gold trade and developing the agricultural resources along the Niger River.

16. Mali collected taxes on all goods going in, passing through, and leaving the empire.

17. A large, strong army stopped rebellions and kept peace and order in Mali.

18. One of the most important rulers of Mali was Mansa Musa. He was the first great Muslim ruler of a West African Empire. He converted many of Mali's people to Islam.

19. Mansa Musa's wealth, intelligence, generosity, wisdom, and efficiency made him liked and respected by the people of Mali.

20. Mansa Musa mad a pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca.

21. From Mecca, Mansa Musa brought back architects to build mosques and teachers to teach his people about Muslim beliefs.

22. Mansa Musa's journey to Mecca is evidence that Islam had a major influence on the Mali Empire.

23. Because of his ideas, people, and skills brought back from Arabia, Timbuktu became a bustinling city of trade, learning, culture, and art.

24. Mali began to decline when after the deaths of Mansa Musa and his brother, Timbuktu was raided and burned, several states rebelled and regained their independence, trading caravans and military garrison (forts) were attacked, and the small fishing village of Songhai gathered strength.

Songhai (@A.D. 1375 - 1591)

25. Songhai was a small fishing village in the Mali Empire that was allowed to keep their own local government.

26. Slowly, Songhai developed a strong army and a centralized government.

27. As Mali weakened, Songhai started to take charge of West Africa by taking over small villages and towns along the Niger River. They eventually conquered Timbuktu.

28. Rivers, used for trade and transportation, and Sahara trade routes helped Songhai become a powerful trading Empire. 

29. Songhai controlled all the gold mines and salt mines in West Africa.

30. Songhai became very active in the slave trade.

32. Songhai began to decline when civil war broke out, natural disaster such as drought and diseases broke out, and invasion by the Moroccan army who wanted to control the Sahara trade routes.

****33. Ibn Battuta was a traveler

Africa's Trade Along the Silk Road:

33. The Song Dynasty (A.D. 960 - 1126) ruled China. 

34. Goods were traded along the Silk Road by Chinese, Arab, European, and African merchants.

35. The song Dynasty set up supervised markets along their borders to encourage trade and flow of goods in and out of China.

36. During the Song Dynasty, tea was grown as a cash crop. This influenced the economy of China by providing China with a product that could be used for profit.

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Image result for trade between west africa and the silk road - china