Datts are the descendants of Rishi Bhardwaj and derive their gotra from his name. Some consider Gaj Bhavan the grandson of Rishi Bhardwaj to be the real founder of the clan. Guru Sharan Singh Datta, Satyawati, and grand son Mohit Datta welcome Mohyals. He shall be popular like Lara Dutt ot Sunil Dutt and other Dutt clan of Mohyals
The word Datt is derived from the simple Hindi word \'data\' meaning a charitable person. Some interpret it as a deformation of the word \'Aditya\' which means\' SUI/\" in Sanskrit. There are 12 Adityas, i.e. 12 names of the sun for the 12 months of the year. As there is a Datta surname amongst the Bengalis also who are Kayasth and not brahmin, the traditional Mohyals prefer the epithet of Datt instead of Datta. The origin of Datts is also traced to a chieftain named Datt who accompanied Alexander the Great on his return journey to Macedonia, as an envoy of Raja Porus. Actually, Alexander is said to have taken two brahmins with him, named Datt and Kalanos. However, on the way, when Alexander fell seriously ill and died at Babylon; Datt along with his followers drifted to Arabia and settled at Harya Bunder. With the passage of time, there emerged a viable community of Datts in Arabia and in a subsequent era they became rulers of small dominions in that country. The presence in Arabia of many Hindus. mostly Brahmins. before the rise of Islam, has been recorded by the historian Sisir Kumar Mitra, in his book \'The Vision of India\'. page 183. These people observed Hindu religious customs, including the worship of Shiva and Makresha from which the name of Mecca is said to have been derived. The famous astrologer Yavanacharya was born of one such Brahmin family. It was from these Brahmins that the Arabs learnt the science of Mathematics, Astrology, Algebra and decimal notation which were first developed in India. At the time of the war of Karbala (Oct. 680 AD). Rahab Sidh Datt, a potentate of Datt sect, was a highly esteemed figure of Arabia due to his close relations with the family of Prophet Mohammed. In the holy war when no Muslim King came to help Hussain. Rahab fought On his side mld sacrificed his seven sons (named Sahas Rai. Haras Rai, Sher Khan, Rai Pun, Ram Singh, Dharoo and Poroo) in the bloody war. A Brief Account of the Episode: After the death of Mohammed, he was succeeded by Abu Bakr, Omar and Osman, as the Caliphs: all three were related to him by marriage alliances. Osman was not popular and was assassinated. After his death, Hazrat AlL the son-in-law of Mohammed (he was also his first cousin) who was married to the Prophet\'s third daughter and the only surviving issue, Bibi Fatima Zahira, became the 4th Caliph. There was stiff opposition to Ali\'s rule from Amir Moavia, a known protege of Osman. He fought with him a bitter war for 5 years and finally got him murdered in a mosque of Koofa, his mausoleum with a golden dome, stands in the nearby town of Najaf (Iraq). After the extermination of Ali, Moavia grabbed the Caliphate and converted the Islamic state into a kingdom, After his death, his notorious son Yazid became the next ruler. However, the rightful claimants of the Caliphate were the descendants of Hazrat Ali, namely, Hassan and Hussain. While Hassan abdicated his claim to the crown and later died of suspected poisoning, his younger brother Imam Hussain who was till then leading a secluded life in Medina, came out and challenged the usurper, Yazid. It was the war of attrition between the two which led to the bloodshed of Karbala (102 km south of Baghdad), on Oct. 10, 680 AD. The Role of Mohyals: The participation of the Mohyals and more precisely that of a Dull family living in Arabia at that time, in the holy war, is a fact of the history. They were a part of the entourage of 200 men and women, including 72 members of Hussain\'s family (40 on foot and 32 on horseback), when he left Medina and made an arduous trek to Karbala, where he had a large friendly following. After 18 days, i.e. on the 2nd. day of Mohurrum, the Hussain\'s caravan reached Karbala, on the bank of river Euphrates and surrounded by a hostile desert. On the 7th day of Mohurrum, all hell broke out when 30,000 strong army sent by Yazid from Mecca and other places, attacked them. 6,000 soldiers guarded the river bank to ensure that not a drop of water reached the Hussain\'s thirsty innocents. By sunset of 10th (Ashoor), a Friday, all were dead including his step brother Abbas (32), his son Ali Akbar (22), daughter Skeena (4) and 6 months old infant Ali Asghar who was killed by an arrow while perched in his lap. Imam Hussain himself was slain with thirty three strokes of lances and swords by Shimr, the hatchet man of ignominious Yazid. The ruffians of Yazid, as they ran carrying the smitten head of Hussain to the castle of Koofa, were chased by Rahab. He retrieved the holy man\'s head, washed it reverentially and then carried it to Damascus. According to legend, he was overtaken by Yazid\'s men during his ovenight shelter on the way. They demanded Hussain\'s head from him: Rahab executed the head of one of his sons and offered to them. They shouted that it was not the Hussain\'s head, then he beheaded his second son and they again yelled that it was not his. In this way Rahab executed the heads of his seven sons but did not part with the head of Imam Hussain. Later, after one year, it was buried in Karbala along with rest of his body. The intrepid Datts rallied round Amir Mukhtar, the chief of the partisans of Imam Hussain, fought with extraordinary heroism and captured and razed the fort of Koofa, seat of Yazid\'s governor, Obaidullah, the Butcher. After scoring a resounding victory on the battlefield, they beat the drums and yelled out that they had avenged the innocent blood of Hussain shed at Karbala. It is also significant to note that even before the Karbala incident, Hazrat Ali had entrusted the public exchequer to the regiment of the valiant Datts, at the time of the Battle of Camels fought near Basra. The above provides an impeccable evidence about tha pragmatic role played by the Datt Mohyals in the catastrophe of Karbala. There are more than a dozen ballads composed centuries ago which vividly and with great passion describe the scenario of the historic event. Interestingly, in the Preface of his famous historical novel, titled Karbala, published in 1924 from Lucknow, Munshi Prem Chand has stated that the Hindus who fought and sacrificed their lives in the holy war of Karbala, are believed to be the descendants of Ashvathama.This clearly establishes their link with the Datts who consider Ashvathama as an ancestor of their clan. Later on, when Sunnis let loose an orgy of vendetta on Shias and Datts, Datts returned to their motherland around 700 AD and settled at Dina Nagar, District Sialkot (vide Bandobast Report of Gujarat by Mirza Azam Beg page 422 and folk songs) and some drifted to as far as the holy Pushkar in Rajasthan. Starting from Harya Bandar (modern Basra on the bank of river Tigris) with swords in hand and beating durms, they forced their way through Syria and Asia Minor and marching onwards captured Ghazni, Balkh and Bukhara. After annexing Kandhar, they converged on Sind and crossing the Sind at Attock they entered the Punjab. An ancestor of Rahab named Sidh Viyog Datt assumed the title of Sultan and made Arabia (old name Iraq) his home. He was a tough and tenacious fighter. He was also known as Mir Sidhani. He was a worshipper of Brahma. He was the son of the stalwart Sidh Jhoja (Vaj) who was a savant and saint and lived in Arabia (Iraq) around 600 AD. The supporters of Hassan and Hussain honoured the Datts with the htle of \'Hussaini Brahmin\' and treated them with great reverence in grateful recognition of the supreme sacrifices made by them in the war of Karbala. According to Jang Nama, written by Ahmed Punjabi, pages 175-176, it was ordained on the Shias to recite the name of Rahab in their daily prayer. At the time to the Karbala, fourteen hundred Hussaini Brahmins lived in Baghdad alone. Much earlier than the era of Rahab, the induction of Datts into Arabia in attributed to the Mahabharata character Ashvathama, who after the treacherous assassination of his father Dronacharya in the epic war, went into voluntary exile and bestrode into Arabia and made home there. A Datt dynasty has ruled in Afghanistan for 120 years, from 830 AD to 950 AD. There are coins with pictures of ox and horse which testify to their reign. The dynasty was founded by Samand alias Somanand who himself ruled for 48 years and had seized the throne from Raja Katormal with the connivance of his brahmin prime minister, Kallar by name. Somanand was a contemporary of Raja Bachan Pal Vaid of Punjab. He died in 878 AD and was succeeded by his son Kanwalpati who held the baton for 23 years till 901 AD. The last ruler of this family was Raja Bhim alias Bhim Shahi who reigned for 49 years, from 901 to 950 AD. Bhim Shahi had only one daughter who was married in the princely house of Lahar Kat in Kashmir. Her husband Raja Sangram Singh was a Khash nobleman. According to Rajtarangini. the chronicle of Kashmir, the illustrious daughter of Sangram Singh, Maharani Dida, wore the crown after the death of her husband Kshem Gupt. (N.B. Raj Tarangini or River of Kings, was written in Sanskrit by poet-historian, Kalhana, during 1148-1150 AD). I As Bhim Shahi had no male issue, after his death in 950 AD, their dynastic rule came to an end. Subsequently, his descendants migrated to Punjab and the kingdom of Afghanistan was annexed by Raja Prithvi Pal of Lahore. During their heyday in Afghanistan, Ohind, on river Sind (30 kms from Taxila), was the capital of the Datt royalty. Reverting to the exodus of DaUs from Arabia, the kiths and kins of Rahab on their arrival in India were received hospitably by the native Mohyal fraternity. After wandering over places, some settled near Nankana Sahib in District Sheikhupura of Pakistan. It was here that in the closing decades of the 10th century, an interesting incident took place involving one Pir called Wahun, the trickster chess player, and Shiv Datt the helmsman of the Datts. Wahun was known for his knack of winning the game invariably. Acording to the bet fixed by him, the loser would either pay the price with his head or, alternately, embrace Islam, In this way, he had converted a large number of Hindus to Muslim faith till he met his match in Shiv Datt. The latter challenged the Pir to a game of chess and defeated him three times over in a row, thereby claiming the heads of his wife and two sons, as per the stakes. The flabbergasted Pir had to eat the crow. However, out of sheer magnanimity, Shiv Datt pardoned their lives. When Wahun came to know that one of the ancestors of Shiv Datt had sacrificed his seven sons for the sake of the Prophet in the battle of Karbala, he became very obliging to Shiv Datt and took a solemn vow that in future he will never convert any Hindu by coercion to Islam. It was on this occasion that the Pir echoed the famous words from his heart: \'Wall Datt Sultan. Hindu Ka Dharam Mussalman Ka Iman\'. After some time, Shiv Dati along with a large number of his followers left Nankana Sahib and moved to Dipalpur where they all lived in peace and harmony till Mahmud Ghazni attacked Diplalpur in 1012 AD and uprooted them from there. The Datts migrated to Lahore where they were well looked after for 10 years by Raja Anand Pal. When Anand Pal and his successor Tirlochan Pal passed away, Lahore was captured by the pirate Mahmud Ghazni. For almost five centuries the Datts led a maverick life. lt was in 1527 AD, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Babar, that Rai Pun Dewan (referred as Rai Midh by Russell Stracey) who was an offspring of Shiv Datt, defeated and killed Rai Meen, a local Rajput ruler, and after capturing the telTitory of Pathankot, founded his capital at Paniad, situated between Gurdaspur and Dina Nagar. The families of Datts who took part in this battle were known as Meen Gatai. Provoked by this daring victory of Rai Pun, Babar incited the gov\'ernor of Lahore to attack Paniad and provided him with additional troops from the royal army. The governor was nursing his own grouse against the Datts as he had fallen in love with a Marwaha girl, daughter of Govind Ram, and wanted to marry her but she had sought the protection of the DaUs against his devilish designs. A large force was deployed to attack Paniad but they were three times repulsed and routed by the Datt defenders. Ultimately, due to the treachery of a cook who had been bribed by the invaders, the whole Datt garrison was caught unaware. They were completely unarmed while taking meals in a cotton field when the enemy swooped on them. In the ensuing battle the Datts were mercilessly killed; men who had taken shelter in the nearby fort were hounded and slaughtered, while the womenfolk committed the sati (Jhelum Guzette 1905, page 121). The Mohyal chiefs who were done to death in this maSsacre included. Dewan Rai Pun, Hari Ram, Ganga Ram Sahai, Ghazi Maldev, Chhiddi Singh, Dargahi Mal, Paras Ram; Dilbagh Rai. Nobat Rai, Narpat Rai, Sahib Rai. Har Mushtaq, Daya Ram Balwan, Ranjit Rai, Mansa Rai, Narain Datt, Vidya Dhar Balwan and Todar Mal. In this tragic war, the Datt clan was annihilated to the last man except for two minor boys named Shah Sarup and Dholan, who escaped from the doom as they had gone to live with their maternal grand-sires at Samba near Jammu. The horrible episode of Paniad so much touched the susceptibilities of Datts that their future generations never touched any food in Paniad, nor spent a night there. As the carnage took place on a Thursday, that day of the week is considered inauspicious by the devout Datts and they do not wash their clothes or start any new project on that day. The Marwaha community, on its part. has forever felt beholden to the Datts and idolised them for the classical suffering undergone by them just to redeem the honour of one of their damsels. If the Mohyal\'s instinct of vowing fidelity to a friend was vouch safed by their sacrifices for the Prophet of Islam. in the battle of Karbala; their trait of samaritan chivalry came to fore. while safeguarding the chastity of a distressful non Mohyal girl. in the horror of Paniad. The abhorrence of Datts for Paniad persists till today and is illustrated by an episode narrated by Ch. Mulraj Datt of Kirti Nagar, New Delhi. When he was about 14 years old and living with maternal uncle at Japuwal. a lady named Jamuna-a daughter of Mohans married in a Datt family-lived in their neighbourhood. One day a vegetable vendor came hawking his vegetables and before buying from him she casually enquired about his native place. When he mentioned the name of Paniad, she refused to buy from him; this was the reaction of an uneducated lady who had not read any history book but knew that Paniad was a killing field of the Datts. Ironically, after the partition. many Datt families hailing from Kanjrur and adjacent places were allotted lands at Paniad. When Babar\'s son Humayun fell mortally ill in 1530 and the physicians attending on him declared him beyond cure, the astrologers were summoned to the royal court, to prospect for his life. They unanimously proclaimed that the prince was under a curse of retribution, due to the bloodshed of the Datts of Paniad, and his life could be saved only by propitiating the surviving members of the exterminated clan. if any, for divine mercy. After a wearisome search. Shah Sarup and Dholan. the two surviving youngsters. were traced at Samba. They were brought to Delhi in the presence of the dying Humayun and implored to pray for his life. In recompense, they were offered the gift of land covered by their running horses in a period of 24 hours. In this way, Shah Sarup got 13 villages in district Gurdaspur including Kanjrur, Veeram. Bhaiyan, Fatehpur, Mianwali, Kapurdev, Madh Baba, Lalukot, Khanwali, Bheluwali. Nangal, Peda and Jitar; while Dholan received Zaffarwal. Narowal. Raiya, Madi Kalan and few other villages in district Sialkot. In the course of time, both Kanjrur and Zaffarwal became strongholds of the Datts and produced many luminaries. True to the prediction of the fortune-tellers, Humayun\'s life was also saved. Shah Sarup was contemporary of Guru Nanak and the two often met in the prayer meetings. Baba thakkar, the legendary hero of Kanjrur, was a descendant of Shah Sarup. Straddling on a horse. with rapiers in his hands, he was the perfect picture of a knight-errant in the rural setting. Once in a stinging battle with the Jats. his head was treacherously chopped off by his opponents and the story goes that the headless body of the gallant warrior, with sword in his hand. went on fighting over a distance of nearly 2Y2 miles till it reached the bank of river Basantar and fell down there. His admirers built a samadhi on that spot which was regularly visitcd by the devoted Mohyals and was the venue of celebrations of Diwali and other community festivals. Baba Thakkar begot four sons named Veeram. Jitar, Sehdev and Sarang. To honour the memory of the first two. there are villages after thcir names. The Kanjrur families now settled in Gurdaspur have built a memorial shrine to honour the memory of Baba Thakkar. During the reign of King Akbar (1556-1605), a pious man named Baha Beram Shah Datt, was born in village Keni of Mirpur in the Jammu State and was widely known for his nobility and spiritual attributes. He was verily a miracle-monger and was known to levitate in the air stride a horse and to transmute copper into virgin gold by mere touch of his hand. Even Akbar was impressed by his spiritual powers and awarded him an ornamental plaque of honour and gifted to him , the town of Bhimbar as jagir. Baba Beram Shah predicted his own death eight days in advance. Baba Garib Dass, the whiz-kid son of Baba Beram Shah, was an equally renowned figure of his time, during the period of Jahangir (16051627). He led a rather ritzy life and celebrated three nuptials. He too was a prodigy of supernatural art and once stepped into a cauldron of boiling oil, in the presence of Guru Govind Singh, and the oil turned cold instantly. He died in an accidental fire exactly as predicated by his father. He had two sons Baba Seva Dass and Gheva Khan Dass and they both had lot of popular following amongst the Sikhs. If the Marathas had their Joan of Arc in Maharani Laxmi Bai. The Mohyals too had their heroine in Karmo Mai Dattani. Shortly before the rule of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1792- I 839), Sardar Jaimal Singh was the head of the Kanihya Missal in Amritsar (Missal was a Squad led by a powerful personality and there were a dozen Missals at that timc. These were later consolidated by Maharaja Ranjit Singh to become the Supreme ruler of Punjab). Jaimal Singh appointed Mai Kanno as the chief of Katra Kanihyan. The intrepid lady held her court in the open, a jostling market square of Amritsar which is known by her name tIll today viz., Karmo Ki Deodi. She was a terror to the local ruffians and desperadoes and used to administer justice without any fear or favour. She once took part in a battle wearing the coat of arms. The seal of her high office is believed to be still in the possession of her progenies. Guliana was a great sanctuary of Datts in the undivided India. During last century, from its crusty soil rose a plebeian who wore a crown of laurels and carved a niche for himself in the history. He was Dewan Bhim Sain Datt, the minister and supreme commander of forces of Raja Suchet Singh, the younger brother of Raja Gulab Singh of Kashmir. After the demise of Maharaja Ranjit Singh when Punjab was seized of anarchy and mayhem and Raja Dhian Singh was slain by the insurgent forces; Hira Singh a nephew of Suchet Singh installed himself as the prime minister of Punjab. However, he did not prove himself equal to the challenging task and the dissident elements approached Raja Suchet Singh to take over the prime ministership of the state. Suchet Singh succumbed to the dangling canot and, albeit, Raja Gulab Singh forbade him from proceeding to Punjab in the turbulent conditions prevailing there, Suchet Singh did precisely the same thing. Pretending to go on a hunting expedition. he drove out of Jammu and reached Shahdara on the outskirts of Lahore. From there he deputed his confidant deputy Dewan Jawahar Mal Datt to go to Lahore and probe the situation. The Dewan reported back on the city being in great turmoil due to widespread belligerency of the Sikhs. Suchet Singh was still camping at Shahdara when Hira Singh mounted a big attack on him. His senior ministers, Dewan Bhim Sain Datt and Rai Kesari Singh. pleaded with him for not stepping into the arena of the battle. They assured him that as his loyal subjects they will carryon the fight on his behalf but Suchet Singh paid no heed. In the furious battle that followed. all the three were killed and their dead bodies were cremated alongside of each other. Three mausoleums, sheltered by canopies, mark the place at Badami Bagh near Lahore. Dewan Bhim Sain Datt was the doyen of the Mohyals of Jammu and his gallantry became a part of the folk lore. A wanior to the finger tips, he was rendered semi blind in one eye, in a shooting mishap. Dewan Jawahar Mal Datt was the younger brother of Dewan Bhim Sain Datt. He had fought a war. in Mullan at the head of 2.000 soldiers in 1848-49 and for displaying exemplary bravery was bestowed a big jagir by the British. A village called Jawahar Pura near Kanjrur in named after him. The war of Multan took place in 1848. Its champion, Dewan Mool Raj Datt had inherited the governoship of Multan from his father Dewan Sawan Mal Datt. He is considered as the first freedom fighter of the modem Indian history. A British narrator, John Dunlop M.D., has given the following account of the memorable battle of Multan. \"The British rulers persuaded the Dewan to hand over the fort ofMultan to their stooge, Sardar Kahan Singh. Kahan Singh with thePolitical agent Vans Agnew and Lt. Anderson, with 500 soldiers, reached Multan on 16 April 1848 for taking over the town. Dewan Mool RaJ with the advice of his brothers cut down both the British officers into pieces. The British leaders then decided to take Multan by force. 32,000 troops with 150 heavy artillery pieces besieged Multan, but for months, no body could get entry into the fort and severe blows were given to all the attackers. Unfortunately, one artillery shell destroyed all the gun powder magazine of the Dewan. The British Commander, General Whish, sent a letter to the Dewan asking him to surrender. The same letter was fired back to the British Commander along with an artillery shot. Severe battle followed this and the Dewan had to sunender in January 1849, when his grain store was destroyed, leaving nothing for his men to eat, after ably defending Multan for about 8 months. When Dewan Mool Raj was being removed from the General\'s\'tent from his brethren and chiefs, eighteen of those of higher rank threw themselves at his feet and shed tears. Even the British enemies praised the qualities of Dewan Mool Raj Datt. He was so shrewd that he foiled an attempt by the British rulers, who tried to sabotage his defence by sending 5,000 soldiers under a Sikh leader, under the plea to help him. Dewan Mool Raj put those men outside the fort instead of allowing them to enter it. All the men marched back to Lahore after a couple of days. After the sun-ender, the Dewan was put under house arrest. He was then sent to jail in Rangoon, where he died because of his ill health.\" Dewan Bhim Sain had two sons. Dewan Hem Raj and Dewan Jamait Rai. Dewan Hem Raj was made the commander-in-chief by Raja Ranbir Singh when he became the ruler of Kahsmir after the death of Maharaja Gulab Singh. There are many anecdotes relating to him which highlight his gargantuan courage and bravery. He was able to subjugate a notorious Rajput bad character of that time, named Mian Utho. and brought him to the court of the Maharaja under anest. Once when the then Viceroy of India was inspecting the Maharaja\'s artillery in Jammu, he was wonderstruck when the stately and rotund Dewan lifted a heavy cannon by hand in a jiffy. The State Prime Minister Dewan Jawala Sahai was very jealous of Dewan Hem Raj because of the clout he enjoyed in the affairs of the court. Once Dewan Hem Raj severely reprimanded Jawala Sahai in the presence of the Maharja when the latter tried to implicate Dewan Jamait Rai, his younger brother, on a fictitious charge of depravity. Dewan Hem Raj died during a kidney operation in Jammu in 1872. His brother Dewan Jamait Rai had a long tenure as the Finaicial Commissioner of the State. Dewan Bhim Sain died in 1844. His brother Jawahar Mal had 3 :-vives. The family had immense wealth and immovable property includII1g 32 acres of land and 7 villages around Kanjrur, 3 buildings in Lahore in Bhati Gate, in one of which Dewan Jawahar Mal died in 1852. Later, the property was inherited by Bk. Jog Dhian Bali who was a grandson of the Dewan family. Dewan Lakshmi Chand, a descendant the illustrious family resigned his police post and founded the DA V 19h School in Kanjrur in 1919, a Girls School at Guliana and again a DA V High School in Shakar Garh in 1940. He presided over the Mohyal Conference held at Lahore in 1935. During the rule of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Sardar Karam Singh Dati of Kanjrur was commandant of the Maharaja\'s Body Guard and Bakhshi Sham Singh of viIIage Malikpur District Rawalpindi was the Treasurer. Bakhshi Gur Narain Datt was appointed governor of the region comprising Rawalpindi, Pothowar rInd Kohistan: during Sikh rule. He was incharge of Maharaja Ranjit Singh\'s Privy Seal _lI1d for that honour was known as Bllkhshi Chholi Mohal\' Wala. He was specially selected hy the Maharaja for demarcation of the boundary of Kashmir, after the First Sikh War of 1845. He had a big estate consisting of eight villages, including the land on which Islamabad the new capital of Pakistan is built. On the annexation of Punjab by the Britsih, his jagir was confiscated. However, he refused to surrender the royal seal and instead distroyed it and then committed suicidc. His big house built in the shape of a fortress, with ramparts and subterranean pnssages, and known as Purani Tehsil, still stands in the Saidpuri Mohnlla of Rawalpindi. Bakhshiani Moolan Tehsil-Wali of the same family was a charismatic lady and a celebrity in her own right. Bakhshi Prem Nath Dalt, great grandson of Gur Namin, was rare example of an under-matriculate rising to the rank of a Colonel and that too in the Education Corps. He was one of th founders of the Akhil Bharatiya Mohyal Pratinidhi Sabha, New Delhi. Another notable Mohyal of that time was Mehta Dewan Chand Dall, the governor of Sind Sagar Doab. Captain Ganda Singh Dalt, Sardar Bahadur, Risaldar Major 19 Bengal Lancers, hailed from Zaffarwal Daltan Tehsil Raiyya of District Sialkot. He made a name by his conspicuous bravery in the Indian Mutiny of 1857 and the Wars of China and Afghanistan. During the Kandhar campaign, he rode nearly 70 miles a day on three consecutive days, through Baluchi HiIIs. to reach his destination. He. was selected by the then Commander-in-Chief of India, General Lord Roberts. to serve as his Aide-de-Camp in 1889 and held that post for three years. He served the army with great distinction for 50 long years and retired in 1894. He died in April 1903. His last public appearance was at the time of the Delhi Coronation Durbar at which he was presented before the British monarch, among the selected army veterans. His .family estate of Ganda Singh Wala has now almost merged with the metropolitan Amritsar and the scores of acres of land on which stands the majestic campus of the Khalsa College, was donated by him. As he had no son of his own, he adopted the son of his sister. His grand nephew Sardar Sant .Singh Dalt. PCS, was the Chief of Kalsia State. Mehta Dhera Mal Dati, l)orn in Miani in 1846, was one of the architects of the General Mohyal Sabha. He had the distinction of scrving as editor of the Mohyal Mittel\' for a marathon tenure of 22 years. As those were the days of child-mao\'iage. he was married at the tender age of 10 years to a girl of 6. When he was a boy of sixteen. he performed a great feat of elldurance by walking on foot from Miani to Rawalpindi, a distance of nearly 250 kms, in search of n job. He had a blooming career as leading government contractor in Mullan with nourishing income. He came under the influence of Guru Dalt, the veteran Arya Samaj leader, and altended dicourses of Swami Dayanand which transformed him into a lifelong devotee of the Arya Samaj. He donated nearly Rs. 30.000/- to its various institutions. Once he converted a Mohyal who had embraced Islam back to Hindu fold in the face of delirious opposition. He died on 27 December 1924. ironically, on the eve of the Mohyal Conference held in Rawalpindi on 27-28 December of the same year. Chaudhary Ganesh Dass Dati was a contemporary of Mehta Dhera Mal and like him a great luminary of both the Arya Samaj as well as the General Mohyal Sabha. He hailed from Zaffarwal but spent all his life in Lahore where he retired in 1915, after 35 years of meritorious service as Superintendent in the North Western Railway. He was so much devoted to Arya Samaj that he would daily leave his house at 7 AM to spend two to three hours in the Samaj before proceeding to office. In the evening again, after returning from office and brief halt at home, he would go to the Arya Sam\\lj Temple and work there till 9 to 10 PM, thus undergoing a daily odyssey of nearly 10 miles. He was a member as well as the treasurer of the DA V College Managing Committee. He also looked after the publication of the Samaj organ, the Arya Gazette. He converted a whole Muslim family to Hinduism and kept them at his house for several months. Once he was arrested for delivering a violent speech in Arya Samaj and tried before a British Magistrate and the laller was so much impressed by his scholarship that he ordered his immediate release. Ch. Ganesh Dass Dall was founder of the Arya Girls School Wachhowali and Kanya Mahavidyalaya Qila Gujar Singh in Lahore. He belonged to that group of Mohyals who first pioneered the establishment of the Mohyal Mittel\' Sabha in 1891 and then reincarnated it as the General Mohyal Sabha in 1901 and also launched its monthly organ, the Mohyal Miller. He worked in different capacities as treasurer, Vice President and trustee of the GMS for more than 15 years. He used to affix address chits and postage stamps with hIs own hands when the monthly issues of Mohyal Miller were ready and then carry the bundles on foot for delivering to the post office. A part of his house was set aside as guest house for the Mohyal visitors to Lahore who would stay there for days together. He died in December 1938 at the ripe age of 80 years. On hearing the news of his death, te_rs rolled down from the eyes of Mahatma Hans Raj, the President O[ the Arya Samaj, and he remarked: I have lost my right hand and the organisation a great pillar. Chaudhary Sahib\'s eldest son, Rai _ Bahadur Gobind Ram Dalt, was an eminent entomologist. Sardar Bahadur Hony. Capt. Hukam Singh Datt was Aide-de-Camp to Lord Curzon during his viceroyaIty. He was selected to represent the Indian Army at the Jubilee celebrations held in London in 1897. He was awarded 8 squares of land on the Sargodha Canal. The ever obliging Chaudhary Mati Ram Datt of Kanjrur used to feed both men as well as animals of his village from his own granary during the hard days of the famine. When a deadly plague was rampant in 1907, the good samaritan invited the pestilence on himself while serving the victims of the dread disease. Bakhshi (he allowed himself to be addressed as Pandit) Lakhpat Rai Datt of Hissar was a close associate of Lala Lajpat Rai. He wielded great intluence over the Jat landlord, Sir Chhotu Ram, made him a staunch Arya Samajist and with his help collected huge amounts of money to be used for Arya Samaj and the DA V College institutions. His son Pandit Nanak Chand Dalt, the renowned Barrister of Lahore (and father-in-law of Mr. G.S. Pathak. former Vice President of India) carried on the work of his noble father after his death. The son of Pandit Nanak Chand, Mr. P.c. Pandit, retired as Judge of the Punjab and Haryana High Court. (for glowing tribute paid to Pandit Lakhpat Rai Datt by Lala Lajpat Rai, see under Mohyals contribution to the Arya Samaj). Mehta Mangal Sain Dalt of Guliana was the Secretary of GeneralMohyal Sabha for 25 years and also presided over the Conference held at Peshawar in 1938. He made handsome contribution to the Mohyal Ashram of Lahore. He passed away in 1945. One of his sons, Rai Sahib Sita Ram Dati, rose to the post of Superintendent of Police. Mehta Sahib\'s younger brother, Mehta Khem Chand. who served in the Museums of Peshawar and Lahore for many years, was equally devoted to the General Mohyal Sabha and was its treasurer for a long time.