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Cahleen, Jo Farque, Migration of Hmong to the Midwestern United States Md. : University Press of America, 2002.

This book covers the migration of the Hmong and their original culture and religion. It also investigates how their customs, such as filial piety, changes and are reinvented in their new American context. This source is especially useful since it focuses on the Hmong population in the Minnesota region.

Chan, Sucheng. Hmong Means Free: Life in Laos and America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994.

Chan’s text is an account of changes in Hmong life from Laos to the United States. Very little of the book is Chan’s own writing—most of the text is comprised of narratives. These narratives make excellent comparative case studies, and Chan’s introduction gives great insight into the history of the Hmong before, during, and after colonial influence in Southeast Asia. This book is a good primary resource, giving life histories rather than secondary analysis.


Culas, Christian, Gary Yia Lee, Jean Michaud and Nicholas Tapp, ed., Hmong/Miao in Asia. Bangkok: Silkworm Books, 2004.

Hmong/Miao in Asia provides a comprehensive look at the Hmong population in their homeland by dividing the studies and articles into two sections: a cultural profile of the Hmong and a study of the conflict situation faced by the population. This text is useful to provide background on both the Hmong culture and the conflict fueling the migration to America. Though this book provides a detailed look into the traditional life of the Hmong, its primary focus is on the historical, and not the recent life of the Hmong. It would have been helpful if the authors had provided more insights into how life in refugee camps has affected the Hmong population. Also, there were many articles on the Hmong impact on the environment, which seemed slightly out of place and extraneous.

Deinard, Amos S., Bruce T. Downing, Glenn L. Hendricks, ed., The Hmong in Transition.  New York: The Center for Migration                 Studies, 1986.

The Hmong in Transition provides collected papers from the second Hmong Research conference, held at the University of Minnesota. The papers are divided into four sections: Hmong Culture and Change, Adapting to a New Society, Language and Literacy and Health Care Issues. This source is used primarily to connect the Hmong with Minnesota, as it contains data on relocation programs that brought the Hmong to the Twin Cities as well as population data. This book contains the widest range of information on the Hmong; however, as it was published twenty years ago, it is hard to say how much of the information is still current and how much has changed since publication.

Downing, Bruce T., and Douglas P. Olney, ed., The Hmong in the West. Minneapolis , MN: University of Minnesota, 1982.

This book provides a detailed overview of Hmong immigration, history, culture, language, and relocation issues.  The authors explore the different aspects of Hmong culture and history from the 18th century on.  This book also looks at the Hmong language and customs.

Dunnigan, Timothy. “The Segmentary Kinship in an Urban Society: The Hmong of St. Paul- Minneapolis.” Anthropology Quarterly,         July 1982, Vol. 55 Issue 3, p126-134

This article provides information about the resettlement of the Hmong in the Twin Cities. This article also details the organizational structure of the Hmong community and the ways the Hmong community supports its members.  This article did not provide information about how the Hmong system of clans and alliances evolved.
Fennelly, Katherine, and Nicole Palasz, “English Language Proficiency of Immigrants and Refugees in the Twin Cities Metropolitan         Area,”  International Migration, 2003, Vol. 41 Issue 5, p93-125.

This article compares the Hmong population in the Twin Cities with three other main immigrant groups. They are compared on several different variables relating to their proficiency in English; their scholastic background in their home country as well as their age of entry into the United States was also taken into account. This article is very interesting since it discusses the possible reasons for why the Hmong population generally had a lower proficiency in English and were less integrated than the other populations featured in the survey.


Hein, Jeremy. Ethnic Origins: The Adaptation of Cambodian and Hmong Refugees in Four American Cities. New York: Russell Sage         Foundation, 2006.

Ethnic Origins
looks at the role of race, religion, culture, citizenship and other factors that relate to the integration of Hmong and Cambodian refugees in four American cities. This book contains helpful information on why the Hmong chose to come to Minnesota, as well as many informative facts on the culture and life of newly-settled Hmong refugees. This book is helpful because it provides a detailed look at the Hmong in the Midwest; however there is little information on the  Twin Cities. It seems as if the Twin Cities deserved more recognition, as many important events seemed to be skimmed over, such as a large Hmong conference that was to take place in Minneapolis.

Her, Cheng, and Kathleen A. Culhane-Pera. "Culturally Responsive Care for Hmong Patients." Postgraduate Medicine, 2004, Vol.         116 Issue 6, p39-46. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed September 22, 2006).

As physicians, Chang and Culhane-Pera have dealt with clashing values of traditional spirituality and modern medicine. Their article provides an overview of Hmong religious beliefs and practices as they relate to social structure, patient-doctor dynamics, and treatment. These authors give a fair, non-judgmental overview of traditions, explaining traditional Hmong medicine without contempt and even pointing out effective philosophies. Chang and Culhane-Pera advise doctors with Hmong patients to show respect and work with Hmong traditions. This article is helpful not only as an example of how Hmong adapt to life in the United States, but as an example of how Americans adapt to accept the Hmong.

Hmong Cultural Center, “Multicultural Resources, Adult Education, Cultural Education.” (accessed 23         September 2006).

This website shows the many resources available to the Hmong community as well as some statistical data about the Hmong community. This website can be used for general information on the Hmong community in America. This website is confusing to navigate and the research that it seemed to promise was in fact, not located anywhere on the actual site.

“The Hmong in Minnesota [Excerpts].” (21 September 2006).

This book describes the Hmong’s affiliations with the US government during the 1970’s. This article also explains why many Hmong refugees settled in the Twin Cities.  The only flaw of this article is that it did not include a detailed history of the Hmong people.

Learn About Hmong, “Hmong Resources Presentation.” (accessed 20 September 2006).

This webpage gives an overview of the Hmong situation today, different cultural practices and their historical background. It also contains information specific to the Hmong living in Minneapolis.

Lehman, Jeffery ed. Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America (Detroit : Gale Group, 2000).

This encyclopedia gives valuable information about a multitude of different ethnic groups living in the United States. The information on the Hmong population is good but quite general.

Lo, T. Fungtchatou. The Promised Land: Socioeconomic Reality of the Hmong People in Urban America, 1976-2000. Bristol, IN:            Wyndham Hall Press. 2001.

Lo’s work is a comprehensive account of everything Hmong—culture, diversity within the group, early history, modern history, diaspora, cultural conflicts in the United States, and economic status. Lo devotes a section to comparing the Hmong to Cuban refugees. Only one Hmong community—that in Milwaukee, Wisconsin—is used as a case study. In some ways, the specific sounding title is misleading because the subject matter is so broad. Despite this, Lo appears to create a relatively clear picture of Hmong history and life in the United States.

Lynch, David J. "Hmong get Last Chance to Immigrate to USA." USA Today, June 14, 2004. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost         (accessed 22 September 2006).

With magazine brevity, Lynch explains the conditions of the Wat Tham Krabok refugee sanctuary in Thailand, the reasons for Hmong flight from Laos, and the involvement of the United States in providing these former allies with safe homes. Though never in depth, the article is an excellent starting point for research on the Hmong. Lynch uses the story of one ex-soldier and his family to personify the plight of the Hmong—while perhaps not academic, this gives the intensive subject a face.

Michaud, Jean, “From Southwest China into Upper Indochina : an Overview of Hmong (Miao) Migrations.” Asia Pacific Viewpoint,         1997, Vol. 38, Issue 2, p119-130.

This article chronicles the Hmong’s migration from their original homelands into the territory they occupy in the present day, and the effects of the migration on the Hmong society. This article provides information on the history of the Hmong migrations. A significant amount of the information in this article pertains to a period in the Hmong’s history that does not connect to today’s conflict.

The Minneapolis Foundation, “Immigration In Minnesota : Discovering Common Ground: Southeast Asia-Focus on the Hmong."    immigration/asia.htm (accessed 21 September 2006).

The website provides a wealth of information on Hmong migration and resettlement in Minnesota, including reasons why the Twin Cities are such a popular location for the Hmong community. It also contains information on the social, economic and educational status of the Hmong in the greater Minneapolis area. This source was used to connect the Hmong to Minnesota and to provide important statistics. This website would have been more helpful if it went into more detail about the Hmong community. It skims the surface of many issues, rather than focusing on one or two main ideas

Minnesota Deptartment of Health, "Demographic and Health Screening Data of Primary Refugees to Minnesota: New                             Arrivals--County and Ethnicity, 2005." (accessed 21             September, 2006).

The Minnesota Department of Refugee health has broken down the Minnesota refugee population by ethnicity and county and placed the results in a table. These findings show that a majority of Hmong refugees at first resettle in Hennepin and Ramsey counties.  The table is easy to use and very good for comparing refugee populations.

Moss, Joyce, and George Wilson, Peoples of the World Asians and Pacific Islanders Detroit: Gale Research, 1993. 

This book gives general information on several people of Asia and the Pacific Islands, among them the Hmong. The book covers such topics as culture, religion and family structure. It also highlights the reason for the Hmong to dislocate and where they have chosen to migrate to.

Neighborhood House. “Brief Overview of Hmong Culture.” (accessed 21 September 2006).

This article provided an overview of the Hmong family life, values, and community leadership. This article, written by Hmong author, was informative also very broad in areas such as marriage and spirituality.

Ruefle, William, William H. Ross, and Diane Mandell. “Attitudes Towards Southeastern Asia Immigrants in a Wisconsin                         Community.” International Migration Review, Autumn 1992, Vol. 26 Issue 3, p877-898.  

This article provides an in-depth look about US residents’ reactions to Hmong immigrants in Wisconsin.  The article explains the history of the Hmong people and their reasons for immigrating to the United States. However, the majority of this article wasn’t very useful because it described the community’s response to Hmong immigrants in Wisconsin, not in Minnesota.

Scott, George M. “The Hmong Refugee Community in San Diego: Theoretical and Practical Implications of its Continuing Ethnic            Solidarity,” Anthropological Quarterly, July 1982, Vol. 55, Issue 3.
The Hmong Refugee Community in San Diego: Theoretical and Practical Implications of its Continuing Ethnic Solidarity chronicles the Hmong population’s efforts to retain their traditional culture despite efforts from assimilated/”Americanized” Hmong and resettlement workers to integrate the new arrivals into their new community. This article was used in an effort to learn more about the way the Hmong integrate into American communities upon arrival. This article was especially helpful because it gave accounts from refugees and relief workers, but the fact that it was about the Hmong population in San Diego made some of the material completely irrelevant.

 Tatman, Anthony W. "Hmong History, Culture, and Acculturation: Implications for Counseling the Hmong." Journal of Multicultural         Counseling & Development, 2004, Vol. 32 Issue 4, p222-233. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed 22                     September 2006).

Tatman relays in his article the many psychological pressures on Hmong in America—the traumatic memories of their past in Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam, the pressure to succeed on completely new terms, and the terrible conflict between identities and cultures. Arguing that most Hmong would benefit from counseling (though few undergo treatment), Tatman advocates an approach that fosters a “bi-cultural” identity. Choosing one culture leads to depression among Hmong, but a means of strengthening both leads to feelings of fulfillment and high motivation. Tatman’s approach was theoretical—no study exists to support this claim.

Voices and Visions. Saint Paul, MN: The Saint Paul Foundation, 1996.

This book describes the waves of Hmong immigration from Laos to Minnesota. This book also explores the different challenges Hmong people face once resettled in America.  This book helped explain Hmong culture and values but did not provide a lot of information about why the Hmong came to America.

Westermeyer, Joseph, Touxa Lyfoung and John Neider, “An Epidemic of Opium Dependence among Asian Refugees in Minnesota:         Characteristics and Causes.”  British Journal of Addiction, 1989, Vol. 84 Issue 7, p785-789.

This article explores one of the problems that some Hmong individuals are experiencing when making the transition to a new culture and how that culture sometimes clashes with their native culture. It also gives a brief background on the Hmong situation and origins.

Zehr, Mary Ann. "District Shifts Strategies to Welcome Refugees." Education Week, Volume 23, Issue 31, p5-5. Academic Search         Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed 22 September 2006).

Zehr provides a follow-up to the USA Today article by David Lynch, explaining the English program to be enacted by the St. Paul school districts in order to accommodate refugees from the Wat Tham Krabok sanctuary. This article not only shows a method of community reaction to the incoming refugee population—accommodating and practical—but provides an “end” to the story of Wat Tham Krabok. The article lacks outside references.