Results Team Strategies that Work! Working Inside the Black Box- Raising Standards through Classroom Assessment Phi Delta Kappan September 2004 Researchers- Black, Harrison, Lee, Marshall and Wiliam First question, is there evidence that improving formative assessment raises standards? Equivocal yes! Can we improve? Yes- identified three main problems in need of improvement 1. The assessment methods that teachers use are not effective in promoting good learning 2. Grading practices tend to emphasize competition rather than personal involvement 3. Assessment feedback is often negative. The solution –Assessment for Learning 4 Successful Strategies supported by research 1. Questioning a.Interactive- Ask question and then provide time for students to work together and solve b.No hands- all students expected to be able to answer at any time even if is an “I don’t know” c. Supportive climate- pupils are comfortable giving wrong answers. The wrong answer can be just as useful as the correct. d. Essential questions and carefully framed questions to increase development of understanding. e. Wait time- increased- focus on quality of response vs. right answer 2. Feedback through grading “Students given marks are likely to see it as a way to compare themselves with others; those given only comments see it as helping them to improve. The latter group outperforms the former. Key research- leaning can be advanced by feedback through comments Numerical scores and grades have a negative impact on advancing learning a. Improve the quality of comments- identify what has been done well, what needs improvement and give guidance on how to make that improvement. b. Provide time during instruction to improve the quality of work based on the feedback c.Written work should encourage students to develop and show understanding d. Provide opportunities for students to respond to comments 3. Peer and self assessment- Self-assessment is essential to learning! a. Criteria for evaluating any learning achievement should be clear to students. Use of models and exemplars. b. Students should be taught the skills for collaboration in peer assessment. c. Independent learners- student should focus on the aim of the work and self-assess along the way. 4. The formative use of summative tests a. Traffic light strategy- students indicate level of understanding by assessing- green-go, yellow-caution, red-stop b. Reflective review and planning for revisions c. Students generate questions and mark answers to gain understanding d. Use peer and self-assessment for students to apply criteria and understand what they need to do to improve. The Big Idea: Focus on Learning and Improving Student Performance A learning environment: Principles and Plans a. Plan classroom activities to give students the opportunity to express their thinking so that feedback can help develop it b. Formulate feedback so that it guides improvement c. Use activities that demand collaboration- everyone is encouraged and challenged; students listen and respect one another’s ideas d. Students are active participants in the lessons and emphasize learning and readiness to express their understanding. A learning environment: Roles and Expectations a. Classroom contract- teachers and students work to improve everyone’s learning. b. Students are not passive recipients of knowledge rather active learners. c. Teachers need to have students share in the responsibility for learn


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