1. A key goal of school learning is fluent and flexible transfer-successful use of one's knowledge and skill, on worthy tasks, in situations of importance.
2. Engaged and sustained learning, a prerequisite for understanding, requires that learners constantly see the value of their work and feel a growing sense of efficacy when facing worthy challenges.
3. Success at transfer depends on understanding the big ideas that connect otherwise isolated inert facts, skills, and experiences so that new challenges can be met and new experiences understood.
4. An understanding is a learner's realization about the power of an idea. Understandings can not be given; they have to be engineered so that learns see themselves the power of an idea for making sense of things.
5. Learners need clear, completely transparent priorities and practical understandings of how the learning goals are to be met in terms of work products and standards of excellence.
6. Learners require regular, timely, and user-friendly feedback in order to understand the goals, to produce quality work, and to meet high standards.
7. Understanding can be attained only by regular reflection, self-assessment, and self-adjustment in trying to apply prior learning to new situations and tasks via activities and assessments that demand such reflection and transfer.
8. The capacity to deeply understand depends greatly on the capacity to thing things anew (and other related habits of mind) because any insight typically requires the refining of earlier ideas. Becoming willing and able to rethink requires a safe and supportive environment for intellectual risk taking and questioning assumptions and habits.
9. Because achieving understanding and transfer require a willingness to think, rethink, and push beyond one's normal comfort level, learners need a safe and supportive environment for intellectual risk taking and questioning assumptions and habits.
10. Learning is enhanced when it is personalized-when learner's interests, preferences, strengths, contributions, and prior knowledge are sufficiently honored.
(Wiggins and McTighe, Schooling by Design)