"Healthy Eating" in CADMOS

Cadmos is a graphical editor that appeals to practitioners with basic computer skills and knowledge of learning standards. The designer creates two different models:

  • The conceptual model, which describes the learning activities that the different roles of the design are involved in and the corresponding learning resources/services and

  • The flow model, which describes the orchestration of the learning activities

We used Cadmos to represent Lesson 2 of the “Healthy Eating” scenario. Figure 1 shows the conceptual model of the learning scenario “Healthy Eating-Lesson 2”. In this model, 14 simple activities are described:

  1. Each student watches a video and asks questions
  2. The teacher presents different inquiry methods
  3. Each student studies and suggests an inquiry method
  4. Students discuss about suggested inquiry methods
  5. The teacher divides groups and moderates discussion
  6. Each group chooses a question and sends it to an expert
  7. The teacher displays an example and discusses
  8. Each group copies and annotates
  9. Teacher displays and comments data
  10. Teacher supports debate
  11. The students debate
  12. The teacher sends a set  of guidelines for home activity
  13. Each group performs a home activity
  14. Students discuss in plenary
We did not use composite learning activities, because there weren’t any in the scenario.
In every simple activity we have defined the following metadata, which are not shown in the figures:

  • Title
  • Description
  • Learning goal
  • Prerequisite
  • Type (Informative, Theory, Example, Assessment, Feedback, Scaffold, Simulation-modeling, Communicative)
  • Role

Before the practitioner uses the canvas in order to design the conceptual model, s/he has defined some metadata for the lesson i.e. title, description, learning goals, prerequisites and roles, in previous screens. These screens are not shown in this section. So when s/he creates the activities s/he selects and corresponds to them one learning goal and one prerequisite from the aforementioned. One limitation that the tool has in this version is that the designer cannot correspond to each activity more than one learning goals or prerequisites.

In the description field, every activity is described in detail, whereas in the role field the corresponding role is determined. The type field gives the opportunity to the designer, to watch at any time through the “Statistics” command of the tool, what types of activities s/he has used.

The types of the activities for the described lesson are:

  • Activity 1: informative,

  • Activity 2: communicative,

  • Activity 3: communicative,

  • Activity 4: communicative,

  • Activity 5: communicative,

  • Activity 6: communicative,

  • Activity 7: example,

  • Activity 8: assessment,

  • Activity 9: feedback,

  • Activity 10: feedback,

  • Activity 11: communicative,

  • Activity 12: assessment,

  • Activity 13: assessment,

  • Activity 14: communicative.

Figure 1: Conceptual Model of the Healthy Eating-Lesson 2

As we can see in Figure 1, every simple activity has its corresponding resource. In Cadmos we define the following metadata for every resource, which are not shown in the figures:

1.    Title

2.    Author

3.    Description

4.    Type (hypertext, audio, video, assessment, forum, quiz)

5.    Copyright (free, proprietary)

6.    Resource File

In the suggested scenario we defined the type of the resources of the first two activities as video and hypertext respectively. For the rest of the activities, we do not have the appropriate type in our list, as the tool was developed at first in order to design electronically supported lessons. One of our goals is to enrich the list of the types for both the resources and the activities in next releases of Cadmos.

Figure 2 shows the flow model of the scenario.  In this model we see three different swim lanes, one for each role i.e. student, teacher, group. The activities are set in the vertical axis, according to their chronological order. The model is divided into seven different phases as the scenario suggested.

Figure 2 Flow Model of the Healthy Eating-Lesson 2

In Cadmos flow model, the designer can specify the duration of a learning activity by using the time-limit rule. The designer cannot specify the duration of a set of activities, i.e. the activities of a phase, as the specific scenario demands. Thus in order to give this information, we added a comment next to the separator line of each phase. Cadmos supports two more rules i.e. user-choice and score-condition rules, but we did not use them in the flow model because there weren’t any in the scenario.

As a conclusion we were able to represent Lesson 2 of the ‘Healthy Eating’ scenario in our tool, though we noted some constraints or lacks that Cadmos had in the description of face to face scenarios.