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January

664. Jan. 3, 2001 -- Butler County troops helped feed army:  Company G fought battle with wheat
 
Journal-News , Wednesday, Jan. 3, 2001
Butler County troops helped feed army
 
By Jim Blount
 
While most of the Union army moved toward a confrontation at Stones River, Tenn., in the closing hours of 1862, a Butler County regiment was sent in the opposite direction. The 35th Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment -- mostly Butler County men -- was ordered to Gallatin, Tenn., about 27 miles northeast of Nashville.
 
The Battle of Stones River was waged over two days -- Dec. 31, 1862, and Jan. 2, 1863 -- with a day's respite between. The fighting at Murfreesboro, on the West Fork of Stone River, centered 33 miles southeast of Nashville.
 
Opposing forces included about 41,400 Union troops under Brigadier-General William S. Rosecrans, and about 35,000 Confederates led by Brigadier-General Braxton Bragg.
 
The battle developed when Confederates sent cavalry on raids on Union supply and communications lines. Rosecrans took advantage of their detachment, moving out of Nashville and attacking Bragg.
 
Meanwhile, all but one company from the 35th OVI performed guard duty at Gallatin, away from the action at Murfreesboro. The exception was Company G.
 
Confederates had gathered a large store of wheat at a mill on the Hartsville Pike. It fell into the hands of Union troops, whose commanders weren't about to waste such a precious commodity.
 
There was a shortage of bread in the Union ranks because the supply of flour from Ohio and Indiana had been severed by Confederate raids on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, the lifeline for the army in Tennessee.
 
The L&N had been cut by troops under the command of Gen. John Hunt Morgan, whose southern cavalrymen would ride through Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio the following summer, threatening Hamilton July 13-14, 1863. Morgan's horsemen were believed still in the Gallatin area when the 35th was sent there at the end of December 1862.
 
Captain Samuel L'Hommedieu of Company G had been a miller in Hamilton before the war. He and the men in his company took over a grist mill and produced flour for the Army of the Cumberland. The remainder of the 35th was ordered to help.
 
"After the stock on hand was exhausted," wrote Frederick W. Keil, a member of the regiment, "foraging parties scoured the country, and gathered all the wheat within reach" for processing by the millers.
 
"Colonel [Ferdinand] Van Derveer headed one of these foraging parties . . . with a hundred teams; and came back well loaded. Until the railway could be placed in good working order," said Keil, "such work had to be done to support the army. After the country had been well cleaned out of grain, we were placed in motion for Nashville to take our place at the front."
 
By that time, the Battle of Stones River (also known as the Battle of Murfreesboro) had ended. The 35th OVI -- as during most of its previous 14 months of war service -- had missed the action, but had performed valuable supporting duty.
 
The encounter in Middle Tennessee was considered a tactical victory for the Confederates, although they withdrew from the area the morning of Jan. 3. Rosecrans also claimed victory, but didn't pursue the enemy.
 
Casualty totals were 13,249 in the Union army (1,730 dead, 7,802 wounded and 3,717 missing) and 10,266 for the Confederacy (1,294 killed, 7,945 wounded and 1,027 missing).
 
The importance of Company G's mill operation had been underscored by Keil's observation of the food situation in the preceding weeks as the army moved through Kentucky and Tennessee toward Nashville.
 
"We lived off the country," he said, "and foraging was a part of our daily duty. The country through which we passed was not one flowing with milk and honey, hence the quartermasters had all they do to supply the demands of the troops."
 
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Journal-News , Wednesday, Jan. 10, 2001: B Street paper mill active since 1894
 
Journal-News , Wednesday, Jan. 10, 2001
B Street paper mill active since 1894
 
By Jim Blount
 
Coated paper production began on a modest scale April 15, 1894, at International Paper Company's B Street mill in Hamilton. It was the Champion Coated Paper Company then with only nine employees under the direction of Peter G. Thomson, a Cincinnati businessman, who had incorporated the firm in November 1893.
 
Thomson hadn't intended to build a paper plant there. In 1891, he had purchased 187 acres west of the Great Miami River to develop into subdivisions. When a national recession caused a local housing slump, he used some of the land along Seven Mile Pike (now North B Street) to erect a mill that coated paper produced by other paper companies in Hamilton.
 
Thomson, previously a bookseller and publisher, believed that recent progress in half-tone printing would increase the demand for coated paper. He was correct.
 
By 1900, Thomson had doubled the capacity of the original plant five times. In June 1902 the company manufactured paper for the first time in Hamilton, opening a new paper mill simultaneously with a rebuilt coating plant. By 1910, the mill was regarded as the largest coated-paper mill in the world.
 
But it wasn't a smooth course. During its first 20 years, the mill survived two floods (March 1898 and March 1913), two fires (December 1901 and March 1913), several business cycles, numerous technological advances, and constant market changes.
 
From its earliest years, Champion welcomed transplanted Appalachians, especially Kentuckians. Thomson hired people from the hills and hollows because they tended to be loyal, adaptable, hard working and ingenious at fixing machinery problems.
 
Thomson was regarded as an innovator in papermaking and employee relations. B Street workers were able to save at an in-plant company store from 1917 to 1934, and had group insurance coverage for themselves and dependents since 1917. He provided a full-time industrial physician after 1916, added an advertising department in 1924 and built a research facility in 1926.
 
Thomson -- whose philanthropy and civic leadership aided all Hamiltonians -- directed the mill and the company until his death July 10, 1931.
 
In the 1930s, when the Great Depression idled many local factories, production at the B Street mill shifted to plain grades of paper that were in demand and a "work-for-all policy" was implemented. Instead of devastating layoffs, most of Champion's 4,000 or more coaters, millwrights, pipefitters, sorters and other employees worked five or six days a week, a one or two-day reduction from the boom years of the 1920s.
 
When the U. S. entered World War II in 1941, the demand for paper soared. The private sector, the government and the military needed paper for everything from patriotic posters, ration stamps and war bonds to maps -- and, of course, thousands of applications, forms and required records.
 
The war also brought more females into the mill, mostly to replace 676 employees who entered the armed forces. They supplemented the 200 to 400 women who had been employed on the sorting lines during much of the mill's existence.
 
Until August 1961, the mill was only a short walk from company headquarters. That month, administrative offices moved to Knightsbridge elsewhere in Hamilton. After a 1967 merger, corporate leaders relocated in New York City and later shifted to Stamford, Conn.
 
As Champion International observed the 100th anniversary of its Hamilton founding in April 1994, employment at the B Street mill was reported as about 1,500 people.
 
Three and a half years later, in October 1997, Champion International announced its intention to sell the Hamilton mill as part of a corporate restructuring.
 
In May 2000, in a transaction valued at about $7.3 billion, International Paper acquired all Champion International assets. June 21, International assumed ownership and direction of the B Street mill and its 800 employees.
 
Monday, Jan. 8, 2001, International Paper announced it was selling the B Street mill to a Florida merchant banking firm that would operate the facility as Smart Paper LLC.
 
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665. Jan. 10, 2001 -- Estate Stove Co. in Hamilton for 77 years: 
 
Journal-News , Wednesday, Jan. 10, 2001
 
Estate Stove Co. in Hamilton 77 years
 
(This is the third in a five-part series on the Kahn family and the Estate Stove Co.)
 
By Jim Blount
 
Three annual Ohio River floods, the last and worst in 1884, convinced Lazard Kahn and Felix Kahn they should move their foundry and stove works from Hanging Rock, Ohio, to higher ground. Three Hamilton businessmen -- William Beckett, Alexander Gordon and John P. Cornell -- are credited with persuading the Kahn brothers to relocate in Hamilton.
 
The Estate Stove Company -- which traced its origin to 1842 -- operated in Hamilton for 77 years, including 60 years under Kahn ownership and management.
 
The afternoon of Feb. 23, 1885, as 60 molders cheered, the first heat was poured in the new Kahn foundry, which was part of a four-acre complex that included a five-story factory on the west side of the 1300 block of East Avenue. On a tract that had been a cornfield a year earlier, the factory produced cast-iron stoves fueled by wood or coal.
 
The Hanging Rock company had been acquired Feb. 21, 1881, by the French-born Kahn brothers, Lazard and Felix. It was known as F. & L. Kahn and Brothers until incorporated Dec. 31, 1905, as the Estate Stove Company. The Estate name had originated with previous owners in Hanging Rock, near Ironton.
 
Felix Kahn handled financial matters while Lazard Kahn headed manufacturing and sales. Lazard -- an able salesman who spoke six languages, English, French, Spanish, German, Portuguese and Italian -- was largely responsible for building a worldwide market for Estate products.
 
Other Kahn brothers involved in the business were Saul (or Sol), who died in 1887, and Samuel, who served until his death in 1929. Felix died in 1924 and Lazard in 1928.
 
Their sons were directing Estate when the firm was sold in 1945. They were David and Albert, sons of Felix, and Bertrand and Lucian, sons of Lazard. Myron Kahn, Samuel's only son, was part of the management team until his death in 1937.
 
In addition, both generations of Kahns provided leadership and philanthropy to numerous local organizations and causes, ranging from the chamber of commerce and economic development efforts to the Red Cross, Community Chest (now United Way), YMCA, Mercy Hospital and scouting and veterans groups.
 
Kahn products included coal, wood, gas and electric Estate stoves and coal, oil and electric Heatrola heaters for domestic and commercial customers. Gas ranges were first made in 1888, and in 1921 the company introduced Heatrola heating appliances.
 
The Kahns ordered at least nine expansions of their Hamilton facilities in 40 years between 1889 and 1929, enlarging the layout from four to 12 acres. An advertising office opened in 1910, and 11 years later Estate began advertising on a national scale.
 
Estate local employment was reported as 200 people in 1890; more than 400 in 1900; up to 500 a year later; and in excess of 800 in 1960. There were no strikes in the union plant in 60 years of Kahn family ownership.
 
"The Kahn stoves have played a colorful as well as an important role in American history," said the Journal-News in 1945, in noting that its output was more than stoves and heaters for homes. "A caboose stove, designed by Lazard Kahn in the '90s, was used by over 60 United States railroads in cabooses and country stations, and is still in production today. During the great Klondike [gold] rush, the Kahns produced still another famous stove, the Happy Rover, thousands of which were shipped to Alaska for use by the miners."
 
There will be more on the Estate Stove Company in future columns.
 
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666. Jan. 17, 2001 -- Estate also produced for military needs
 
Journal-News , Wednesday, Jan. 17, 2001
 
Estate Stove Co. also produced for United States military needs
 
(This is the fourth in a five-part series on the Kahn family and the Estate Stove Co.)
 
By Jim Blount
 
The Estate Stove Company -- part of the Hamilton industrial scene for 77 years -- was known for manufacturing coal, wood, gas and electric stoves and heaters for domestic and commercial customers.
 
From the Spanish-American War of 1898 through two world wars and the Korean War, the Estate factory on East Avenue also produced specially-designed stoves and heaters for American armed forces.
 
In 1898 -- 13 years after the company moved to Hamilton -- Estate received an order for 500 portable stoves for the U. S. Army as it prepared to fight Spain in Cuba and the Philippines.
 
"The stove is one of the inventions of Lazard Kahn," a newspaper reported. "It is a steel cooking range and is made to bear the rough handling which it will of necessity get in the army. The stoves are lighter than the ordinary range and quite different in appearance."
 
The Hamilton plant was "running day and night to fill the order," the report said. When finished, the stoves were "sent in boxes with full outfits of pots and pans and other cooking utensils."
 
In later wars, military secrecy discouraged publicity including such details.
 
During World War II, a large lighted billboard on the east side of East Avenue featured an honor roll of Estate employees in the armed services and a slogan that the company is "now featuring products designed to make it hot for Hirohito and to cook Hitler's goose." Production for civilian markets had halted in 1942.
 
When the war ended, it was reported that Estate's varied military production ranged from shell and cartridge containers and anti-tank mines to parts for tanks and airplanes.
 
A few months after the war ended -- as stove and heater production returned to normal -- the era of Kahn family ownership concluded.
 
Dec. 28, 1945, Estate was purchased by the Noma Electric Corporation. Noma was identified then as the "world's largest producer of Christmas tree lights and novelty lighting effects and leading toy producer."
 
At the time of the sale, Estate company officers included David, Bertrand, Albert and Lucian Kahn, sons of the brothers who founded Estate (Felix, Lazard and Samuel Kahn).
 
Another change came Sept. 22, 1952, when the company was sold to RCA. Then July 18, 1955, the RCA Estate Appliance Corporation of Hamilton was merged with Seeger Refrigeration Company, St. Paul, Minn.; Sears Roebuck and Company and the Whirlpool Corporation, St. Joseph, Mich. The new firm was called the Whirlpool-Seeger Corporation.
 
Nearly six years later, Feb. 21, 1961, Whirlpool announced it would stop production at the Hamilton plant at 1301 East Avenue by the end of June. At the time of the closure announcement, 750 people were employed at Estate, down from the 804 working there a year earlier.
 
Estate hasn't been a part of Hamilton for almost 40 years, but the name survives. In 2000, the Whirlpool Corp. continues to market gas and electric ranges with the Estate name.
 
"The Estate brand name first appeared way back in 1842, when it began as a tiny foundry in Hanging Rock, Ohio," Whirlpool advertising explains. "From its humble beginnings making stoves and other products, that small company established a legacy of trust that still flourishes today." The ad also says that "when the Whirlpool Corporation acquired it in 1955, the Estate brand was the oldest continuously used brand in the appliance industry."
 
Seventy-seven years of Hamilton labor helped establish that Estate "legacy of trust."
 
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Journal-News , Sunday, Jan. 21, 2001: Plans for Washington Blvd. first developed in 1920
 
Journal-News , Sunday, Jan. 21, 2001
Plans for Washington Blvd. first developed in 1920
 
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the first of a two-part series on Washington Boulevard and Millikin Woods. The second part will focus on Millikin Woods.)
 
By Jim Blount
 
Hamilton City Council's recent decision to extend Washington Boulevard through Millikin Woods has created some controversy and revived several misconceptions about the city park and the road, the history of the latter extending back more than 80 years.
 
By 1917 -- when only 3,300 cars were registered in the entire county -- it was clear that the automobile had captured the public imagination. It promised mobility and convenience that had seemed impossible just 20 years earlier.
 
When World War I ended in November 1918, states, counties and cities launched plans to pave streets and roads. Proposals included paving new thoroughfares as well as improving paths that had been pounded for decades by horse-drawn vehicles.
 
In Hamilton, civic leaders were developing the first city plan under the direction of Harland Bartholomew and Associates of St. Louis. It was described as "a comprehensive plan" for the city's "orderly and economical growth." One of its objectives was to ease the movement of traffic through and around the city.
 
The completed 1920 plan proposed a boulevard system. "The outer loop," planners said, "embraces the hills to the east and west of the city and takes advantage of the opportunities which the topography offers for picturesque drives and sweeping vistas over the surrounding country." It wasn't called Washington Boulevard then. For awhile, it was known as Potter Drive.
 
Maps in the 1920 city plan show it as a parkway extending northwest from South B Street (Hamilton-Cleves Road) across New London Road and Millville Avenue and then northeast and east over Main Street and Eaton Avenue to West Elkton Road and North B Street (Seven Mile Pike). Most of that right-of-way in 1920 was outside the city.
 
It wasn't until 1930 that city council authorized the first section of the 100-foot wide boulevard between New London Road and Millville Avenue. Before work started, to improve alignment, the city traded land with representatives of the Ellis Potter estate.
 
It was called Potter Drive in recognition of the Hamilton native and Cincinnati and New York businessman whose 1925 land donation made possible the municipal golf course which bears his name. Some land for the New London-Millville portion had been given to the city by Potter and trustees of the Harrison Leib estate, which owned a tract at the Millville Avenue end of the road. The Leib subdivision was annexed in January 1931, allowing boulevard construction to start later that year.
 
The 1.25-mile New London-Millville section, costing $48,000, was dedicated Memorial Day, Monday, May 30, 1932. That year was the bicentennial of George Washington's birth (Feb. 22, 1732, in Virginia).
 
The road name -- the George Washington Boulevard -- had been proposed by Mrs. Harry (Mae) Diefenbach, a member of the Woman's City Club. That organization supported the suggestion and urged that trees be planted along the parkway.
 
In June 1931, the city said the second section would be built between Millville Avenue and Eaton Avenue. But the Depression of the 1930s and the World War II delayed the project.
 
In 1929, in anticipation of the extension, the city required the developer of the Verlynn subdivision to allow for the 100-foot wide boulevard from Millville Avenue to the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad's tracks. A year later, the same dimension was required in the plans to develop the woods and farm land on the other side of the tracks.
 
After World War II, the updated city plan included additions to Washington Boulevard. From the late 1940s through the 1990s, other sections were built. Among the missing links is the part that would cross the railroad tracks and cut through Millikin Woods.
 
NEXT: The history of Millikin Woods.
 
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Journal-News, Monday, Jan. 22, 2001: Millikin Woods honors civic leader
 
Journal-News, Monday, Jan. 22, 2001
Millikin Woods honors civic leader
 
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the last of a two-part series on Washington Boulevard and Millikin Woods. The first segment focused on the history of Washington Boulevard.)
 
By Jim Blount
 
Millikin Woods wasn't always known by that name, and, although it has been a Hamilton park for half a century, it wasn't supposed to be a park when acquired by the city. During the recent debate about extending Washington Boulevard through the woods, some people have erroneously assumed that it was donated to the community by someone named Millikin.
 
When an outer loop parkway was proposed in 1920 and when the first 1.25-mile segment of Washington Boulevard opened in May 1932, the wooded tract was part of the Stahlheber farm.
 
Henry Stahlheber -- a native of Bavaria in Germany -- had moved to Hanover Township in 1874. Eight years later he was reported as operating two dairy farms, totaling 363 acres, northwest of Hamilton.
 
In 1938, Carl Schulze owned one of Stahlheber farms. In May 1938, he sold 40 of his 160 acres to the city. Hamilton paid $10,000 for the property it needed for the right-of-way for the planned second section of Washington Boulevard. The project had been delayed in the 1930s because of the Depression's impact on city finances. It stalled again during the World War II years, 1941-1945, when the federal government prohibited construction that wasn't directly related to the war effort.
 
It was still known as Stahlheber Woods when city leaders sought a way to memorialize the civic contributions of Dr. Mark Millikin, who died Feb. 19, 1945, at the age of 76.
 
He was born March 23, 1868, in Fairfield Township, a son of Dr. Dan and Amanda Hunter Millikin. His parents moved to Hamilton when he was seven and he was graduated from Hamilton High School before attending Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. In 1892 he completed his medical studies at Miami Medical College (now the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine).
 
He entered practice with his father in Hamilton, and June 29, 1893, married May Beckett, the youngest daughter of William and Martha Woods Beckett. They became the parents of six children.
 
During World War I, Dr. Millikin served in the U. S. Army medical corps in France. Upon return to Hamilton, he was appointed chief of staff at Mercy Hospital, a post he held from 1920 until 1944. He was honored for completing 50 years of medical practice in 1942.
 
His interests and service extended beyond medicine. He studied taxation and the operation of local government before becoming involved in civic activities.
 
In 1916, citizen concerns about city government -- especially the management of utilities and police -- led to formation of a group seeking election of a charter commission to propose changes in municipal operations. Dr. Millikin headed the grassroots group, the Committee of One Hundred, that succeeded in having the question placed on the ballot in April 1917. It was defeated, but Millikin didn't give up.
 
Continuing discontent revived the charter proposition in the mid 1920s. It was approved in 1925, and in the same election Millikin was chosen one of 15 members of the commission that drafted the document.
 
The charter won approval in 1926, despite strong opposition from most city officeholders. The 159-vote victory ended the highly-politicized ward system -- dominated by patronage, nepotism and graft -- and provided for the non-partisan election of seven council members at large. It also placed direction of the city's day-to-day affairs in the hands of a city manager and mandated a civil service system to govern personnel matters.
 
Under that system, Dr. Millikin was one of the seven people chosen from a field of 30 council candidates in November 1927. He was reelected six times, serving from January 1928 through December 1941. He lost in November 1941, but was seated in May 1942 to complete the term of a councilman who resigned to enter military service.
 
The man whose name was attached to Millikin Woods served a total of 15 and a half years on city council, ending in December 1943 after he had failed to win reelection the previous month.
 
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667. Jan. 24, 2001 -- Citizens fought telephone pole installation: 
 
Journal-News, Wednesday, Jan. 24, 2001
Citizens fought telephone pole installation
 
By Jim Blount
 
Some Hamilton residents in 1901 declared war on telephone poles, objecting to the unsightly intrusions on the landscape on or near their property. The revolt came when the ratio of people to phones in the city of 23,914 inhabitants was about 60 to one.
 
The City & Suburban Telegraph & Telephone Association of Cincinnati -- known in recent decades as Cincinnati Bell -- had been providing service in Hamilton for more than 20 years when the 1901 dispute erupted.
 
J. J. McMaken, manager of the local exchange, had announced plans for improvements and the extension of service. He said 360 new poles would be placed in Hamilton, enabling the company to accept new customers. A newspaper reported 25 to 30 potential subscribers waiting for connections.
 
The article said with the expansion, "the system will have 500 instruments in service." A year earlier, the company reported it had 396 phones in use in Hamilton.
 
City leaders had authorized the improvement project, but some residents claimed that "the rights of property owners were never for one moment considered." The public outrage caused the city to rescind its approval.
 
The revolt was sparked by a resident in the 200 block of North Second Street. A newspaper described her as "an old resident, wealthy, still a fine looking woman and possessed of a determination that is absolute."
 
When she saw a pole crew in the alley beside her property, she asked police to stop the work, but they declined to intervene. She went to the courthouse to seek an injunction from a judge, but found the court closed.
 
Then she took the matter into her own hands. Armed with a hatchet, she "took a chair out by the excavation and sat down while the hole was being dug," a newspaper explained. When the hole reached 18 inches in depth, she "jumped into it and the digging ceased."
 
After a short standoff, the phone company ordered its employees to stop work there. Not satisfied, the irate woman pledged to "watch my property tonight for fear the telephone company may try to sneak in a pole or two next to my fence."
 
A few days later -- a Sunday -- the conflict intensified when crews started to install poles in several parts of the city. Angry citizens called police and "orders were issued to stop work. In all except the Third Ward, the orders were obeyed," a reporter noted.
 
At the unidentified Third Ward location, a foreman ordered his 16 men to resume work. When they did, a newspaper said, they were "arrested and taken to the station house on a charge of performing common labor on Sunday."
 
They were released when a telephone company representative paid their bond of $10 each. Later that day, a company lawyer served notice on the mayor and police chief that they could be removed "for failure to perform your sworn duty as an officer of the law."
 
Monday morning, workmen found seven poles cut down on North D Street. "Residents of the hill declared absolute ignorance of the felling of the poles and all declared it was a heavy wind that had taken them down," a newspaper observed.
 
Later that morning, a North D Street resident obtained a restraining order to stop "digging holes, erecting poles or stringing wires in front of his property" on Prospect Hill.
 
The board of control -- then the city's governing body -- not only revoked the telephone company's permit, but ordered police to arrest any person erecting poles and demanded the removal of those already installed.
 
After several days of legal maneuvers, the board of control met again -- starting at 10 o'clock Saturday night. On the agenda was a compromise that had been worked out by city and telephone company representatives, including those of a rival firm, the Hamilton, Hughes & Monroe Telephone Co.
 
The city agreed to permit placement of poles in Hamilton streets and alleys, but only if they were painted white and installed "under the direction of the superintendent of public works."
 
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668. Jan. 31, 2001 -- Miami grads headed war preparations: 
 
Journal-News , Wednesday, Jan. 31, 2001
Miami grads headed Civil War preparations
 
By Jim Blount
 
Two Miami University graduates directed Civil War preparations and the raising of troops in Ohio and Indiana in 1861. They were Gov. William Dennison of Ohio and Gov. Oliver P. Morton of Indiana.
 
As the Civil War erupted, the United States had a small regular army and some of the officers and men chose to join the Confederacy. The financial and logistical burden of raising, arming and equipping an army to defend the Union fell on the governors of the loyal states.
 
Dennison -- born in Cincinnati Nov. 23, 1815 -- was just 19 years old when he was graduated from Miami University in 1835. He was admitted to the bar in 1840 and practiced law in Columbus. He also was involved in banking and railroading. In 1848 he was elected to the Ohio Senate.
 
In the mid 1850s, Dennison was a leader in establishing the Republican Party in Ohio. He was elected to a two-year term as governor in 1859 in a campaign that included speeches in Dennison's behalf by Abraham Lincoln. In the 1861 election, Dennison lost to David Tod.
 
President Lincoln appointed Dennison postmaster general Sept. 24, 1864. He resigned from the cabinet in 1866 because of disagreements with President Andrew Johnson.
 
In 1880, he lost a U. S. Senate bid to James A. Garfield. Dennison died June 15, 1882, in Columbus.
 
Morton was graduated from Miami in 1845. He was born Aug. 4, 1823, at Saulsbury, Ind., near Richmond, in Wayne County. He attended schools in Springfield, Ohio, and Centerville, Ind., before entering Miami.
 
After leaving Oxford, he studied law and opened a practice in Centerville, Ind., in 1847. In 1852 he was elected judge of an Indiana circuit court.
 
Morton, a Republican, failed in an 1856 race for governor. Four years later, he was elected lieutenant governor. After a few months, he moved up when Gov. Henry S. Lane was elected to the U. S. Senate. Lane, who had been inaugurated Jan. 14, 1861, served as governor less than a week. Morton was re-elected in 1864.
 
After the Civil War, he served in the U. S. Senate from March 4, 1867, until his death Nov. 1, 1877, in Indianapolis.
 
The Civil War also attracted more than half of Miami University's 1860 graduating class. Among the 34, one graduate died before the war. Of the 33 remaining, 18 performed a variety of duties in Union service. Two didn't survive the war.
 
One casualty was a Hamiltonian, Major David C. Beckett. He participated in the battles of Second Bull Run, Gettysburg, Chancellorsville, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, Resaca and Dallas before falling June 22, 1864, as he led the 61st Ohio Volunteer Infantry Regiment at Kenesaw Mountain, Ga.
 
The other Class of 1860 casualty was Spencer H. Wilson, from Tranquillity, Ohio, in Adams County, who died March 2, 1862, as a sergeant in the 33rd OVI.
 
The Class of 1860 contingent included a Butler County native who later became governor of Ohio. Andrew L. Harris, born near Darrtown in Milford Township and later a resident of Eaton in neighboring Preble County, led the state from 1906 until 1909. During the war, Harris rose from captain in the 20th OVI to colonel in the 75th OVI.
 
Another Butler Countian was John Woods. The Hamilton native was ordained into the Presbyterian ministry before the war and served as a chaplain in the Third OVI.
 
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