Oxford was created Feb. 6, 1810, by an act of the Ohio General Assembly, which instructed the trustees of Miami University to lay out the town of Oxford, one mile square, on Miami college grounds. Oxford's original Mile Square is now bounded on the east by Patterson Avenue (U.S. 27), on the north by Sycamore Street, on the west by College Avenue and on the south by Chestnut Street. The trustees appointed William Ludlow, Thomas Irwin, Ogden Ross, John Reily and Joseph Van Horne to determine the location. The site was selected March 29, 1810, and the town was laid out by James Heaton. It was named for the British university town. The first lots were offered for sale in Hamilton May 22-23, 1810. The first house was built by Samuel McCullough. A post office was established Jan. 2, 1817. The Junction Railroad (now the CSX line from Hamilton to Indianapolis) operated its first train into Oxford June 4, 1859.
Oxford was the birthplace and childhood home of a First Lady -- Caroline Scott Harrison, wife of the 23rd president, Benjamin Harrison. He was graduated from Miami University in 1852. Mrs. Harrison -- born Oct. 1, 1832 -- completed her education at Oxford Female Institute in 1853. (For more Oxford information, see College Township, Oxford Township, Collins' Mill, Miami University, Western College, McGuffey Museum and related Oxford entries.)