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Gore

The Gore was the southwestern corner of the land within the Greenville Treaty Line. It was a narrow triangular area east of the Greenville Treaty Line running northeast -- and mostly north -- from the Ohio River opposite the mouth of the Kentucky River at Carrollton, Ky., to Fort Recovery in Ohio. In the period from 1800 to 1803 -- between the creation of Indiana Territory and Ohio statehood -- the Gore was coveted by both entities. Indiana Territory was created by Act of Congress and signed into law by President John Adams May 7, 1800, effective July 4, 1800. The Gore included all or parts of the future Indiana counties of Switzerland, Dearborn, Franklin, Union and Wayne. The part of the Gore that later became Union and Franklin counties was on Butler County's western border. The creation of the Gore and its political significance are explained in Indiana Boundaries: Territory, State and County by George Pence and Nellie G. Armstrong. They wrote: May 7, 1800, Congress approved a bill effective July 4 setting "the boundary line between the eastern division, which continued to be called the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, and the new Indiana Territory, which extended westward to the Mississippi River, had been altered to follow the Greenville Treaty Line from a point on the Ohio River opposite the mouth of the Kentucky River to Fort Recovery. From there it ran due north to the Indiana territorial boundary in Lake Superior. Pence and Armstrong wrote: "This was a change greatly disappointing to the western district, which had expected to include the comparatively well-settled triangular area, later known as the Gore, between the Greenville Treaty Line and the proposed boundary running north from the mouth of the Great Miami River." "Section 5 of the act provided, however, that whenever a state [Ohio] would be erected to the east of Indiana Territory, its western boundary should follow the line" set in previous legislation. "Three years later [1803], when Ohio was carved out of the Northwest Territory and established as a state, " Pence and Armstrong wrote, the Ohio-Indiana boundary was "the due north line from the mouth of the Great Miami." That line had been surveyed in 1798 north from the Ohio River for 89 miles to its intersection with the Greenville Treaty Line. The surveyor was Israel Ludlow. The line north of that point wasn't completed until 1816 when Indiana became a state. The accuracy of the line was questioned and surveyed again several times. In accordance with the Ohio Enabling Act of April 30, 1802, the Gore became part of Clark County in January 1803. William Henry Harrison, Indiana territorial governor, designated the Gore as Dearborn County, organized March 17, 1803, as Indiana's third county. Later, all or part of six other counties were carved out of Dearborn County, which attained its present boundaries in 1845. Some land owners within the Gore petitioned Congress, without success, in 1805 to be attached to Ohio. (See Northwest Ordinance, Northwest Territory, Greenville Treaty Line, Treaty of Greenville, Butler County, Butler County and Indiana Territory.)


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