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Fairfield started as the Village of Fairfield, created when township voters approved its incorporation in a special election July 10, 1954, as a way to stop Hamilton from annexing additional land in the southern part of the township. The City of Fairfield, then with 19.09 square miles, was formed Oct. 20, 1955, after a special census placed its population at 6,202 people. By the 1960 federal census, there were 9,734 residents in the city and it has continued to grow, counting 14,680 in 1970, 30,777 in 1980, and 39,729 in 1990. Several miles of the Miami-Erie Canal passed through what it now Fairfield. It was a means of hauling farm products and ice from the area until about 1900. There was never a Fairfield railroad station because passenger trains were vanishing when the city was formed. But earlier, there had been several stations or stops within its limits, including Flockton, Athlone and Ixworth on the former Pennsylvania Railroad, and Mulhauser, Jones Station or Stockton, Fairsmith or Smith and Schenks on the former Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroad. There also were several stops within what is now Fairfield on both Cincinnati-to-Hamilton interurban lines (1898-1939) along Dixie Highway (Ohio 4) and Pleasant Avenue (U. S. 127).

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