Social Studies

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7th Grade Social Studies:

World History and Geography: The Middle Ages to the Exploration of the Americas Course Description: Seventh grade students will explore the social, cultural, geographical, political and technological changes that occurred after the fall of the Roman Empire and in Medieval Europe. Students will also study the period from the fifteenth to the eighteenth century, including the Islamic world, Africa, China, and Japan, but with a heavier emphasis on western civilization in Europe during the Renaissance and Reformation. Students will compare and contrast the history and geography of civilizations that were developing concurrently throughout these continents during medieval times. They will examine the growth in economic interactions among civilizations as well as the exchange of ideas, beliefs, technologies, and commodities. Students will learn about the resulting spread of Enlightenment philosophies and the examination of new concepts of reasoning toward religion, government, and science that continue to influence our world today. Students will analyze geography’s influence on the development of these civilizations as they continue their study of world history and geography. Seventh grade students will end the year by examining the Meso-American and Andean civilizations, and the age of European explorations. Appropriate informational texts and primary sources will be used in order to deepen the understanding of how these civilizations influence the modern world. 

The Fall of the Roman Empire The legacy of the Roman Empire and the consequences of the fall of the Roman Empire.
 7.1 Analyze the legacy of the Roman Empire. 
 7.2 Summarize the consequences of the fall of the Roman Empire including the continuation of the Eastern Roman Empire as the Byzantine Empire, Justinian and the significance of Constantinople. 
. 7.3 Identify the physical location and features and the climate of the Arabian Peninsula, its relationship to surrounding bodies of land and water, including Northern Africa, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, Nile River. 
7.4 Describe the expansion of Muslim rule through conquests and the spread of cultural diffusion of Islam and the Arabic language. 
7.5 Trace the origins of Islam and the life and teachings of Muhammad, including Islam’s historical connections to Judaism and Christianity. 
 7.6 Explain the significance of the Qur’an and the Sunnah as the primary sources of Islamic beliefs, practice, and law and their influence in Muslims’ daily life. 
 7.7 Analyze the origins and impact of different sects within Islam, Sunnis and Shi’ites.
7.8 Examine and summarize the contributions Muslim scholars made to later civilizations in the areas of science, geography, mathematics, philosophy, medicine, art, and literature.
7.9 Describe the establishment of trade routes among Asia, Africa, and Europe and the role of merchants in Arab society. 
 7.10 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources to examine the art and architecture, including the Taj Mahal during the Mughal period. .
11 Explain the importance of Mehmed II the Conqueror and Suleiman the Magnificent. 
7.12 Write an explanatory text to describe the Shah Abbas and how his policies of cultural blending led to the Golden Age and the rise of the Safavid Empire.
 7.13 Analyze the growth of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai kingdoms including trading centers such as Timbuktu and Jenne, which would later develop into centers of culture and learning. 
. 7.14 Draw evidence from informational texts to describe the role of the trans-Saharan caravan trade in the changing religious and cultural characteristics of West Africa and the influence of Islamic beliefs, ethics, and law.  7.15 Examine the importance of written and oral traditions in the transmission of African history and culture.
7.16 Analyze the importance of family, labor specialization, and regional commerce in the development of states and cities in West Africa. 
7.17 Explain the importance of Mansa Musa and locate his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1324.
7.18 Compare the indigenous religious practices observed by early Africans before and after contact with Islam and Christianity. 
 7.19 Create a visual or multimedia display to identify the physical location and major geographical features of China including the Yangtze River, Yellow River, Himalayas, Plateau of Tibet, and the Gobi Desert.
7.20 Describe the reunification of China under the Tang Dynasty and reasons for the cultural diffusion of Buddhism.  Analyze the role of kinship and Confucianism in maintaining order and hierarchy. 
 7.22 Summarize the significance of the rapid agricultural, commercial, and technological development during the Song Dynasties.
 7.23 Trace the spread of Chinese technology to other parts of Asia, the Islamic world, and Europe including papermaking, wood-block printing, the compass and gunpowder. 
 7.24 Describe and locate the Mongol conquest of China including Genghis Khan, Kublai Khan.
 7.25 Engage effectively in a collaborative discussion describing the development of the imperial state and the scholar-official class (Neo-Confucianism). 
 7.26 Draw evidence from informational texts to analyze the contributions made during the Ming Dynasty such as building projects, including the Forbidden City and the reconstruction of the Great Wall , isolationism, and sea voyages.
 7.27 Compare the major features of Shinto, Japan’s indigenous religion, and Japanese Buddhism. (C, H) 
7.28 Explain the influence of China and the Korean peninsula upon Japan as Buddhism, Confucianism, and the Chinese writing system were adopted. 
7.29 Trace the emergence of the Japanese nation during the Nara, 710-794, and the Heian periods, 794-1180. 
7.30 Describe how the Heian (contemporary Kyoto) aristocracy created enduring Japanese cultural perspectives that are epitomized in works of prose such as The Tale of Genji, one of the world’s first novels.
 7.31 Analyze the rise of a military society in the late twelfth century and the role of the shogun and samurai in that society. 
 7.32 Identify the physical location and features of Europe including the Alps, the Ural Mountains, the North European Plain, and the Mediterranean Sea and the influence of the North Atlantic Drift. 
 7.33 Describe the development of feudalism and manorialism, its role in the medieval European economy, and the way in which it was influenced by physical geography (the role of the manor and the growth of towns). 
7.34 Demonstrate understanding of the conflict and cooperation between the Papacy and European monarchs, including Charlemagne, Gregory VII, and Emperor Henry IV.  7.35 Examine the Norman Invasion, Battle of Hastings, and the impact of the reign of William the Conqueror on England and Northern France. 
7.36 Conduct a short research project explaining the significance of developments in medieval English legal and constitutional practices and their importance in the rise of modern democratic thought and representative institutions including trial by jury, the common law, Magna Carta, parliament, habeas corpus, and an independent judiciary in England. 
 7.37 Examine the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and the roles played by the early church and by monasteries in its diffusion after the fall of the western half of the Roman Empire. 
7.38 Analyze the causes, course, and consequences of the European Crusades and their effects on the Christian, Muslim, and Jewish populations in Europe, with emphasis on the increasing contact by Europeans with cultures of the Eastern Mediterranean world. 
 7.39 Explain the importance of the Catholic church as a political, intellectual, and aesthetic institution, including founding of universities, political and spiritual roles of the clergy, creation of monastic and mendicant religious orders, preservation of the Latin language and religious texts, Thomas Aquinas’s synthesis of classical philosophy with Christian theology and the concept of “natural law.”
7.40 Describe the economic and social effects of the spread of the Black Death (Bubonic Plague) from Central Asia to China, the Middle East, and Europe, and its impact on the global population. 
7.41 Trace the emergence of a modern economy, including the growth of banking, technological and agricultural improvements, commerce, towns, and a merchant class. 
7.42 Outline the decline of Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula that culminated in the Reconquista, Inquisition, and the rise of Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms.
7.43 Trace the emergence of the Renaissance, including influence from Moorish (or Muslim) scholars in Spain.
  7.44 Cite evidence in writing explaining the importance of Florence, Italy and the Medici Family in the early stages of the Renaissance and the growth of independent trading cities, such as Venice, and their importance in the spread of Renaissance ideas.
7.45 Summarize the effects and implications of the reopening of the ancient Silk Road between Europe and China, including Marco Polo’s travels and the location of his routes.
7.46 Describe how humanism led to a revival of classical learning and fostered a new interest in the arts including a balance between intellect and religious faith.  
7.47 Analyze the growth and effects of new ways of disseminating information, ability to manufacture paper, translation of the Bible into vernacular, and printing. 
7.48 Outline the advances made in literature, the arts, science, mathematics, cartography, engineering, and the understanding of human anatomy and astronomy, including Leonardo da Vinci (Last Supper, Mona Lisa), Michelangelo (Sistine Chapel, The David), Johann Gutenberg, and William Shakespeare. 
7.49 Gather relevant information from multiple sources about Henry V, Hundreds Year War, and Joan of Arc. 
7.50 Conduct a research project drawing on several resources to investigate the Tudor dynasties of Henry VIII, Mary I, and Elizabeth I, including their family heritage, line of succession, religious conflicts, Spanish Armanda, and the rise of English power in Europe. 
7.51 Explain the institution and impact of missionaries on Christianity and the diffusion of Christianity from Europe to other parts of the world in the medieval and early modern periods. 
 7.52 Locate and identify the European regions that remained Catholic and those that became Protestant and how the division affected the distribution of religions in the New World. 
7.53 Explain the heightened influence of the Catholic Church, the growth of literacy, the spread of printed books, the explosion of knowledge and the Church’s reaction to these developments.
7.54 List and explain the significance of the causes for the internal turmoil within and eventual weakening of the Catholic Church including tax policies, selling of indulgences, and England’s break with the Catholic Church. 
7.55 Outline the reasons for the growing discontent with the Catholic Church, including the main ideas of Martin Luther (salvation by faith), John Calvin (predestination), Desiderius Erasmus (free will), and William Tyndale (translating the Bible into English), and their attempts to reconcile what they viewed as God’s word with Church action. 
7.56 Engage effectively in collaborative discussions explaining Protestants’ new practices of church self-government and the influence of those practices on the development of democratic practices and ideas of federalism. 
7.57 Analyze how the Catholic Counter-Reformation revitalized the Catholic Church and the forces that fostered the movement, including St. Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits, and the Council of Trent.  
7.58 Identify the voyages of discovery, the locations of the routes (Da Gama, Dias, Magellan), and the influence of cartography in the development of a new worldview.
7.59 Describe the roots of the Scientific Revolution based upon Christian and Muslim influences. 
 7.60 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources explaining the significance of new scientific theories, the accomplishments of leading figures including Sir Frances Bacon, Nicolaus Copernicus, Rene Descartes, Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, and Sir Isaac Newton, and new inventions, including the telescope, microscope, thermometer, and barometer. 
 7.61 Trace how the main ideas of the Enlightenment can be traced back to such movements and epochs as the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, the Greeks, the Romans, and Christianity. 
7.62 Describe the accomplishments of major Enlightenment thinkers, including Locke and Charles-Louis Montesquieu.  7.63 Explain the origins of modern capitalism, the influence of mercantilism, and the cottage industry; the elements and importance of a market economy in 17th century Europe; the changing international trading and marketing patterns; including their locations on a world map; and the influence of explorers and mapmakers.
 7.64 Identify the locations of the Olmecs, Mayans, Aztec, and Incas and explain the impact of the geographical features and climates of Mexico, Central America, and South America on their civilizations. 
 7.65 Describe the highly structured social and political system of the Maya civilization, ruled by kings and consisting of agriculturally intensive centers around independent city-states. 
 7.66 Create a graphic organizer or concept map explaining how and where each empire arose (how the Aztec and Incan empires were eventually defeated by the Spanish in the 16th century). 
 7.67 Explain the roles of peoples in the Aztec and Incan societies, including class structures, family life, warfare, religious beliefs and practices, and slavery. 
 7.68 Use multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to describe the artistic and oral traditions and architecture in the four civilizations (Olmecs, Mayan, Aztec, and Incan civilizations).
7.69 Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support the analysis of the impacts of the Mesoamerican developments in astronomy and mathematics, including the calendar, and the Mesoamerican knowledge of seasonal changes to the civilizations’ agricultural systems. 
 7.70 Compare the varied economies and trade networks within and among major indigenous cultures prior to contact with Europeans and their systems of government, religious beliefs, distinct territories, and customs and traditions.
7.71 Identify the European countries responsible for North American exploration and the modern day countries in which they settled, including France, Spain, England, Portugal, and the Dutch. Summarize the reasons for the success of these countries in colonization or North and South America. 
7.72 Analyze why European countries were motivated to explore including religion, political rivalry, and economic gain. 
7.73 Identify the voyages of discovery, the locations of the routes, and the influence of technology in the developments of a new European worldview including cartography, compass, caravel, astrolabe.
7.74 Examine the impact of the exchanges of plants, animals, technology, culture, ideas, and diseases among Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries and the major economic and social effects on each continent. 
 7.75 Write an opinion piece with supporting details that describes the effects of exploration on the indigenous American cultures. 
Eighth Grade United States History and Geography: 

Colonization of North America to Reconstruction and the American West Course Description: Eighth grade students will study the European exploration of North America, along with the geographic features that influenced early settlements and colonies. This course will emphasize the development and maturation of the British colonies, and the political, cultural, and economic influences that led to the American Revolution. The major events and outcomes of the American Revolution will be analyzed, along with the individuals that played influential roles in the development of the new nation. Students will follow the development of the United States and its government, continuing through the early 19th century. The impact of the expansion of the United States will be analyzed, including implications on domestic and foreign policy. Policies that affected the American Indians will also be studied. The events leading up to the Civil War will be examined, along with the individuals and events that were significant during the war. The history, people, government, and geography of Tennessee will be emphasized in order to illustrate the role our state has played in American history. Reconstruction and the development of the American West will conclude this course. Appropriate primary sources and informational texts will be included in order to enhance understanding of the content. Colonialism (1600-1750) Students will understand the social, political, and economic reasons for the movement of people from Europe to the Americas, and they will describe the impact of colonization by Europeans on American Indians and on the development of the land that eventually became the United States of America. 
8.1 Explain the primary motivations for English colonization of the New World, including the rise of the middle class (joint stock companies), the need to move surplus population, and the search for religious freedom. 
8.2 Trace and explain the founding of Jamestown, including:  • Virginia Company • James River • John Smith • Pocahontas • Powhatan • John Rolfe • “starving time” • Tobacco • Bacon’s Rebellion • Indentured servants and slaves • The arrival of women • House of Burgesses 
8.3 Explain the founding of the Plymouth Colony, including the Separatists, William Bradford, Mayflower, Mayflower Compact, and Squanto. 
 8.4 Analyze the reasons for the settlement of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and the events and the key figures of the colonies, including: 
• Non-Separatists/Puritans • John Winthrop • theocracy • Town meetings • Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams-Rhode Island • Thomas Hooker-Connecticut • Salem Witchcraft Trials 8.5 Describe the settlement of New Netherlands and the subsequent possession of the colony by the English, including: • Dutch influences • Peter Stuyvesant • Patroon System • Renaming to New York • Diverse population
 8.6 Analyze the founding of Pennsylvania as a haven for Quakers and the tolerance that drew many different groups to the colony, including:  • William Penn • Philadelphia • Role of women • Relationship with Indians
 8.7 Explain the reasons behind the settlement of the Georgia Colony, including the role of James Oglethorpe and Georgia as a “debtor” colony and a “buffer” colony. 
 8.8 Describe the location and reasons for French exploration and settlements in North America, including the Huguenots.  8.9 Cite textual evidence analyzing examples of both cooperation and conflict between American Indians and colonists, including agriculture, trade, cultural exchanges, and military alliances and conflicts. 
8.10 Locate and identify the first 13 colonies, and describe how their location and geographic features influenced their development. 
8.11 Describe the significance of and the leaders of the First Great Awakening, and the growth in religious toleration and free exercise of religion.  
8.12 Compare and contrast the day-to-day colonial life for men, women, and children in different regions and of different ethnicities, including the system of indentured servitude, as well as their connection to the land.
8.13 Analyze the ideas that significantly impacted the development of colonial self-government by citing textual evidence and examining multiple perspectives using excerpts from the following documents: • The First Virginia Charter, 1606 • The Mayflower Compact, 1620 • Charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, 1629 • The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, 1639 • The New England Articles of Confederation, 1643 • The Maryland Toleration Act, 1649 
8.14 Identify the origins and development of slavery in the colonies, overt and passive resistance to enslavement, and the Middle Passage. 
. 8.15 Compare the government structures and economic base and cultural traditions of New France and the English colonies.  8.16 Explain how the practice of salutary neglect, experience with self-government, and wide spread ownership of land fostered individualism and contributed to the American Revolution. 
8.17 Evaluate the contributions of Benjamin Franklin to American society in the areas of science, writing and literature, and politics, including analysis of excerpts from Poor Richard’s Almanack, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, the Albany Plan of Union and the Join or Die cartoon.
 8.18 Describe the impact of the John Peter Zenger trial on the development of the principle of a free press. 
8.19 Describe the causes, course, and outcome of the French and Indian War, including the massacre at Fort Loudoun. 
 8.20 Explain the impact of individuals who created interest in the land west of the Appalachian Mountains, including:  • long hunters • Wilderness Road • Daniel Boone • William Bean • Thomas Sharpe Spencer • Dr. Thomas Walker 
8.21 Summarize the major events of the Watauga Settlement, including:  • Battle of Alamance and Regulators • Watauga Purchase and Compact • James Robertson • Little Carpenter, Dragging Canoe 
8.22 Analyze the social, political and economic causes of the American Revolution and the major battles, leaders and events, including: • Mercantilism • Pontiac’s Rebellion • The Proclamation of 1763 • The Sugar Act, 1764 • The Quartering Act, 1765 • The Stamp Act, 1765 • The Declaratory Act, 1766 • The Townshend Act, 1767 • The Boston Massacre, 1770 • The Boston Tea Party, 1773 • The Intolerable Acts, 1774 • Patrick Henry • Benjamin Franklin • John Adams • Sam Adams • John Hancock • Thomas Jefferson • Sons of Liberty 8.23 Determine the central ideas expressed in the Declaration of Independence and write an expository piece in which the legacy of these ideas in today’s world is described and validated with supporting evidence from the text. 
8.24 Using Thomas Paine’s Common Sense and The Crisis identify aspects of the texts that reveal the author’s point of view and purpose including loaded language. 
8.25 Identify and explain the significance of the major battles, leaders, and events of the American Revolution, including:  • Battles of Lexington and Concord • Capture of Fort Ticonderoga • Battle of Bunker Hill (Breed's Hill) • Battle of Trenton and Princeton • Battle of Saratoga • Valley Forge • Battle of King’s Mountain • Battle of Yorktown • George Washington • Benedict Arnold • Hessians • Marquis de La Fayette • Friedrich von Steuben • George Rogers Clark • Francis Marion 
8.26 Summarize the effect of the Revolution on the Wataugans and the reasons, plans, and struggles in creating the Cumberland Settlement, including:  • formation of Washington District • Cherokee War • Nancy Ward • Watauga Petitions • Transylvania Purchase • Richard Henderson • James Robertson • John Donelson • severe winter and river travel • Cumberland Compact • Indian attacks • Battle of the Bluffs 
8.27 Compare the points of views of the Loyalists and Patriots by integrating visual information through charts, graphs, or images with print texts.
 8.28 Describe the significance of the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, and the Mayflower Compact in relation to the development of government in America.
8.29 Analyze the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 and their impact on the future development of western settlement and the spread of public education and slavery. 
8.30 Analyze the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation, including no power to tax, no common currency, no control of interstate commerce, and no executive branch, failure of the Lost State of Franklin and the impact of Shays’ Rebellion.
8.31 Identify the various leaders of the Constitutional Convention and analyze the major issues they debated, including: • distribution of power between the states and federal government • Great Compromise • Slavery and the 3/5 Compromise • George Washington and James Madison
 8.32 Explain the ratification process and describe the conflict between Federalists and AntiFederalists over ratification, including the need for a Bill of Rights and concern for state’s rights, citing evidence from the Federalist Papers No. 10 and 51 and other primary source texts. 
8.33 Describe the principles embedded in the Constitution, including the purposes of government listed in the Preamble, separation of powers, check and balances, the amendment process, federalism, and recognition of and protections of individual rights in the Bill of Rights. 
8.34 Write an opinion piece arguing for the importance of a particular right as it impacts individuals and/or groups, using evidence from the Bill of Rights and contemporary informational text. 
8.35 Analyze the major events of George Washington’s presidency, including Pinckney’s Treaty, Jay’s Treaty, Whiskey Rebellion, and precedents set in the Farewell Address. 
8.36 Explain the strict versus loose interpretation of the Constitution and how the conflicts between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton resulted in the emergence of two political parties by analyzing their views of foreign policy, economic policy (including the National Bank), funding, and assumption of the revolutionary debt. 
8.37 Explain the controversies that plagued the administration of John Adams, including the conflicts with England and France and the Alien and Sedition Acts.
 8.38 Describe daily life — including traditions in art, music, and literature — of early national America by examining excerpts from the stories of Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper. 
8.39 Identify the leaders and events and analyze the impact of western expansion to the development of Tennessee statehood, including:  • William Blount • John Sevier • Rocky Mount • Treaty of Holston • Cumberland Gap • River systems • Natchez Trace • Jackson Purchase 
8.40 Analyze the role played by John Marshall in strengthening the central government, including the key decisions of the Supreme Court - Marbury v. Madison, Gibbons v. Ogden, and McCulloch v. Maryland. 
 8.41 Explain the major events of Thomas Jefferson’s presidency, including his election in 1800, Louisiana Purchase, the defeat of the Barbary pirates, and the Embargo Act. 
8.42 Analyze the impact of the Lewis and Clark Expedition by identifying the routes on a map, citing evidence from their journals.
 8.43 Explain the causes, course, and consequences of the War of 1812, including the major battles, leaders, events and role of Tennessee: • Impressment • War Hawks • Henry Clay • Burning of Washington • Fort McHenry • William Henry Harrison • Tecumseh • Andrew Jackson • Battle of Horseshoe Bend • Battle of New Orleans
 8.44 Identify on a map the changing boundaries of the United States, including the Convention of 1818 and Adams-Onis Treaty.
8.45 Analyze the relationship the United States had with Europe, including the influence of the Monroe Doctrine 
8.47 Explain the causes and effects of the wave of immigration from Northern Europe to the United States, and describe the growth in the number, size, and spatial arrangements of cities as a result of events such as the Great Potato Famine.
 8.48 Analyze the 19th century reforms influenced by the 2nd Great Awakening such as the Temperance Movement, Prison Reform, Mental Health Reform, and education, including tent meetings, establishment of new churches, Horace Mann, Dorothea Dix, and temperance societies.
8.49 Analyze the women’s suffrage movement and its major proponents, including Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and Susan B. Anthony and examine excerpts from the writings of Stanton, Anthony and Sojourner Truth. 
 8.50 Identify common themes in American art and literature, including transcendentalism and individualism by analyzing essays and stories by Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Louisa May Alcott, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. 
 8.51 Trace the development of the agrarian economy in the South, the locations of the cotton producing states, and the significance of cotton, the cotton gin and the role of Memphis as the Cotton Capital of the South. 
 8.52 Analyze the characteristics of white Southern society and how the physical environment influenced events and conditions prior to the Civil War. 
8.53 Write a narrative with supporting text describing the effects of the New Madrid Earthquakes of 1811-12 on the land and people of Tennessee.
 8.54 Identify the constitutional issues posed by the doctrine of nullification and secession and analyze the earliest origins of that doctrine. 
 8.55 Explain the events and impact of the presidency of Andrew Jackson, including the “corrupt bargain,” the advent of Jacksonian Democracy, his use of the spoils system and the veto, his battle with the Bank of the United States, the Nullification Crisis and the Indian removal. 
 8.56 Analyze the contributions of Sequoyah to the Cherokee.  8.57 Write a narrative piece that describes the impact of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 and the struggle between the Cherokee Nation and the United States government and cites evidence from primary source accounts of the Trail of Tears. 8.58 Describe the concept of Manifest Destiny and its impact on the developing character of the American nation, including the purpose, challenges and economic incentives for westward expansion. 
 8.59 Describe American settlements in Texas after 1821 and the causes for the Texas War of Independence, including the roles of David Crockett and Sam Houston in the war and the legacy of the Alamo. 
 8.60 Analyze the reasons, outcome and legacy of groups moving west including the mountain men/trail blazers, Mormons, missionaries, settlers, and the impact of the Oregon Trail and John C. Frémont. 
 8.61 Describe the major events and impact of the presidency of James K. Polk, including his “Dark Horse” nomination, the settlements of the Oregon boundary, the annexation of Texas, and the acquisition of California through the Mexican War.  
8.62 Describe the causes, course, and consequences of the Mexican War, including the controversy over the Rio Grande boundary, the roles played by Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott, the Mexican Cession and the Wilmot Proviso. 
8.63 Trace the major figures and events in the discovery of gold in California and its impact on the economy of the United States, including John Sutter, and 49’ers. 
. 8.64 Describe the significance of the Northwest Ordinance and the banning of slavery in new states north of the Ohio River.
8.65 Describe the reasons for and the impact of the Missouri Compromise of 1820. 
 8.66 Analyze the impact of the various leaders of the abolitionist movement, including John Brown and armed resistance; Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad; William Lloyd Garrison and The Liberator; Frederick Douglass and the Slave Narratives; and Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Virginia Hill and Free Hill, Tennessee; Francis Wright and Nashoba Commune; and Elihu Embree’ s The Emancipator. 
 8.67 Explain the reasons for and the impact of the Compromise of 1850, including the roles played Daniel Webster and John C. Calhoun and the Fugitive Slave Law.
8.68 Explain the motivations behind passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, including the rise of the Republican Party, “Bleeding Kansas,” the Sumner Brooks incident, and the John Brown raid on Harper’s Ferry. 
 8.69 Analyze the reasons for and applied by the Supreme Court in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case and the resulting divisiveness between the North and South. 
 8.70 Examine the arguments presented by Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln in the Illinois Senate race debate of 1858. (H, P) 8.71 Identify the conditions of enslavement, and explain how slaves adapted and resisted in their daily lives. (C, H) Primary Documents and Supporting Texts to Read: excerpts from Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Harriet Beecher Stowe; excerpts from the Lincoln-Douglas Debates; excerpts from Roger Taney’s decision in the Dred Scott case; excerpts from The Autobiography of Frederick Douglass, Frederick Douglass. Civil War (1830-1865) Students analyze the multiple causes, key events, and complex consequences of the Civil War.
 8.72 Identify on a map the boundaries constituting the North and the South and delineate and evaluate the geographical differences between the two regions, including the differences between agrarians and industrialists. 
8.73 Describe the influence of industrialization and technological developments of the regions, including human modification of the landscape and how physical geography shaped human actions-growth of cities, deforestation, farming and mineral extraction. 
 8.74 Evaluate each candidate and the election of 1860 and analyze how that campaign reflected the sectional turmoil in the country. 
8.75 Explain the geographical division of Tennessee over the issue of slavery and secession, including Governor Harris, the secession convention vote of 1861, anti-secession efforts, and Scott County.
 8.76 Describe Abraham Lincoln’s presidency and his significant writings and speeches, including his House Divided speech in 1858, Gettysburg Address in 1863, Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and inaugural addresses in 1861 and 1865. 
 8.77 Explain the roles of leaders during the Civil War, including Ulysses S. Grant, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson and soldiers on both sides of the war, including Tennesseans David Farragut, Nathan Bedford Forrest and William Brownlow. 
 8.78 Describe African-American involvement in the Union army, including the Massachusetts 54th Regiment and the 13th U.S. Colored Troops in the Battle of Nashville. 
 8.79 Cite textual evidence analyzing the life of the common soldier in the Civil War, including Sam Watkins and Sam Davis. 
 8.80 Trace the critical developments and events in the war, including geographical advantages and economic advantages of both sides, technological advances and the location and significance of the following battles: • Anaconda Plan • First Battle of Bull Run • Fort Henry and Fort Donelson • Shiloh • Antietam • Stones River • Fredericksburg • Chancellorsville • Gettysburg • Vicksburg • Chickamauga • Lookout Mountain • Franklin • Nashville • Sherman’s “March to the Sea” • Appomattox Court House 
8.81 Assess the impact of the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln on both the North and the South.
8.82 Explain the significance of 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. 
8.83 Analyze the choice of Andrew Johnson as Vice-President, his succession to the Presidency, his plan for Reconstruction and his conflict with the Radical Republicans. 
8.84 Compare the 10 Percent Plan to the Radical Republican Plan for Reconstruction. 
8.85 Explain the effects of the Freedmen’s Bureau and the restrictions placed on the rights and opportunities of freedmen, including racial segregation and Jim Crow laws.
 8.86 Trace the rise of the Ku Klux Klan and vigilante justice, including its role in Tennessee. 
 8.87 Explain the movement of both white and black Northern entrepreneurs (carpetbaggers) from the North to the South. 8.88 Explain the controversy of the 1876 presidential election and the subsequent removal of federal troops from the South.  8.89 Describe the push-pull effect in the movement of former slaves to the North and West, including the Exodusters and Pap Singleton. 
 8.90 Describe the major developments in Tennessee during the Reconstruction Era, including the Constitutional Convention of 1870, the yellow fever epidemic of 1878 and the election of African-Americans to the General Assembly
. 8.91 Explain patterns of agricultural and industrial development after the Civil War as they relate to climate, use of natural resources, markets and trade and the location of such development on a map. 
8.92 Trace the evolution of federal policies toward American Indians, including movement to reservations; assimilation, boarding schools, wars with Indians (Little Big Horn and Wounded Knee), and the impact of the railroad and settlement patterns of pioneers, Buffalo Soldiers (George Jordan), and the Dawes Act.
) 8.93 Explain the significance of various American Indian leaders, including: • Crazy Horse • Geronimo • Sitting Bull • Chief Joseph
 8.94 Explain the impact of the Homestead Act. 
8.95 Analyze how significant inventors and their inventions, including barbed wire, the six shooter, windmills, sod housing, and the steel plow changed life in the West. 
 8.96 Trace the expansion and development of the Transcontinental Railroad, including the Golden Spike event (1869), and the role that Chinese immigrant laborers (Central Pacific track) and Irish immigrant laborers (Union Pacific track) played in its construction. 
8.97 Examine the development and life of the iconic American cowboy, including his skills, clothes and daily life and work.  8.98 Explain the concepts of the Open Range, Long Drive and cow towns in the development of the American ranching industry