Dr. Julian K. Saint Clair, Ph.D.

email: julian.saintclair@lmu.edu

EDUCATION 

Ph.D., Marketing, Consumer Psychology Concentration, Foster School of Business, University of Washington (2013).

M.S., Business Administration, Foster School of Business, University of Washington (2009).

B.A., Business Administration, Marketing Concentration, Clark Atlanta University (2007).

 

RESEARCH INTERESTS

Self-Concept, Information Processing, Branding and Advertising Response, Judgment and Decision Making. 


DISSERTATION

“An Integrative Theory of Multiple-Identity Management”

 

Chair: Mark R. Forehand.

Committee Members: Shailendra P. Jain, Marcus Cunha Jr., Anthony Greenwald.

 

Essay 1: "The Many-Faced Consumer: The Influence of Inter-Identity Competition and Association on Prime Response.” Resubmission requested from Journal of Consumer Research.

 

Although it is generally accepted that consumers have multiple identities (e.g., woman, mother, athlete, student), scant research explores how consumers manage identities or how relationships between identities influence consumer behavior. The present research contributes by building a framework to address this gap. A working-parent may view their employee and parent identities as associated because they are both examples of being a “responsible grown up.” Alternatively the identities may be disassociated if the employee identity is viewed as cutthroat while the parent identity is viewed as nurturing. Independent of this degree of inter-identity association, two identities may also vary in their degree of competition. The working-parent’s identities may be in low competition with one another if the respective environments engender a healthy work-life balance, or may be in high competition with one another if a demanding environment is causing one to be sacrificed in pursuit of the other. In three experiments, we show that priming a given identity (e.g., employee) will actually lead consumers to approach alternate identities (e.g., buy family-oriented products) depending on both inter-identity association and competition. While this research delineates when consumers will approach or avoid primed and alternate identities, the major takeaway for firms is to maximize product targeting by using advertising cues that facilitate high inter-identity association and low inter-identity competition. This engenders a dual approach effect where consumers approach the primed identity as well as the alternate identity because of the strong positive link between the two. This research integrates literature on associative networks, assimilation and contrast, and consumer self-concept to provide a framework to explore consumer management of multiple identities. Further implications for theory and practice are discussed.

 

Essay 2: “Priming (Counter-) Stereotypical Behavior” Initial data collection underway. Target: Journal of Consumer Research.

 

Some product and service domains (e.g., business) are so strongly associated with specific social groups (e.g., men) as to become stereotyped (e.g., all businesspeople are men). To attract new target segments, advertising imagery often features members of groups that are disassociated with the domain, or counter-stereotypical imagery. For example, to attract more female consumers, MBA programs frequently use advertisements featuring women. Counter to this intuition, the present research demonstrates that this strategy may backfire. Specifically, viewing stereotypical imagery (e.g., a businessman) merely activates the semantic concept of the domain (e.g., business). In contrast, viewing counter-stereotypical imagery causes consumers to think about their own relevant social identity. This activates the identity and leads consumers to behave in identity-consistent ways. For example, viewing stereotypical imagery such as a MBA ad featuring a male subject activates the semantic concept of “business” because viewing such imagery is seen as normal. Alternatively, viewing counter-stereotypical imagery such as a MBA ad with a female subject is abnormal and activates consumers’ gender identity. Because business is stereotypically male, men with an active gender identity are more likely approach business while women with an active gender identity are more likely to avoid it. This effect is amplified for consumers who have a strong (vs. weak) implicit gender-business stereotype. Thus, counter-stereotypical imagery is most harmful to those who are the most disenfranchised and actually attracts consumers with the strongest stereotypical beliefs. Boundary conditions are explored and alternative explanations are refuted. Further implications for theory and practice are discussed.

 

PAPERS UNDER REVIEW AND WORKING PAPERS

Jeffrey D. Shulman, Marcus Cunha Jr., & Julian K. Saint Clair*, "How Pre-Purchase Information that Reduces Consumer Uncertainty can Increase Product Returns.” Invited for third round resubmission at Journal of Marketing Research.

 

Consumers often purchase a product based on the expected utility it might provide only to return it after determining its actual utility. These returns represent a significant cost for companies and can negatively impact profits. To prevent this type of returns, many retailers attempt to reduce consumers’ pre-purchase uncertainty about the product’s utility by providing product information. Evidence from three experiments and secondary data show that consumers who experience the same actual product utility can differ in their likelihood to return the product depending on whether the marketer provided information before purchase. Counter to assumptions of economic models of product returns and many retailers’ policies, the authors show that uncertainty-reducing information provided before the purchase of a product can actually increase the likelihood that a consumer returns a product. Thus, the authors show that a marketer’s decision to reduce consumer uncertainty via provision of pre-purchase information may lead to unintended negative consequences.

 

Julian K. Saint Clair, Jeffrey D. Shulman, & Marcus Cunha Jr.*, "The Moderating Effect of Construal Level on Contextual Price Judgments.” Manuscript under review at Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

When considering a product set, consumer price judgments are often explained by range-frequency theory, wherein target products are judged as more (less) expensive when the range or frequency of prices in the consideration set shift downward (upward). For example, adding an expensive product to an existing consideration set makes the rest of the products seem less expensive. Two experiments demonstrate that construal level moderates such context effects. When low level construal is activated prior to price judgments, we observe the standard contrast effect predicted by range-frequency. Alternatively, target price judgments assimilate toward the mean price of the consideration set when high construal level is activated. That is, adding an expensive product to the set makes the rest of the products seem more expensive. This latter finding is at odds with a large bulk of research in price perceptions. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

 

Julian K. Saint Clair and Mark R. Forehand, "Do Dimensions of Emotion Interact? The Case of Valence and Certainty.” Manuscript in preparation for submission to Journal of Consumer Psychology.

It is known that contextually induced emotional states (e.g., happiness, fear) influence financial decision making. Further, it is known that emotions have sub-dimensions such as pleasantness and certainty (e.g., fear is unpleasant and uncertain). However, less is known about what role these dimensions play. Two experiments show that emotional pleasantness and certainty interact to influence decision making. Specifically, while pleasant emotions signal that all is well in the environment and encourage superficial processing, unpleasant emotions signal a need for greater attention to details in the environment and encourage systematic processing. Thus, pleasant emotions lead consumers to attend to the most salient or top-of-mind outcomes of a financial decision. Unpleasant emotions lead consumers to attend to less salient, more obscure outcomes of a financial decision. For example, if a lottery advertisement states that “one in four win,” consumers experiencing pleasant emotions will attend to the 25% chance of winning while those experiencing unpleasant emotions will attend to the 75% chance of losing. Further, emotional certainty positively predicts the perceived likelihood of an outcome. Consumers experiencing emotional certainty may see the 25% as “likely” to occur while uncertainty would make it seem “unlikely” to occur. Thus, while pleasantness determines which outcome receives attention, certainty influences how likely the outcome seems. This research highlights the interactive nature of emotional dimensions in influencing financial decision making, providing an important update to theory. Further theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

 

RESEARCH IN PROGRESS

Julian K. Saint Clair, Brad Owens, Richard Chan, & Mark R. Forehand, "Cognition or Conation?  The Impact of Emotion on Decision Making Under Risk.” Manuscript in preparation for submission to Psychological Science.

A vast body of research demonstrates that contextually induced emotion influences decision making under risk. Prior research identifies both cognitive carryover and conational goal pursuit as alternative mechanisms underlying this influence of emotion. We conduct a critical theory test and find support for the conational account. Despite having increased optimism about winning a high risk/high reward gamble, happy or proud (vs. hopeful or surprised) participants instead prefer a low risk/low reward gamble. Additionally, due to over-correcting for this conational bias, high (vs. low) Need For Cognition participants demonstrate the opposite effect. This research illuminates how and when contextually induced emotion influences decision making under risk. Further implications are discussed.

 

Julian K. Saint Clair and Marcus Cunha Jr.*, "No Pain, No Gain: The Desirability of Negatively Conditioned Stimuli During Nonconscious Goal Pursuit.” 4 studies completed. Target: Journal of Consumer Research.

Seminal evaluative conditioning research leads marketers to believe that pairing their product with positive stimuli should enhance product preference while pairing with negative stimuli should reduce product preference. Counterintuitively, four experiments demonstrate that negative evaluative conditioning actually enhances product preference during nonconscious goal pursuit. This effect is driven by increased judgments of product efficacy and is amplified for consumers who hold a “no pain, no gain” belief as well as consumers with more expertise in the goal domain. This research highlights the influence of contextually induced goal pursuit and consumer lay theories on information processing.

 

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS AND PRESENTATIONS

Julian K. Saint Clair and Mark R. Forehand (2012), “When Do Consumers Prefer Mistargeted Products? The Effect of Structure and Competition on Preference for Identity-(In)Consistency.” In Advances in Consumer Research Volume 40, eds. Zeynep Gurhan-Canli, Cele Otnes, and Juliet R. Zhu, Duluth, MN : Association for Consumer Research.

 

“The Moderating Effect of Construal Level on Price Judgments.” with Jeffrey D. Shulman and Marcus Cunha Jr.* Society for Consumer Psychology (2012), Las Vegas, NV.

 

Julian K. Saint Clair, Jeffrey D. Shulman, Marcus Cunha Jr.* (2011), “The Moderating Effect of Construal Level on Price Judgments.” in Advances in Consumer Research Volume 39, eds. Rohini Ahluwalia, Tanya L. Chartrand, and Rebecca K. Ratner, Duluth, MN : Association for Consumer Research.

 

"Cognition or Motivation?  The Influence of Emotion on Decision Making under Risk." with Brad Owens, Richard Chan, and Mark R. Forehand. Society for Consumer Psychology (2011), Atlanta, GA.

 

Julian K. Saint Clair (2010), "Emotion in Isolation: Crossing Valence with Certainty leads to Unexpected Results." in Advances in Consumer Research Volume 38, eds. Darren W. Dahl, Gita V. Johar, and Stijn M.J. van Osselaer, Duluth, MN : Association for Consumer Research.

 

"Emotion in Isolation: Crossing Valence with Certainty leads to Unexpected Results." Invited Presentation at the Ph.D. Project Marketing Doctoral Student Association Conference (2010), San Diego, CA.

 

Julian K. Saint Clair (2010), "All Positive Emotions are not Equal: Cognitive and Motivational Differences Between Pride and Surprise." in Advances in Consumer Research Volume 37, eds. Margaret C. Campbell, Jeff Inman, and Rik Pieters, Duluth, MN : Association for Consumer Research.

 

* Denotes Equal Authorship.

 

 

RESEARCH EXPERIENCE

Behavioral Lab Manager, University of Washington, 2010-2011, Spring 2012.

Research Assistant, Shailendra P. Jain, Autumn 2008, 2009, Summer 2009, 2010, Topic: Advertising.

Research Assistant, Detra Montoya, Winter 2008, 2009, Topic: Cross Cultural Consumer Behavior.

Research Assistant, Marcus Cunha Jr., Summer 2008, Topic: Associative Learning.

Research Assistant, Mark R. Forehand, Spring 2008, Topic: Consumer Self-Concept.

 

 

TEACHING INTERESTS

Principles of Marketing, Marketing Strategy, Marketing Research, Brand Management, Sales Management, Consumer Behavior, Advertising, Entrepreneurial Marketing, Multicultural Marketing.

 

 

TEACHING EXPERIENCE

MKTG 301, “Principles of Marketing” (Undergraduate Core), Instructor.

Summer 2011, 1 section. Instructor Rating: 4.0 out of 5.

Teaching assistant for numerous MBA and undergraduate electives including Advertising, Brand Management, Entrepreneurial Marketing, and Multicultural Marketing.

 

 

DOCTORAL COURSEWORK

Marketing


Consumer Behavior (Ann Schlosser)

Consumer Behavior (Richard Yalch)


Marketing Models (Gary Erickson)

Multivariate Analysis (Douglas MacLachlan)

Research Issues in Marketing – Data Mining (Douglas MacLachlan)

Marketing Strategy (Robert Jacobson)

Psychology

Seminar in Social Psychology – Implicit Cognition (Anthony Greenwald)

Core Concepts in Cognitive Psychology (Miriam Bassok and Jonathan Miyamoto)

Core Concepts in Personality (Ronald Smith and Yuichi Shoda)

Seminar in Cognition and Perception (Geoffrey Loftus and John C. Palmer)

Cognitive and Linguistic Development (Jessica Sommerville)

Cross Cultural Psychology (Jan Leu)

Research Methods


Behavioral Research Methods-Theory and Design (Terence Mitchell)

Behavioral Research Methods-Approaches and Applications (Kevin Steensma)

Applied Social Statistics I (Lowell Hargens)

Applied Social Statistics II (Jerald Herting)

Methodology: Quantitative Statistical Techniques (Lowell Hargens)

Research Strategies for Implicit Social Cognition (Anthony Greenwald)

 

 

SERVICE/SOCIETY MEMBERSHIPS

Ph.D. Project Marketing Doctoral Student Association, 2007 – 2012.

Association for Consumer Research Consortium, Jacksonville, Florida, 2010.

Society for Consumer Psychology Consortium, San Diego, California, 2010.

Served as Marketing Department’s Graduate and Professional Student Senator, 2008 – 2009.

Served as Doctoral Business Student Association Officer, 2008 – 2009.

Trainee reviewer: Journal of Consumer Research, 2011 – 2012.

Ad-hoc reviewer: Society for Consumer Psychology Conference, 2010 – 2012.

Ad-hoc reviewer: Association for Consumer Research Conference 2009 – 2011.

Member of Society for Consumer Psychology, 2010 – 2012.

Member of Association for Consumer Research, 2009 – 2012.

Member of American Marketing Association, 2007 – 2012.

 

 

AWARDS AND HONORS

Boeing Endowment for Excellence (2011-2012).

AMA-Sheth Consortium Fellow (2011).

AMA Foundation Valuing Diversity Scholarship (2010).

National Black MBA Association Doctoral Research Fellowship (2009).

University of Washington Top Scholar Award (2008).

 

 

REFERENCES

Mark R. Forehand

Pigott Family Endowed Professor of Marketing

Michael G. Foster School of Business

University of Washington

Tel: (206) 685-1955

Email: forehand@uw.edu

 

Marcus Cunha Jr.

Associate Professor of Marketing

Terry College of Business

University of Georgia

Tel: (706) 542-3762

Email: cunhamv@uga.edu

 

Shailendra P. Jain

James D. Currie Professor of Marketing

Michael G. Foster School of Business

University of Washington

Tel: (206) 221-2946

Email: spjain@uw.edu

 

Jeffrey D. Shulman

Associate Professor of Marketing

Michael G. Foster School of Business

University of Washington

Tel: (206) 221-4804

Email: jshulman@uw.edu

 


 

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