Main Page

Mr. Cosby

Team: 7 Burgundy

Voice mail: 303-982-0411 (BUT, please email!)

Current Units of Study:  Unit 4: Body Systems Review

Nutrition, Digestive System, Circulatory System, Respiratory System

Unit Learning Goals:

1.       The human body contains systems made from organs that do specialized functions to help all of the cells of the body to live.

2.    The Digestive System breaks food into small parts and absorbs the nutrients into the blood stream.

3.    Students will know the digestive system organ structures and functions.

4.    The Respiratory System takes oxygen in from the air and puts carbon dioxide into the air from the body.

5.    Students will know the respiratory system organ structures and functions.

6.    The Circulatory System carries nutrients and oxygen to the cells of the body and removes wastes from those cells.

7.    Students will know the circulatory system organ structures and functions.

8.    The Immune System keeps the body healthy by fighting off infection and destroying "bad" cells.

9.    Students will know the Immune system organ structures and functions.

10.  The Reproductive System allows organisms to make new members of their species.

11.  Students will know the reproductive system organ structures and functions.There is a relationship between structure and function in living systems.

12.   Cells are the building blocks of ALL living things – All living things are one cell or many cells working together.

13.   The human body is composed of atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems that have specific functions and interactions


Test Date:  December 19th



Study guide

Returned assignments

notes located under the Classroom Docs tab above.  Unit 4

Holt text book pages: 578 - 748

Holt text book pages-  Immune: 710-720,  Reproduction: 688-697

MSLS text book pages-  Immune: 410-420,   

Reproduction: 495-560Cell Unit websites (see Useful Links):  Biology4Kids (systems):

Unit 4 Vocabulary - Body Systems Review:

Make a Flash Card for each, including drawing that will help act as a hint to help you learn each word!  See example.

Carbohydrate:  One of the three major nutrients.  Sugar molecules linked together in various ways, which are made of molecules containing Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen.  (Carbo – Hydrate.. think about it!)  Starch, Fiber, and Sugar are all Carbs!  Cells use sugar for energy within Mitochondria.

                Starch: Broken down in the mouth and small intestine into simple sugar

                Fiber:  Cannot be digested, we don’t have the enzyme to do this.

                Sugar: Molecules are small enough to diffuse into cells, so don’t need to be digested.


Fat:  One of the three major nutrients.  Complex molecules of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen, that form chains.  Need to be digested into simple “lipid” molecules by bile in the small intestine.  Can be used for cell energy, carries fat-soluble vitamins, insulation, and padding.


Protein:  One of the three major nutrients.  Very complex molecules of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen.  Needs to be digested into amino acid molecules by enzymes in the stomach and small intestine.  Used by cells to make new cell parts and enzymes.  Can be broken down into sugar for energy if needed.


Villi: Small projections in the small intestine that makes the surface area of the small intestine much much greater for absorbing nutrients.  Makes the lining of the intestine look “carpeted”.


Diffusion:  The spreading of particles from areas of high concentration to low concentration.  “molecules spread out”.  This is how nutrients, oxygen, and waste move into or out of a cell.


Structure:  Describes how a body part is built – shape, texture, color, size, etc.


Function:  Describes the job of a structure.


Digestive System:  Body system responsible for breaking food into tiny molecules, then absorbing those molecules into the bloodstream.


Respiratory System:  Body system responsible for exchanging gases between the body and the atmosphere, as oxygen to diffuse into the blood and carbon dioxide to diffuse out of the blood.


Circulatory System:  Body system responsible for carrying nutrients, oxygen, and wastes to and from the cells of the body.

Reproductive System:  Body system responsible for creating a new member of a species.


Immune System:   Body system responsible for protecting an organism from invading pathogens.


Sperm:  Male sex cell (gamete.)   Contributes the father’s half of the genetic information (so 23 chromosomes in a human) to the creation of a new organism. 


Egg: Female sex cell (gamete.)   Contributes the mother’s half of the genetic information (so 23 chromosomes in a human) to the creation of a new organism. 


Fertilization:  The process of joining an egg and sperm to create a zygote (first complete cell of an organism.)


Menstrual Cycle:  Month long cycle in humans to prepare a female’s body for a pregnancy.  Includes the development and release of an egg cell (ovulation), development of the uterine lining, and the menstrual period.


Infectious Disease:  A disease that is caused by pathogens entering an organisms body and causing cells, tissues, or organs to function improperly.


Pathogen:  A virus, bacteria, or parasite that causes sickness in an organism by attacking the organism’s cells, making toxins, or by stealing nutrients.


Bacteria:  Prokaryotes that can sometimes be pathogenic to other organisms.  They like to grow in warm, dark, wet environments.  Produce shiny colonies on agar.  Can be killed with antibiotics.


Virus:  A non-living capsule of genetic material.  All viruses reproduce by invading a cell and turning the cell into a virus copy machine.  Non-living, so antibiotics cannot stop them.


Antigen:  A type of molecule found on the surface of cell membranes that acts like a unique fingerprint.  All cells, and even viruses, have their own identifying antigens that make them “look” different from other cells.  An organism’s immune system uses these antigens to recognize its own cells apart from pathogens.



Mr. Cosby's 7th Grade Science Class